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Social Group Work

Group Work

Enrichment of Human life


Case Work Community Organization

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Social work practice is a wider profession. The promotion of social welfare of individuals and groups in the community are considered as the main objectives . Alms giving in initial stage. Its growth to wider, more professional oriented services Including variety of individuals and topics/problems
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Group Work over a wide range of problems from individual to community It may deals with healthy, to capable leaders to work with the sick and rejected.

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Werner Boehm Restoration Prevention Provision of services it is a method of social work . The components are person in the group, the group and the problem
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In group work , worker tries to mobiles the strength of social group and to bring change to develop the abilities , modify self image & perspective Resolve client and to inculcate new pattern of behavior

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It is a conscious attempt to help people to become more effective in group situation and to find common interests and mutual satisfaction in doing so. What is mean by a social group?

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A social group is given aggregate of people playing interrelated roles and recognized by themselves or others as a unit of interaction. What do you know about group??? discuss

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Types of Groups
Formal Groups Informal Groups Command Task Committees

Interest & Friendship Cliques

Sub Cliques Syles Classification of groups

Apathetic Groups Interest & Friendship Conservative Grou Strategic Groups

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Social Group Work Definition

Can be discussed based on the function what social worker do with groups See The group worker enables various types of groups to function in such a way that both group interaction and programme activities contribute to the growth of the individual, and the achievement of the desirable social goal.(American Association of Group Workers ,1949) .
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As an educational process generally carried as on in leisure time with voluntary groups with the aid of a group leader under the auspice of an agency for the satisfaction of the social needs of individuals and for the development of legitimate group goals. Group work is a method of group leadership used in organizing and conducting various types of group activities
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Giselle Konopka defines Group work as a method of social work which helps individuals to enhance their social functioning through purposeful group experiences and to cope more effectively with their personal, group and community problems. Marjorie Murphy (1959) defined social group work as "enhancement of person's social functioning through purposeful group experiences."
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Social group work is a method in social work through which individuals in many groups in a variety of community agencies settings are helped by a worker who guides their interaction in program activities so that they may relate themselves to others and experience growth opportunities in accordance with their needs and capacities to the end of individual, group and community development (Trecker 1955)
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Allan Brown says group work provides a context in which individuals help each other; it is a method of helping groups as well as helping individuals; and it can enable individuals and groups to influence and change personal, group, and organizational and community problems.

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Toseland and Rivas (2001) defined group work as "goal directed activity with small groups of people aimed at meeting socio emotional needs and accomplishing tasks. The activity is directed at individual members of a group and to the group as a whole within a system of social service delivery."
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According to Staub-Bernasconi (1991), social work with groups have at least three meanings; (a) work within the group because it is the richest resource system for problem solving and help for its members; (b) work with a group, whose structure and process are the main subjective or objective problem area; and (c) work with groups as an instrument to reach goals outside the group in another social system.
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Purpose of Group Work

To teach the individuals to live and work together and to participate in the activities of a group for their intellectual, emotional and physical growth To solve problems of adjustment by development of individual's personality through the group process. To prepare the individuals to learn to share responsibility in working of democracy as active citizens of the country .
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To give opportunity to those who have potentialities of leadership. To make best use of leisure time of the people To learn division of labour and specialization of roles. To provide a substitute for family in institutions and in industrial towns in order to get emotional security and an opportunity for adjustment with secondary group. To prepare the people for social change.
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Attributes of Social Work


1) Values 2) Purpose 3) Sanction 4) Knowledge 5) Method

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Group work values are the same as the generic values of social work. Gisela Konopka describes the three humanistic concerns of group work. (i) individuals are of inherent worth. (ii) people are mutually responsible for each other; (iii) people have the fundamental right to experience mental health brought about by social and political conditions that support their fulfillment.
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The aim of group work Alan Brown (1992).


a) Individual assessment b) Individual support and maintenance c) Individual change d) Educational, Information-giving and training groups e) Leisure/ Compensatory groups for recreation & enjoyment. f) mediation between individuals and social systems.
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group change and/or support Environment change Groups formed to demand facilities and services from government and non governmental organizations. i) Social change. These groups raise the consciousness of the members, organize them and help them fight unjust structure in the society.
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Group work is used in various settings of social work health settings, school settings, industries, families and child agencies, de-addiction centres, communities, homes of elderly and juvenile reform centres

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In India, group work is suggested as a separate paper in UGC model curriculum. Most universities and colleges teach group work as a method in India

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Group Work Models

Social Goals Model:


Designed to bring about important social gains for the group. It is likely to address itself to problems within communities and is practiced in settlement houses, P.T.A. organizations, and community service and neighborhood councils. Model has been used in addressing social problems accompanying community development and growth.
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Social Group Models


The Remedial Model:
Tends to be clinically oriented. Facilitates the interaction among members of the group to achieve change for the individual. The group supports the member, encouraging new, more appropriate modes of functioning. Intervention is reality focused and addresses the problem of dysfunction in the group and within the full range of the individuals relationships.

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Social Group Models


The Reciprocal Model:
Serves both the individual and society.
Sees the individual largely as an abstraction that can be studied, understood, and treated only in relation to the many systems and subsystems of which they are a part. It views the individual as being created, influenced, and

modified by their relationships, social institutions, and the


interdependency between society and the individual.
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Development of Group Work

Social group work is concerned with the social development of individuals. Many Agencies ad different settings applying and practices social group work The development of this profession before the definition American Origin

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Americanization
Early efforts in group work was mainly directed towards Americanization. Assimilation of the immigrants from various culture to their own culture Nationalization, political participation,

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Prevention of Juvenile delinquency


One of the strong aim developed in the practice of group work taking children off the street and placing them in relatively harmless activity was the task issues of slum children

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Religious philanthropy
Many of the organization promoted group work in earlier days tried to promote religious activities. as means of saving souls, of preserving morality Religiously inspired group work not disappeared YMCA, YWCA,

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Recreational interests
In the beginning state many of the persons attracted to the group work was mainly because of the influence of the leader or activity Recreation and society is relevant

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Recent aims
Modern society-and emergence of new trend s like secularism reduced the religious motives of group work New preventive topics were emerged against the group work approaches to juvenile delinquency. Spread all over the world from American culture.
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Stress on Personality- from activities a more integrated philosophy of group work is emerged. Contribution of Sociologists and Psychologists the concept of primary group by sociologists contributed to Group work concentration from mass to small. Individual & character formation.
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Types of leadership-the activities are decided by the by the leader. military academy philosophy Authoritarian Form of leadership to democratic leadership

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Trends in Group work


Employment opportunities Research and group work Group work & aged

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Group Therapy
Its application is increasing closely related with grop work even if it is not intrinsic in group work To remove the abnormal social relations different types of group therapies are widely used activity group therapy- Samuel R Salvon

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What is the idea u know about the group work and its origin? what is the contribution made by America in Group work?

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Stages or Phases in
Group Work

Groups are considered as the essential component in Social life. Group life- if it is implemented or fulfilled in its full structure may fulfill the vacuum of isolation in life. from the initial stage to termination a group move through various stage of development.

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Group development can be understood as the growth nad progress of a group towards full maturity over a period of time with primary focus on the relationships in the group . A group reaches to maturity through guided group experiences a better environment ensure better group development (siddiquie 2008)
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indicators
Group attendance Punctuality Definite meeting time Development of formed organization. Initiative to undertake responsibility. Increased innovation and motivation controlled behavior Emergence of proper leadership Shift from I and me to we and us

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Phases in group Development


It is considered as the stages or phases A group pass through various stages From initial stage to end characterized by anonymity to cooperation stages and activities are directly related Stages provides structure and direction to the process of group development.
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Even if we separately discuss stages in different names practically all these are intertwined The role of grop worker Two Building and sustaining relationship nad working on the tasks at achieving goals.

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Phases
Bales(1950) Tuckman (1963) Klein(1972) Trecker (1972) Garland jones& Kolondney (1976) Preaffiliation Northern (2001)

Orientation

Forming

Orientation

Beginning

InclusionOrientation

Evaluation

Storming

Resistance

Emergence of group feeling

Power and Control

Uncertainty exploration

Decision making

Norming

Negotiation

Developmen Intimacy t of Bond

Performing

Intimacy

Strong group

Differentiati on

Mutuality and Goal achievemen t


Separation52 Termination

Adjourning

Termination

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Decline in gp feeling

Separation

On the basis of the classification we can discuss mainly five stages with regard to group development

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Termination

Assessment

Performing

Exploration Forming

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Stage-1
Provides opportunity for a satisfying group life. Individual attracts to groups to seek avenues for self expression and social creativity. being loved , accepted by others are some other factors affect the people Here the group worker focusing on planning and forming of the group
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Some experts say about this stage as pre affiliation stage or pre- group stage A proper palling has to be done by the worker . If s/he is appointed as the worker.

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Steps
Size of the group, composition of the group Frequency of the session, time and place of the meeting, duration of the group

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Stage- 2
This phases is defined as the phases of beginning of the we feeling and belongingness. Tuckman defined this stage as storming or discuss exploration. there may be shyness, hesitation, indecisions,& lack of participation. some members may be hyper active, some may be insecure, and nervous because of lack of group experience in past. Semblance of order has to be restored so as to ensure a free flow ideas and actions.
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Steps in the stage


Orientation and induction Preparation of the profile of the members Setting specific obcjectives Developing a structure

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Stage -3
Performing( action phase) After few session the group moves to become dynamic and vibrant. The signs of group development starts and that phases is known as performing stage. Implementation of programme for growth and adjustment. Short term and long term. Programme
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Peak time in the group process. Because the members starts talking the group seriously. The sessions become regular High attendance is another signs Involvement and participation

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steps
Programme planning& execution Task accomplishment Monitoring progress.

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Stage-4 Assessment
After the action phase , the group should be ready to evaluate the outcome of its efforts in a free, frank nad objective manner. Here the worker attempts to measure the quality of a groups experience in relations to the objectives and functions of the agency. Individual growth, programme content, all will be evaluated (Trecker) Comprehensive assessment at the end and continues evaluation
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Imperatives in evaluation
Individual growth Worker performance Agencys purpose Record Keeping Feedback-+ ve should be given first Specific,crticism as suggestive alternative Prepare format.
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Stage-5 Termination
end it si common fact and . The group is terminated on a positive note. Or with a negative note.

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Planned ending Final evaluation How far they are successful in accomplishing group goals and failures opportunity to express their happiness, anxiety ,fear etc. Discuss their future plan

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Conclusion
A careful planning Role members and worker Agencys role Changing situation and orientation in eacj stage.

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