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Sustainable Industrial Development: Process Simulation, Analysis, Optimization and Control

Bangkok, 8-12 July, 2002

Motivating example: level control

If the outlet flow is simply set equal to the inlet

flow, the tank may overflow or run empty

(because of flow measurement errors)

Flow in

Flow out

The inlet flow comes

from an upstream

process, and may

change with time

The level in the tank

must be kept constant

in spite of these

changes

Training Course on:

Sustainable Industrial Development: Process Simulation, Analysis, Optimization and Control

Bangkok, 8-12 July, 2002

LT

LC

SP

Flow in

Flow out

Introducing a level controller

The level controller (LC)

looks at the level

(monitoring)

If the level starts to

increase, the LC sends a

signal to the output valve

to vary the output flow

(change)

This is the essence of feedback control

Training Course on:

Sustainable Industrial Development: Process Simulation, Analysis, Optimization and Control

Bangkok, 8-12 July, 2002

Feedback control

It is the most important and widely used control

strategy

It is a closed-loop control strategy

Block diagram

process

transmitter

controller

disturbance

comparator manipulated

variable

controlled

variable

+

error

set-point

y

sp y

Training Course on:

Sustainable Industrial Development: Process Simulation, Analysis, Optimization and Control

Bangkok, 8-12 July, 2002

Back to level control

LT

LC

SP

Flow in

Flow out

desired value

(set-point)

transmitter

controller

controlled

variable

(measurement)

manipulated

variable

disturbance

process

Training Course on:

Sustainable Industrial Development: Process Simulation, Analysis, Optimization and Control

Bangkok, 8-12 July, 2002

More on control jargon

Input variables : independently stimulate the system; they

can induce change in the internal conditions of the process

Output variables : measurements y, by which one obtains

information about the internal state of the system (e.g.

temperature, level, viscosity, refractive index)

States : minimum set x of variables essentials for

completely describing the internal condition of a process (e.g.

composition, holdup, enthalpy)

Training Course on:

Sustainable Industrial Development: Process Simulation, Analysis, Optimization and Control

Bangkok, 8-12 July, 2002

Process dynamics

Given a dynamic model of the process, it

investigates the process response to various input

changes

Two elements are necessary:

a dynamic model of the process

a known forcing function

time

u (t )

0

A

Step input

0

u (t )

0

A

Pulse input

time 0 b

Training Course on:

Sustainable Industrial Development: Process Simulation, Analysis, Optimization and Control

Bangkok, 8-12 July, 2002

Process models: Which?

We will consider only two classes of dynamic

process models

state-space models

input-output models

State-space models can be derived directly from the general

conservation equation:

Accumulation = (Inlet Outlet) +

(Generation Consumption)

They are written in terms of differential equations relating

process states to time They occur in the time domain

Sustainable Industrial Development: Process Simulation, Analysis, Optimization and Control

Bangkok, 8-12 July, 2002

Process models : Which?

Process models : Which? (cont (cont d) d)

Input-output models completely disregard the process states.

They only give a relationship between process inputs and

process outputs They occur in the Laplace domain

) (

) ; ; ; (

d

) ( d

x y

x

x

h

t d u f

t

t

) ( ) ( ) ( s U s G s Y

) (s G

) (s U ) (s Y

states

output

G (s) is called transfer function

of the process

Training Course on:

Sustainable Industrial Development: Process Simulation, Analysis, Optimization and Control

Bangkok, 8-12 July, 2002

Linear systems

In the time domain, a linear system is modeled by

a linear differential equation.

For example, a linear, n

th

-order system is:

) (

d

d

d

d

d

d

0 0

0

0

0

t u b y a

t

y

a

t

y

a

t

y

a

n

n

n

n

n

n

+ + + +

Our assumptions:

the coefficients of the

differential equations are

constant

the output y is equal to

the state x

Note

The Laplace-domain representation is possible only for linear

(or linearized) systems

We will assume that the process behavior in the vicinity of the

steady state is linear

Training Course on:

Sustainable Industrial Development: Process Simulation, Analysis, Optimization and Control

Bangkok, 8-12 July, 2002

First-order systems

K

P

is the process steady state gain (it can be >0 or <0)

P

is the process time constant (it is always >0)

) (

d

d

t u K y

t

y

P P

+

( Dividing by a

0

)

) (

0

) ( s U

s

K

s Y

P

P

,

_

0

) (

+

s

K

s G

P

P

Time-domain model Laplace-domain model

Transfer function of a first-order system:

Training Course on:

Sustainable Industrial Development: Process Simulation, Analysis, Optimization and Control

Bangkok, 8-12 July, 2002

Response of first-order systems

We only consider the response to a step forcing

function of amplitude A

,

_

P

t

P

e AK t y 0 ) (

The time-domain

response is:

It takes 45 time

constants for the

process to reach the

new steady state

0

0

A

i

n

p

u

t

,

u

time

. 0000AK

P

P

AK

P

o

u

t

p

u

t

,

y

Training Course on:

Sustainable Industrial Development: Process Simulation, Analysis, Optimization and Control

Bangkok, 8-12 July, 2002

Determining the process gain

An open-loop test can be performed starting from

the reference steady state:

new steady state is approached

if so, calculate K

P

as:

) 0 ( ) (

/

P

t

P

e AK t y

state steady

ref new

ref ss new ss

P

u u

y y

K

,

_

) input (

) output (

, ,

The gain is a

dimensional figure

The process gain can be determined from

steady state information only

Training Course on:

Sustainable Industrial Development: Process Simulation, Analysis, Optimization and Control

Bangkok, 8-12 July, 2002

Determining the time constant

From the same open-loop test:

determine

P

graphically (note: it has the dimension of time)

You need dynamic

information to

determine the process

time constant

Determining the values

of K

P

and

P

from

process data is known

as process identification

0

time

0.632 AK

P

AK

P

o

u

t

p

u

t

,

y

Training Course on:

Sustainable Industrial Development: Process Simulation, Analysis, Optimization and Control

Bangkok, 8-12 July, 2002

An alternative approach

State the identification task as an optimization problem:

P

and

P

values that allow the

model to best-fit the experimental data

You will need a computer package to perform the fitting

(e.g. Control Station

TM

, Matlab

TM

)

It is better to step up and down the manipulated input

several times to capture the true dynamic behavior of the

process

Never trust on the raw fitting results only! Always judge

the results by superimposing the fitted curve to the process

one

Training Course on:

Sustainable Industrial Development: Process Simulation, Analysis, Optimization and Control

Bangkok, 8-12 July, 2002

00

00

00

00

00

0 000 0000 0000

F i t t i n g a f i r s t - o r d e r m o d e l t o p l a n t d a t a

P r o c e s s : w h i t e l i n e M o d e l : y e l l o w l i n e

M o d e l : F i r s t O r d e r F i l e N a m e : f i t _ F O . t x t

S S E : . 0 00 0

G a i n ( K ) = . , T i m e C o n s t a n t ( T ) = . 0 0 0 0 0 0 00

P

r

o

c

e

s

s

V

a

r

ia

b

le

M

a

n

ip

u

la

t

e

d

V

a

r

ia

b

le

T i m e

An alternative approach (contd)

Example using Control Station

TM

re

su

lts o

f fittin

g

Training Course on:

Sustainable Industrial Development: Process Simulation, Analysis, Optimization and Control

Bangkok, 8-12 July, 2002

Extension to nonlinear systems

Strictly speaking, the gain and time constant are

independent of the operating steady state for linear

systems only

If a true (i.e. nonlinear) system is being considered,

the excitation sequence must be such that the

process is not moved too far away from the nominal

steady state

state steady any

linear ,

u

y

K

P

nonlinear ,

u

y

K

P

linear

nonlinear

Training Course on:

Sustainable Industrial Development: Process Simulation, Analysis, Optimization and Control

Bangkok, 8-12 July, 2002

Further remarks

Slow and fast processes

The time needed

to approach the

new steady state

increases with

increasing

P

Note

For all

P

s, the output

starts to change

immediately after the

input has been

changed

0 00 000 000 000

. 00

. 00

.

.

.

. 00

0

0

00

000

P

y

/

(

K

P

A

)

time units

Training Course on:

Sustainable Industrial Development: Process Simulation, Analysis, Optimization and Control

Bangkok, 8-12 July, 2002

Pure time-delay systems

L

v

Many real systems do not

react immediately to excitation

(as first order systems instead

do)

The time needed to

transport a fluid property

change from the inlet to the

outlet is:

Plug flow

Incompressible fluid

v

L

P

: dead time or

time delay

Examples: transportation lags (e.g. due to pipe length, to recycle, );

measurement lags (e.g. gaschromatographs)

Training Course on:

Sustainable Industrial Development: Process Simulation, Analysis, Optimization and Control

Bangkok, 8-12 July, 2002

Pure time-delay systems (contd)

The process output is simply

shifted by

P

units in time with

respect to the input

Models

Time domain :

'

<

P P

P

t t x

t

t y

, ) (

, 0

) (

s

P

e

s U

s Y

) (

) (

time

y (t )

0

Recorded output

P

u (t )

time

0

0

Applied input

Laplace domain :

Training Course on:

Sustainable Industrial Development: Process Simulation, Analysis, Optimization and Control

Bangkok, 8-12 July, 2002

FOPDT systems

The dynamic

behavior of

many real

systems can be

approximated

as First Order

Plus Dead Time

(FOPDT)

0

i

n

p

u

t

time

first-order

response

o

u

t

p

u

t

Training Course on:

Sustainable Industrial Development: Process Simulation, Analysis, Optimization and Control

Bangkok, 8-12 July, 2002

Modeling a FOPDT system

The behavior of a pure time-delay system is simply

superimposed to that of a first-order system

0

) (

+

s

e K

s G

P

s

P

P

) ( ) (

d

) ( d

P P P

t u K t y

t

t y

+

Time domain

Laplace domain

Approximating a real system as a FOPDT linear system is

extremely important for controller design and tuning

Training Course on:

Sustainable Industrial Development: Process Simulation, Analysis, Optimization and Control

Bangkok, 8-12 July, 2002

Second-order systems

Time-domain representation: ) (

d

d

d

d

0 0

0

0

0

t bu y a

t

y

a

t

y

a + +

) (

d

d

0

d

d

0

0

0

t Ku y

t

y

t

y

+ +

Laplace-domain representation:

0 0 ) (

) (

0 0

+ +

s s

K

s U

s Y K = process gain

= natural period

= damping

coefficient

) 0 )( 0 ( ) (

) (

0 0

+ +

s s

K

s U

s Y

Training Course on:

Sustainable Industrial Development: Process Simulation, Analysis, Optimization and Control

Bangkok, 8-12 July, 2002

Underdamped systems

0 0 0 0 0 000000000000

. 00

. 00

. 00

. 00

. 00

. 00

. 00

. 00

. 00

. 00

. 00

.

= .

t /

y

/

(

K

A

)

Open-loop

response to a

input step

disturbance

Training Course on:

Sustainable Industrial Development: Process Simulation, Analysis, Optimization and Control

Bangkok, 8-12 July, 2002

Overdamped systems

Open-loop

response to a

input step

disturbance

0 0 0 0 0 000000000000

. 00

. 00

. 00

. 00

. 00

. 00

. 00

. 00

. 00

. 00

. 00

.

. 00

= . 00

t /

y

/

(

K

A

)

Training Course on:

Sustainable Industrial Development: Process Simulation, Analysis, Optimization and Control

Bangkok, 8-12 July, 2002

Effect of the damping coefficient

The value of completely determines the degree of

oscillation in a process response after a perturbation

> 1 : overdamped, sluggish response

0 < < 1 : underdamped, oscillating response

(the damping is attenuated as decreases)

< 0 : unstable system

(the oscillation amplitude grows indefinitely)

Training Course on:

Sustainable Industrial Development: Process Simulation, Analysis, Optimization and Control

Bangkok, 8-12 July, 2002

The importance of 2

nd

-order systems

Control systems are often designed so that the controlled

(i.e., closed-loop) process responds as an underdamped

second-order system

0 0 00 00 00 00 00

. 00

. 00

.

.

.

. 00

. 00

. 00

actual trajectory

desired value

c

o

n

t

r

o

l

l

e

d

v

a

r

i

a

b

l

e

time units

Training Course on:

Sustainable Industrial Development: Process Simulation, Analysis, Optimization and Control

Bangkok, 8-12 July, 2002

Inverse-response systems

There is an initial

inversion in the

response: the

process starts

moving away from

its ultimate value

The process output

eventually heads

in the direction of

the final steady

state

input

variable

output variable

i

n

p

u

t

a

n

d

o

u

t

p

u

t

time

Training Course on:

Sustainable Industrial Development: Process Simulation, Analysis, Optimization and Control

Bangkok, 8-12 July, 2002

Inverse-response systems (contd)

Inverse response is the net result of two

i)

i) opposing dynamic modes of

ii)

ii) different

magnitudes, operating on

iii)

iii)

different

different

time

time

scales

scales

responsible for the initial, wrong way response

responsible for the long-term, dominant response

Training Course on:

Sustainable Industrial Development: Process Simulation, Analysis, Optimization and Control

Bangkok, 8-12 July, 2002

Example process: drum boiler

In the long run, the level is expected to increase, because we have

increased the feed material without changing the heat supply

But immediately after the cold water has been increased, a drop in the

drum liquid temperature is observed, which causes the bubbles to collapse

and the observed level to reduce

Disturbance :

step increase in the cold

feedwater flowrate

Output :

level in the boiler

Cold feedwater

Steam

Hot medium

Process Control

Training Course on:

Sustainable Industrial Development: Process Simulation, Analysis, Optimization and Control

Bangkok, 8-12 July, 2002

Feedback control

) ( ) ( ) ( t y t y t e

sp

y

sp

= set point (target value)

y = measured value

The process information (y) is fed back to the

controller

The objective is to reduce the error signal to zero,

where the error is defined as:

process

transmitter

controller

disturbance

comparator manipulated

variable

controlled

variable

+

error

set-point

y

sp y

Training Course on:

Sustainable Industrial Development: Process Simulation, Analysis, Optimization and Control

Bangkok, 8-12 July, 2002

The typical control problems

Regulatory control

the task is to counteract the effect of external

disturbances in order to maintain the output at

its constant set-point (disturbance rejection)

Servo control

the objective is to cause the output to track

the changing set-point

In both cases, one or more variables are

manipulated by the control system

Training Course on:

Sustainable Industrial Development: Process Simulation, Analysis, Optimization and Control

Bangkok, 8-12 July, 2002

Material balance control # 1

Liquid holdup control

(level control)

LT

LC

SP

Flow in

Flow out

If the level h tends to

increase, the error

(h

sp

h) decreases

The controller sends a

signal to the control valve

actuator

The flow out is increased

The level in the tank

decreases

Training Course on:

Sustainable Industrial Development: Process Simulation, Analysis, Optimization and Control

Bangkok, 8-12 July, 2002

Material balance control # 1 (contd)

The controllers job is to enforce the total mass balance

around the tank, in order to have neither accumulation nor

depletion of liquid matter inside the tank

rate of mass out = rate of mass in

set by the controller unknown to the controller

of the value of the level set-point

Training Course on:

Sustainable Industrial Development: Process Simulation, Analysis, Optimization and Control

Bangkok, 8-12 July, 2002

The task of a process control system

conditions at any time (measurements)

action is needed (current state vs. desired state)

improve process conditions (valves to manipulate)

once more...

According to what rationale does a feedback

According to what rationale does a feedback

control system work?

control system work?

Training Course on:

Sustainable Industrial Development: Process Simulation, Analysis, Optimization and Control

Bangkok, 8-12 July, 2002

On-off control: the simplest one

The control variable is manipulated according to:

'

<

0 if ,

0 if ,

) (

min

max

e u

e u

t u

The final control element is either

completely open/maximum, or

completely closed/minimum

dead

band

output

input

ON

OFF time

Widely used as

thermostat in

domestic heating

systems, refrigerators,

; also in noncritical

industrial applicns

(some level and

heating loops)

Training Course on:

Sustainable Industrial Development: Process Simulation, Analysis, Optimization and Control

Bangkok, 8-12 July, 2002

Summary for on-off control

Advantages

inexpensive

Pitfalls

controlled variable cycles)

attenuated by a large dead band, at the expense of a loss of

performance)

Training Course on:

Sustainable Industrial Development: Process Simulation, Analysis, Optimization and Control

Bangkok, 8-12 July, 2002

Proportional (P) controllers

The control variable is manipulated according to:

) ( ) (

0

t e K u t u

C

+

u

0

is the controller bias

K

C

is the controller gain

The controller gain can be adjusted (tuned) to make the

manipulated variable changes as sensitive as desired to

the deviations between set-point and controlled variable

The sign of K

C

can be chosen to make the controller

output u increase or decrease as the error increases

Training Course on:

Sustainable Industrial Development: Process Simulation, Analysis, Optimization and Control

Bangkok, 8-12 July, 2002

P-only controllers

) ( ) (

0

t e K u t u

C

+

const

0

u u : at the nominal steady state

The bias u

0

is the value of the controller output which, in

manual mode, causes the measured process variable to

maintain steady state at the design level of operation

[e (t )=0] when the process disturbances are at their

expected values

The bias value is assigned at the controller design level,

and remains fixed once the controller is put in automatic

Training Course on:

Sustainable Industrial Development: Process Simulation, Analysis, Optimization and Control

Bangkok, 8-12 July, 2002

70 L/h

LT

LC

SP

Flow in

Flow out

10 L/h

disturbance

Nominal operation:

u must be 60 L/h if

e = 0 then u

0

=60 L/h

60 L/h

) ( ) (

0

t e K u t u

C

+

70 L/h

LT

LC

SP

Flow in

Flow out

20 L/h

disturbance

50 L/h

If the disturbance

changes to 20 L/h, the

steady state is

maintained only if u=50

L/h since u

0

=60 L/h, the

error must be 0

P-only controllers (contd)

Training Course on:

Sustainable Industrial Development: Process Simulation, Analysis, Optimization and Control

Bangkok, 8-12 July, 2002

P-only controllers (contd)

The manipulated input u must change to guarantee that

the process stays at steady state, i.e.

) ( ) (

0

t e K u t u

C

+

What if the disturbance changes during the process?

0

u u

A steady state error e 0 must be enforced by the P-only

controller to keep the process at steady state:

A P-only controller cannot remove off-set

0 0 . .

) ( u t e K u u

C s s

+

Training Course on:

Sustainable Industrial Development: Process Simulation, Analysis, Optimization and Control

Bangkok, 8-12 July, 2002

no control

(K

C

= ) 0

off-set

set-point

increasing K

C

c

o

n

t

r

o

l

l

e

d

v

a

r

i

a

b

l

e

time

Performance of P-only controllers

Response to a disturbance step change

Whatever the value of

K

C

, the offset is reduced

with respect to open-loop

operation

Increasing K

C

:

the offset is reduced

the system may oscillate

the process response is

speeded up

Although the open-loop

response may be 1

st

order, the closed-loop

one is not

Training Course on:

Sustainable Industrial Development: Process Simulation, Analysis, Optimization and Control

Bangkok, 8-12 July, 2002

Summary for P-only control

Advantages

conceptually simple

C

; the bias

is determined from steady state information)

Pitfalls

controlled)

Training Course on:

Sustainable Industrial Development: Process Simulation, Analysis, Optimization and Control

Bangkok, 8-12 July, 2002

PI controllers

,

_

+ +

t

I

C

t t e t e K u t u

0

0

d ) (

0

) ( ) (

u

0

is the controller bias

K

C

is the controller gain

I

is the integral time

(also called reset time)

P=Proportional , I=Integral

integral action contribution

The P controller cannot remove off-set because the only

way to change the controller bias during non-nominal

operations is to cause e 0

The rationale behind a PI controller is to set the actual

bias different from u

0

, thus letting the error be zero

The control variable is manipulated according to:

Training Course on:

Sustainable Industrial Development: Process Simulation, Analysis, Optimization and Control

Bangkok, 8-12 July, 2002

PI controllers (contd)

,

_

+ +

t

I

C

t t e t e K u t u

0

0

d ) (

0

) ( ) (

Note that until e 0, the manipulated input keeps on

changing because of the presence of the integral term

The change in u (t ) will stop only when e = 0

The integral action can eliminate off-set

Training Course on:

Sustainable Industrial Development: Process Simulation, Analysis, Optimization and Control

Bangkok, 8-12 July, 2002

Performance of PI controllers

Response to a disturbance step change: effect of K

C

The offset is eliminated

Increasing K

C

:

the process response is

speeded up

the system may oscillate

CAUTION

For large

values of the

controller

gain, the

closed-loop

response may

be unstable !

fixed

increasing K

C

open-loop

(K

C

= ) 0

set point

c

o

n

t

r

o

l

l

e

d

v

a

r

i

a

b

l

e

time

Training Course on:

Sustainable Industrial Development: Process Simulation, Analysis, Optimization and Control

Bangkok, 8-12 July, 2002

Performance of PI controllers (contd)

Response to a disturbance step change: effect of

I

Increasing

I

:

oscillations are dampened

the process response is

made more sluggish

CAUTION

For small

values of the

integral time,

the closed-

loop response

may be

unstable !

K

C

fixed

increasing

I

set point

c

o

n

t

r

o

l

l

e

d

v

a

r

i

a

b

l

e

time

Training Course on:

Sustainable Industrial Development: Process Simulation, Analysis, Optimization and Control

Bangkok, 8-12 July, 2002

Summary for PI control

Advantages

steady state off-set can be eliminated steady state off-set can be eliminated

with respect to open-loop

Pitfalls

C

and

I

)

may even lead to instability

Training Course on:

Sustainable Industrial Development: Process Simulation, Analysis, Optimization and Control

Bangkok, 8-12 July, 2002

PID controllers

,

_

+ +

t

t e

t t e t e K u t u

D

t

I

C

d

) ( d

d ) (

0

) ( ) (

0

0

D

is called derivative time

i) If the error if increasing very rapidly, a large deviation

from the setpoint may arise in a short time

ii) Sluggish processes tend to cycle

P=Proportional , I=Integral , D=Derivative

derivative action contribution

The rationale behind derivative action is to anticipate the

future behavior of the error signal by considering its rate

of change

The control variable is manipulated according to:

Training Course on:

Sustainable Industrial Development: Process Simulation, Analysis, Optimization and Control

Bangkok, 8-12 July, 2002

Performance of PID controllers

Response to a disturbance step change

Increasing

D

:

the oscillations caused by

the integral action are

dampened

the process response is

speeded up

CAUTION

Noisy

measurements

may disrupt the

controller

performance !

no derivative action

D

= 0

increasing

D

set-point

c

o

n

t

r

o

l

l

e

d

v

a

r

i

a

b

l

e

time

Training Course on:

Sustainable Industrial Development: Process Simulation, Analysis, Optimization and Control

Bangkok, 8-12 July, 2002

Beware measurement noise !

The derivative action requires derivation of the output

measurement y with respect to time:

t

y y

t

e

sp

d

) d(

d

d

If the measured

output is noisy, its

time derivative may

be large, and this

causes the

manipulated variable

to be subject to

abrupt changes

Attenuate or

suppress the

derivative action

- % 000

- % 00

0

+ % 00

+ % 000

controlled variable

manipulated variable

time

time

Training Course on:

Sustainable Industrial Development: Process Simulation, Analysis, Optimization and Control

Bangkok, 8-12 July, 2002

Summary for PID control

0 . 0 / <

P P

Advantages

Pitfalls

C

,

I

and

D

)

wear on the final control element

Use of derivative action

avoid using the D action when the controlled variable has a noisy

measure or when the process is not sluggish ( )

Training Course on:

Sustainable Industrial Development: Process Simulation, Analysis, Optimization and Control

Bangkok, 8-12 July, 2002

Controller selection recommendations

When steady state offsets can be tolerated, use a P-only

controller (many liquid level loops are on P control)

When offset cannot be tolerated, use a PI controller (a

large proportion of feedback loops in a typical plant are under PI

control)

When it is important to compensate for some natural

sluggishness in the system, and the process signal are

relatively noise-free, use a PID controller

Training Course on:

Sustainable Industrial Development: Process Simulation, Analysis, Optimization and Control

Bangkok, 8-12 July, 2002

0 0 00 00 00 00 00

. 00

. 00

.

.

.

. 00

. 00

. 00

t

s

t

p

t

r

. 000

. 000

P

c

b

a

n

o

r

m

a

l

i

z

e

d

c

o

n

t

r

o

l

l

e

d

v

a

r

i

a

b

l

e

time units

Performance assessment

t

r

= rise time

t

p

= time to first peak

t

s

= settling time

a /b = overshoot

c /a = decay ratio

P = period of oscillation

A good

decay ratio is

1/4 (quarter

amplitude

decay)

(set-point tracking problem)

Training Course on:

Sustainable Industrial Development: Process Simulation, Analysis, Optimization and Control

Bangkok, 8-12 July, 2002

Performance indexes

0

d ) ( IAE t t e : integral of the absolute value of error

The controllers tuning

parameters (K

C

;

I

; possibly

D

)

are chosen such that IAE is

minimized

Semi-empirical formulae can be

derived based on a FOPDT open-

loop identification

The optimal controllers settings

for load disturbance rejection are

different from those for set-point

tracking

IAE corresponds to the

shaded area

set-point

c

o

n

t

r

o

l

l

e

d

v

a

r

i

a

b

l

e

time

Training Course on:

Sustainable Industrial Development: Process Simulation, Analysis, Optimization and Control

Bangkok, 8-12 July, 2002

Tuning guidelines

Fit a FOPDT model to the process data obtained by step

(or pulse) changes in the manipulated variable

the sampling rate should be at least ten times faster than the

process time constant

times from the noise band

Determine initial values for K

C

,

I

(and possibly

D

) from

suggested correlations

Never ever trust blindly on these settings. Always refine

the tuning on-field

Training Course on:

Sustainable Industrial Development: Process Simulation, Analysis, Optimization and Control

Bangkok, 8-12 July, 2002

Tuning correlations for PI control

(based on FOPDT open-loop identification)

K

C

I

IMC for balanced set

point tracking and

disturbance rejection

) (

P P P

P

K +

Note

C

is the larger

of ( . 00

P

)

and ( .

P

)

minimum ITAE for

set point tracking

( )

000 . 0

/

000 . 0

P P

P

K ( )

. 0

/ 000 . 0 . 0

P P

P

disturbance rejection

( )

000 . 0

/

000 . 0

P P

P

K ( )

000 . 0

/ 000 . 0

P P

P

Design Tools module of Control Station

0

d ) ( ITAE t t e t

: integral of the time-weighted absolute

value of error

Training Course on:

Sustainable Industrial Development: Process Simulation, Analysis, Optimization and Control

Bangkok, 8-12 July, 2002

A disadvantage of feedback control

In conventional feedback control the corrective action for

disturbances does not begin until after the controlled

variable deviates from the set point

stack gas

cold oil

hot oil

fuel gas

TC

TT

If either the cold oil

flow rate or the cold

oil temperature

change, the controller

may do a good job in

keeping the hot oil

temperature at the

setpoint

What if the pressure of the fuel gas changes?

Training Course on:

Sustainable Industrial Development: Process Simulation, Analysis, Optimization and Control

Bangkok, 8-12 July, 2002

stack gas

cold oil

hot oil

fuel gas

TC

TT

PC

PT

Cascade control # 1

Two control loops are nested within each other: the

master controller and the slave controller

set point of the slave (secondary) controller

The performance can be

improved because the

fuel control valve will be

adjusted as soon as the

change in supply

pressure is detected

slave loop

master loop

set point

Training Course on:

Sustainable Industrial Development: Process Simulation, Analysis, Optimization and Control

Bangkok, 8-12 July, 2002

Cascade control # 2

Feed in

Products out

Cooling

water in

Cooling

water out

TC

TT

satisfactorily disturbances

such as reactant feed T

and composition

water increases, it slowly

increases the reactor T

delayed by dynamic lags in

the jacket and in the

reactor

Training Course on:

Sustainable Industrial Development: Process Simulation, Analysis, Optimization and Control

Bangkok, 8-12 July, 2002

Cascade control # 2

Cascade control # 2 (cont (cont d) d)

Feed in

Products out

Cooling

water in

Cooling

water out

TC

TC

TT

TT

set point

master loop

slave loop

improved because the

cooling water rate will be

adjusted as soon as a

change in the jacket

temperature is detected

rate at a constant level, and

the reactor temperature is

less affected by the

unknown disturbance

Training Course on:

Sustainable Industrial Development: Process Simulation, Analysis, Optimization and Control

Bangkok, 8-12 July, 2002

Tuning a cascade loop

1

Begin with both the master and the slave controllers in

manual

2

Tune the slave (inner) loop for set-point tracking first (the

tuning guidelines presented before can be used)

3

Close the slave loop, and adjust the tuning on line to ensure

good performance

4

Leaving the inner loop closed, tune the master loop for

disturbance rejection (the tuning guidelines presented

before can be used)

5

Close the master loop, and adjust the tuning on line to

ensure good performance

A P-only controller is often sufficient for the slave loop

Training Course on:

Sustainable Industrial Development: Process Simulation, Analysis, Optimization and Control

Bangkok, 8-12 July, 2002

Summary on cascade control

It is used to improve the dynamic response of the process

to load disturbances

It is particularly useful when the disturbances are

associated with the manipulated variable or when the final

control element exhibits nonlinear behavior

The disturbances to be rejected must be within the inner

loop

The inner loop must respond much more quickly than the

outer loop

Two controllers must be tuned

Training Course on:

Sustainable Industrial Development: Process Simulation, Analysis, Optimization and Control

Bangkok, 8-12 July, 2002

Control Station

It is a software for process control, analysis,

tuning and training

Developed by Prof. Doug Cooper at the Chem.

Eng. Dept. (Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT,

U.S.A.)

Information on the software at the following

Internet site:

http://www.engr.uconn.edu/control/

Training Course on:

Sustainable Industrial Development: Process Simulation, Analysis, Optimization and Control

Bangkok, 8-12 July, 2002

Useful references

Seborg, D. E., T. F. Edgar and D. A. Mellichamp (1989). Process

Dynamics and Control, John Wiley & Sons, New York (U.S.A.)

Ogunnaike, B. A. and W. H. Ray (1994). Process Dynamics, Modeling

and Control, Oxford University Press, New York (U.S.A.)

Marlin, T. E. (2000). Process Control: Designing Processes and

Control Systems for Dynamic Performance, Mc-Graw-Hill, New York

(U.S.A.)

Riggs, J. B. (1999). Chemical Process Control, Ferret Publishing,

Lubbock (U.S.A.)

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