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Electrical Inspection and Testing C & G 2391

MODULE 6 Periodic Inspection & Testing

Purpose To determine that the installation is in a satisfactory condition for continued service i.e. it meets the general objective of the LAW, this is verified by assuring the requirements of BS7671 are complied with. Legislation requires that certain installations are maintained in a safe condition and therefore must be periodically inspected and tested

Periodic Inspection and Testing


Required because ALL installations deteriorate due to :Damage Wear & tear Corrosion Ageing Environmental influences Excessive electrical loading

Inspection and testing may be required by:Licensing Authorities Public bodies

Insurance companies
Mortgagors

Additionally
Periodic Inspection and Testing should be considered:Changes of ownership or tenancy
After alterations or additions

Changes of use of the premises


Significant changes in loading

Possible Damage e.g Fire, Flood etc

731-01-03

Careful Scrutiny backed up by Testing


711-01-02 and 712-01-03(xvii) requires information in the form of diagrams, charts etc to be made available to the person carrying out the tests Inspection is the Vital initial operation, Testing supports the inspection.

The work must be carried out safely.


Where information is not available some exploratory work will be required.

Periodic Test Sequence


Continuity of protective conductors Polarity Earth fault loop impedance Insulation Resistance Operation of devices for Isolation and Switching

Operation of Residual Current Devices

In addition where appropriate: Continuity of Ring final circuits,


Earth electrode resistance, Manual operation of circuit breakers etc, Electrical separation of circuits, Protection by non-conducting locations

How Much Testing ?


Random selection of points equal to 10% of the installation, if faults are found this is expanded to 25% and then 100% if further faults are found. As agreed with the client under extent and limitation All socket outlets should be checked for polarity To check bonding conductor continuity the bonds must be disconnected The mains must be off for this test

All heavy current equipment e.g. bus-bars, main switches etc should be tested.

Extent and Limitations


Agree with the client (before starting a detailed inspection and test) the Extent of the installation to be inspected and any limitation put on the process by the client Record the details of this agreement on the Report form
Parts of the installation,

certain floors, sampling


a number of distribution boards

limited to certain types of equipment e.g lighting


Failure to identify these items may result in contractual liabilities

Periodic Inspection and Testing Report


744-01-01 On completion of the inspection and testing, a Report form together with a schedule of test results and a schedule of inspection should be given to the person ordering the work.
744-01-02 Any damage, deterioration, defects, dangerous conditions and non-compliance with the requirements which may give rise to danger, together with any limitations of the inspection and testing must be recorded. Guidance on the action to be taken is given by numbering each non-compliance 1 to 4

Section B. A small office block in Stourbridge 1)a) What types of inspection and tests need to be carried out Initial Verification for the new work and Periodic Inspection and test for the existing installation b) State the documentation that should be completed and why An Electrical Installation Certificate for the new work (additional circuits have been installed) and a Periodic Inspection Report for the existing installation Both of these documents must be accompanied with a schedule of inspection and a schedule of test results

c) State the Statutory Regulations that need to be adhered to The Health and Safety at Work Act and the Electricity at Work Regulations d) List the test equipment required for this installation i) Low reading ohm meter (continuity tester) ii) Insulation resistance meter iii) Earth loop impedance tester iv) Prospective fault current tester

e) If no documentation is available for the installation what action is required


Some exploratory work, to establish the criteria

2)a) List five areas of inspection to be considered on the existing installation. Give one reason for each i) Wear and Tear, the installation is 20yrs old, the accessories,switches etc may show signs of deterioration ii) Excessive loading e.g. connection of conductors (effects of heat etc over 20 years)

iii) Damage, the installation equipment may be damaged to the extent it has become dangerous e.g. exposure of live parts
iv) Corrosion, the conduit is being used as a c.p.c, if this is corroded the shock protection may be affected v) Compliance with BS7671, there have been considerable changes in the standard over the installation life

b) Before commencing testing on the existing installation, what should be agreed with the client The extent and limitations that are to be imposed by the client c) List the correct sequence of tests required for the existing installation i) Continuity of protective conductors (including bonds) ii) Polarity iii) Earth fault loop impedance iv) Insulation resistance v) Operation of devices for isolation and switching If there are ring final circuits in the existing installation these should also be tested (as item (ii) )

Note:- There is no indication that the installation contains RCDs or Circuit Breakers, these tests therefore would not be required. Also alternative methods may be used provided the results are no less effective. d) List five of the inspection check list items for the new work i) Connection of conductors ii) Identification of conductors iii) Conductor current carrying capacity iv) Correct connection of accessories v) Erection methods

e) List the correct sequence of tests required for the new installation i) Continuity of protective conductors including bonds ii) Continuity of ring final circuits iii) Insulation resistance iv) Polarity v) Earth loop impedance vi) Prospective fault current

vii)Functional testing

3) Describe how to carry out the ring final circuit continuity test on the new installation
Test sequence Test open ends of the ring, phase to phase, neutral to neutral, cpc to cpc RECORD results

Cross connect phase to neutral, test phase to neutral at each socket


Reading should be

of the phase to phase reading of the open ring

Cross connect phase to cpc, test phase to cpc at each socket


Reading should be approximately

of the phase to phase +

of the cpc to cpc

4) Describe how to carry out the insulation resistance test on the existing installation

Test preparation:- All current using equipment should be disconnected or turned off, the supply to the main distribution board should be isolated, all protective devices should be in position or on, all local switches on, any equipment which may be damaged by the test should be disconnected or by-passed. The test is then conducted between:i) All live conductors and
ii) All live conductors to Earth

5) Draw a fully labelled diagram of the complete earth fault path of the new lighting circuit.
b c

a) Supply phase, b) supply phase conductor, c) circuit phase conductor, d) exposed-conductive-part of the light, e) c.p.c of the lighting circuit, f) return path (PEN i.e the earthed neutral) of the supply cable

6) Because the existing wiring system does not contain separate c.p.cs describe the three stages of verification that need to be confirmed. i) Visual inspection along the length of all conduits to check their condition regarding corrosion etc ii) If the conduit appears in good condition measure its resistance with a low reading ohm meter

iii) If there is any doubt as to its suitability e.g. where its physical condition cannot be checked, a high current injection test is required (not exceeding 25A)

7)a) If the ring final circuit R1 + R2 is 0.72, calculate the approximate reading of Zs Zs = Ze + (R1 + R2) = 0.2 + 0.72 = 0.92 b) If the maximum tabulated Zs for this circuit is 1.2, calculate if the reading in (a) is acceptable There are no correction factors stated, use the rule of thumb 1.2 x 0.75 = 0.9 < 0.92 measured (circuit fails)

c) State what factors need to be considered before measured earth loop impedance values are compared against maximum tabulated Zs values i) Ambient temperature factors (when not measured at 200C) ii) Cable temperature factors (not at its operating temperature)