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Vibration analysis and calculation, shock and noise

Saptarshi Basu GL trainer

Germanischer Lloyd 2010

Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012

ILL EFFECTS OF NOISE AND VIBRATION


Excessive ship vibration is to be avoided for
passenger comfort and crew habitability.

In addition to undesired effects on humans, excessive


ship vibration may result in the fatigue failure of local structural members or malfunction of machinery and equipment.

For naval application noise and vibration means


decrease in stealth capability, increase in detectability and susceptibility.
Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 2

VIBRATION MONITORING
VIBRATION THOUGH HAS SEVERAL UNDESIRABLE
EFFECTS ITS CHARECTERISTICS CAN BE MONITORED TO GET INFORMATION ABOUT THE HEALTH OF THE MACHINERY AND ANY IMPENDING DISASTER OR HIDDEN DEFECT.

ADVANCED ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES SUCH AS THE


FOURIER FAST TRANSFORM and INSTRUMENTS LIKE SHOCK PULSE METER.

Germanischer Lloyd 2010

Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012

No. 3

Real-Time Vibration Monitoring System (RTVMS)


produces real-time vibration spectral data from critical components discrete spectral signatures, which are prime indicators of machinery health, can be assessed at high speeds and utilized to mitigate potential catastrophic engine failures.

VIBRATION MONITORING

The vibration source data (accelerometers) from the


must be acquired at high sample rates in order to provide the best time and frequency resolutions in the frequency domain for performing enhanced engine health monitoring.
Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 4

Real-Time Vibration Monitoring System (RTVMS)


After the high-speed acquisition task is performed, the
data must be transferred rapidly to Digital Signal Processing (DSP) modules.

The DSP modules take the digital data, perform a Fast


Fourier Transform (FFT) to produce frequency spectral data, and summarily run the pertinent health algorithms on-board the DSP chips.

The complexity of the DSP operations is dependent on


the health algorithms being utilized
Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 5

Real-Time Vibration Monitoring System (RTVMS)


The DSPs can act independently if the processing
load is light or may be utilized as multiple parallel processors (MPP) if the processing tasks are heavy.

The use of MPP operations allows a system to utilize


multiple DSPs, which communicate through the DSP communication ports, and act in parallel to perform immense processing tasks without any additional and harmful processing latency. The system is a real-time distributed processing system that performs Multiple Instructions on Multiple Data (MIMD).
Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 6

Health Management Computer Block Diagram

Germanischer Lloyd 2010

Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012

No. 7

HUMAN ERROR related human fatigue


Human error resulting from fatigue-impaired performance
has been identified as the cause of numerous transportation mishaps.

Incorporating human factors into a ships design can help


combat fatigue, increase alertness, and decrease human error.

Human Error Any deviation from a system performance


standard which is caused indirectly or directly by an operator and which has significant consequences to the system operation in which it was made
Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 8

OSVs: Crew and Safe Operations


Late 90s Considerable increase of accidents, mostly in the North Sea:
- Supply vessels - Anchor handling vessels - Rescue vessels
14 12 10 8 6 4

Last days/hours of rotation/watch

2 0 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000

Germanischer Lloyd 2010

Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012

Sleep problems for OSV crews


What are the causes of your sleep problems at sea?
Noise Vibration in cabin Cabin temperature/humidity Wakened by alarms or other loud noises Bad mattress/pillow/duvet Need to get up to urinate Bothered by shift-working Conflicts/worries at home Other (write): Conflicts/worries at work Feel that something on board is not safe Physical problems (write): Snoring

51
32

29 28
22 18

15
12 11 8

6
4 3 0 10 20 30 Percentage 40 50 60

Reprinted with permission from Sintef


Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012

Effects of human fatigue


Fatigue drastically reduces human alertness levels and negatively affects job
performance.

Although fatigue is difficult to define, it can be generalized as "impaired


alertness.

Fatigue affects humans in different ways, although most people suffer from: decreased problem solving ability increased risk taking delayed reaction time moodiness inability to concentrate, and inattentiveness. Logical reasoning and decision-making are affected by fatigue and it impairs
human physical abilities such as strength, speed, coordination, and balance
Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012

No. 11

CAUSES OF FATIGUE
Fatigue may result from: poor sleep quality sleep deprivation physical/mental exertion emotional stress disruption of circadian rhythms poor physical condition, drug/alcohol use. Everyone has felt the effects of fatigue. It is usually described as an
uncontrollable urge to sleep or rest. It has also been described as a "fog" that comes over the brain at certain times of the day. Of importance is that fatigue lowers alertness levels and impairs performance.
Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012

No. 12

FACTORS AFFECTING SLEEP

Germanischer Lloyd 2010

Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012

No. 13

RESTORATIVE SLEEP ENVIRONMENT


The sleeping environment determines a persons
ability to get three of the four factors of restorative sleep, namely quality, continuity, and quantity. Quantity and time of day are impacted by work schedules and operational commitments.

The design factors that create a good sleeping


environment also impact the watch station, working, and recreational environments.

Germanischer Lloyd 2010

Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012

No. 14

SLEEP DEPRIVATION & ALTERNESS


Effects of Reduced Sleep on Alertness Levels Effect of Successive Days of Reduced Sleep on Alertness Levels

Germanischer Lloyd 2010

Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012

No. 15

DESIGN FACTORS AFFECTING SLEEPING ENVIRONMENT


The foundation of the diagram is the six design factors, all of which naval
architects and marine engineers can directly control.

These factors determine how comfortable the working and sleeping


environments are aboard a ship: lighting noise vibrations ventilation temperature, and ship motions

These all can be incorporated through the preliminary design of a vessel


and maintained throughout ships post-production life

Germanischer Lloyd 2010

Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012

No. 16

NOISE AND SLEEP


Noise affects sleep patterns, which greatly contributes to
fatigue. It makes it difficult to fall asleep, can wake a person throughout the night, and pulls a person from deeper to lighter sleep stages.

Nightly interruptions can get so frequent that a person


may begin to forget that they were awoken and return to sleep very quickly.

This pattern is particularly dangerous because the person


is not getting enough deep sleep and will be drowsy the next day.
Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 17

NOISE LEVEL AND SLEEP DISTURBANCE


The noise levels at which sleep disturbances occur are low. Levels of 40 to 50 dBA
(lower than a casual conversation) have caused difficulty in falling asleep and has extended the time of falling asleep to one hour.

As the sound levels increase it becomes more difficult to fall asleep.


Three other important findings are listed: 70 dBA is enough to significantly change the sleep patterns of most subjects. Long-term exposure to noise affects sleep. Short sound duration awakens more than long and steady noise.
The effect that noise has on sleep challenges designers of shipboard general arrangements. Finding the optimal location for sleeping quarters and crew recreation compartments is critical. Noise is an important factor and is not usually considered with fatigue in mind

Germanischer Lloyd 2010

Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012

No. 18

HEALTH EFFECTS OF NOISE


Noise can be defined as unwanted or undesirable
sound. It is present in most compartments of a ship and it is difficult to avoid.

Noise comes from numerous sources including


engines, generators, pumps, and air conditioners. There are many human physiological and physical impacts of noise in the workplace that cause fatigue and negatively impair human performance.

Noise also affects sleep patterns and decreases the


restorative quality of rest.
Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 19

NOISE AND HEARING LOSS


Long-term exposure to excessive noise can result in
permanent hearing loss.

The extent of the hearing damage is dependent upon


noise intensity and frequency.

Temporary loss of hearing is the result of short-term


exposure to noise and can lead to permanent hearing loss.

Germanischer Lloyd 2010

Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012

No. 20

PHYSIOLOGICAL IMPACTS OF NOISE


There are also physiological impacts of noise and these have
not been adequately addressed in the guidelines used to establish acceptable noise levels. Although the physiological effects are less perceptible, they have a considerable impact on human performance and this makes them the most dangerous cause of noise induced fatigue.

The physiological changes that occur due to noise are the result
of the natural "fight or flight" response of the human body. The body perceives all noise as a threat or warning of danger and continuously responds to it accordingly, even at low noise levels and while a person is asleep

Germanischer Lloyd 2010

Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012

No. 21

PHYSIOLOGICAL IMPACTS OF NOISE


Mariners working in a noisy environment tend to be
moody, irritable, and unable to effectively deal with minor frustrations.

Noise causes blood pressure to go up, increases heart


and breathing rates, accelerates the metabolism, and a low-level muscular tension takes over the body ("fight or flight" effects).

The physiological changes described above also


occur when a person is asleep, affecting their ability to get restorative sleep and leading to fatigue.
Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 22

PHYSIOLOGICAL IMPACTS OF NOISE


Problems caused by this type of stress are listed below: (a) Neuropsychological disturbances: headaches, fatigue,
insomnia, irritability, neuroticism

(b) Cardiovascular system disturbances: hypertension,


hypotension, cardiac disease

(c) Digestive disorders: ulcers, colitis (d) Endocrine and biochemical disorders (e) Sleep disturbance

Germanischer Lloyd 2010

Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012

No. 23

NOISE EXPOSURE
Noise levels that cause the human body to respond in
these ways vary with individuals.

If the noise continues for long periods, the factors


compound and it becomes harder to relax. The factors increase as the noise levels increase.

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration


(OSHA) and numerous human factor design guidelines have prescribed values for intensities and exposure duration at which operators can safely be subjected to noise.
Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 24

Definitions
Peak Sound Pressure (Ppeak) This is measured in units of pressure (pascals) and not decibels. It is the maximum
instantaneous noise pressure measured on a 'C' weighted frequency scale. 'C' weighting is used as it is almost a linear weighting which is incorporated in many commercial sound level meters.

Daily Noise Exposure Level (LEX,8h) Because noise exposure depends on both the amplitude of noise and the duration of
exposure, the daily noise exposure level is the time weighted average of the noise level experienced. It is normalized for an 8 hour working day so that if for example the exposure time per day is more than 8 hours, the noise level to which an employee is exposed must be reduced.

The LEX,8h is a direct replacement of the old LEP,d and is measured in dBA.

Weekly Noise Exposure Level


This is simply the time weighted average of daily noise exposure levels for a standard 40 hour
working week.
Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012

No. 25

Noise exposure control


There are two action values and a limit value: Action Value The two action values are: 1. The Lower Exposure Action Value 2. The Upper Exposure Action Value

(1) The Lower Exposure Action Value is 80dBA LEX,8h and peak
pressure Ppeak of 112 pascals.

(2) The Upper Exposure Action Value is 85dBA LEX,8h and peak
pressure, Ppeak of 140 pascals.

These 'Action Values' do not take into account the attenuating


effect of ear protectors that employees would be wearing.
Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 26

Noise exposure control


Limit Value The exposure limit value is similar to the action value
except that the attenuation provided by ear protection is taken into account. The exposure limit value is 87dBA Lex,8L and peak pressure Ppeak of 200 pascals.

Variable Daily Exposure In some industries particularly where production is of a


batch rather than continuous nature, noise exposure varies greatly from day to day. When this the case, the Directive suggests the use of a weekly noise exposure level.
Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 27

Reducing Noise Exposure


Wherever possible, reduction of noise at source is
preferred. In particular the employer should use quiet working methods and equipment. Work places and work stations should be designed to minimize the noise exposure.

The employer should reduce noise using suitable


techniques depending on whether noise is predominantly air borne or structure borne. Also equipment should be well maintained as it is know that poorly maintained equipment tends to be noisier.
Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 28

Reducing Noise Exposure


Work should be planned so that times spent in noisy situations is limited
and that rest from noise is provided.

Upper Action Value In particular, if the upper action value is exceeded the employer is to reduce
noise by either technical means and or organizational means. Warning signs must be displayed and if possible access to these noisy areas restricted.

Ear Protection
Once the possibility of noise reduction by technical or organisational means
has been eliminated, efficient ear protection must be made available and must be used. The employer must see that this is done.

There are no circumstances in which employees can be allowed to exceed


the Exposure Limit Value.

Germanischer Lloyd 2010

Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012

No. 29

TIME EXPOSURE OF NOISE


The sound levels and permissible duration exposure time per day given by OSHA are listed below and are a good generalization of standards used by the military: Sound Level and Duration per day

Germanischer Lloyd 2010

Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012

No. 30

NOISE LIMITS AS PER SPACE

Germanischer Lloyd 2010

Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012

No. 31

Jet engine Sound pressure


at 25 meters distance

140 dB(A) Threshold of Pain 130 dB 120 dB

100.000.000 Pa

Jet take-off
at 100 meters distance

100 dB

SOUND PRESSURE

Heavy truck Conversation

1.000.000 Pa

90 dB 80 dB

100.000 Pa

70 dB 60 dB

Business office Living room Woods


0 dB (A) Threshold of Hearing

10.000 Pa

50 dB 40 dB

Library Bedroom

1.000 Pa

30 dB 20 dB

100 Pa
20 Pa
Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012

10 dB

SOUND PRESSURE LEVEL

Pop group

10.000.000 Pa

110 dB

Pneumatic chipper Street traffic

Sound pressure

Airborne + 62 dB = Waterborne

Germanischer Lloyd 2010

Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012

IMO on underwater noise


The Marine Environmental Protection
Committee (MEPC) of the International

Maritime Organization (IMO) July 2009: The committee urged governments to review their commercial fleets to identify the ships that contribute most to underwater noise pollution

IFAW estimates that the noisiest 10%


of ships contribute the majority of the noise problem
Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012

Noise sources

Propellers, thrusters

Diesel engines, generators, electric motors, gears

Water flow

Germanischer Lloyd 2010

Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012

Underwater Sound Levels


Ships underway Tug and barge Supply ship Large tanker Broadband source level
(underwater dB at 1 m)

Source

Broadband source level


(underwater dB at 1 m)

171 dB 181 dB 186 dB

Grey whale moans Bowhead whale tonals, moans, and song Humpback whale song

142 - 185 dB 128 - 189 dB 144 - 174 dB

Germanischer Lloyd 2010

Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012

Photo source: www.iucn.org

Noise transmission
Audible noise can be broken down into two
categories: (1) airborne and (2) structure-borne.

Airborne noise is what causes stress and hearing


loss.

Structure-borne noise induces vibrations that can


damage machinery and marine structures. Both of these noise types vary in frequency and intensity.

Germanischer Lloyd 2010

Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012

No. 37

Noise Control
A ship designer must consider a number of different issues when designing to reduce and
control noise. There are three locations where noise can be minimized and four basic methods of controlling it. Isolation: Minimizes noise by reducing vibrations caused by machinery or equipment. Vibration-absorbing materials are used such as rubber mounts, pads, or springs. The type of material for an application is based on weight, vibration frequency, and desired degree of isolation. Barriers: Minimizes noise by blocking sound transmission through the use of high mass, resilient, or limp mass materials. Using more mass increases the effect and barriers work better at higher frequencies. Damping: Minimizes noise by adding mass to the vibrating structure or by connecting it to a surface that does not want to vibrate. Damping materials are selected by considering the thickness of the vibrating surface, the desired reduction, and the environment. Absorption: Minimizes noise with resonators and open-celled porous material, which converts sound energy to heat. Materials used are based on the noise frequency, desired reduction, and environment.
Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012

No. 38

Locations of barriers for noise transmission

In most applications, the use of barriers is the most effective


means of reducing airborne noise. In order for barriers to be effective designers must use the proper absorption materials. These materials can be heavy, expensive, and take up critical space. Despite this, specially enclosed workspaces can have as much as an eight to nine dBA reduction.
Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 39

HEALTH EFFECT OF VIBRATION


Vibrations resonate throughout the hull structure and
the entire crew can be affected.

The propagation of these vibrations along the decks


and bulkheads subject the crew to whole body vibration and noise.

The effects of whole body vibration are well studied


and documented.

There are two types of effects short term and long


term
Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 40

PHYSIOLOGICAL IMPACTS OF VIBRATION


short term effects: headaches, Stress, and Fatigue

Long term effects:


hearing loss constant body agitation musculoskeletal injuries, back disorders, and bone degeneration.
Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 41

Germanischer Lloyd 2010

HEALTH EFFECT OF VIBRATION

Physiological: Cardiac rhythm increases Respiration rhythm increases Blood circulation increases Vasoconstriction Endocrine secretions Central nervous system affected

Comfort and Performance: Pain Nausea Vision problems Posture Movement and coordination decline Force Perceptions altered

Germanischer Lloyd 2010

Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012

No. 42

Vibration Exposure Criteria

Vibration Exposure Criteria for the Longitudinal Directions with Respect to Body Axis
Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012

Vibration Exposure Criteria for the Transverse Directions with Respect to Body Axis

No. 43

Vibration Control
Listed below are the three effective ways:

Source Control - Reduce vibration intensity - Avoid resonance


Path Control - Limit exposure time - Reduce vibration transmission (structural dampening) - Use vibration isolators Receiver Control - use vibration isolators - adapt posture - reduce contact area
Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 44

MIL-STD-167-1A changes from previous version


Definition of response prominence A resonance with transmissibility (output/input) greater than 1.5:
Response prominence is a general term denoting a resonance or other distinct

maximum, regardless of magnitude, in a transmissibility function, including local maxima which may exist at the frequency endpoints of the transmissibility function. Typically, a response prominence is identified by the frequency of its maximum response, which is the response prominence frequency. A response prominence of a system in forced oscillation exists when any change, for both plus and minus increments however small, in the frequency of excitation results in a decrease of the system response at the observing sensor registering the maximum. A response prominence may occur in an internal part of the equipment, with little or not outward manifestation at the vibration measurement point, and in some cases, the response may be detected by observing some other type of output function of the equipment, such as voltage, current, or any other measurable physical parameter. Instructions on how to identify response prominences is provided in Appendix A.

Germanischer Lloyd 2010

Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012

45

Balance Definitions
Rotor, flexible A flexible rotor is one that does not meet the criteria for a
rigid rotor and operates above its first resonance. The unbalance of a flexible rotor changes with speed. Any value of unbalance assigned to a flexible rotor must be at a particular speed. The balancing of flexible rotors requires correction in more than two planes. A rotor which operates above n resonances requires n+2 balance planes of correction. A rotor which operates between the second and third resonances, for example, requires 2 + 2 balance planes of correction.

Rotor, rigid A rotor is considered to be rigid when its unbalance can be

corrected in any two arbitrary selected planes and it operates below its first resonance. After correction, its residual unbalance does not exceed the allowed tolerance, relative to the shaft axis, at any speed up to the maximum service speed and when running under conditions which approximate closely to those of the final supporting system.

Germanischer Lloyd 2010

Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012

46

MIL-STD-167-1A
15 SECOND TEST/ ID RESPONSE PROMINANCES
AND/OR RESONANCES

5 MIN SCREENING TEST/ 40% OF CYCLES


UNOFFICIAL ENDURANCE TEST

2 HR ENDURANCE TEST
FOR ONE CLASS INSTALLATION, TEST UP TO AND
INCLUDING: F = (DESIGN RPM/60) x (NUMBER OF PROPELLER BLADES) x 1.15 NOTE: ROUND ANSWER UP TO
NEXT HIGHER INTEGRAL FREQUENCY
Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 47

DRAFT MIL-STD-810G METHOD 528

PRETEST CHECK BOLTS AND WASHERS BEFORE, DURING (WHEN

CHANGING DIRECTION OF VIBRATION), AND AFTER TEST. ENSURE ALL BOLTS ARE PROPER GRIP LENGTH AND THAT THE WASHERS ARE NOT ROTATING. CONCENTRATION. CONSIDER COMPOSITE AND CAST MATERIALS. THE COMBATANTS PROPELLERS. THE ALTERNATING THRUST IS HIGH FOR FLAT PROPELLERS AND DECREASES SIGNIFICANTLY FOR MODERN HIGHLY SKEWED PROPELLERS.
Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012

IDENTIFY POTENTIAL SIGNS OF HIGH STRESS

TAILORING : TAILORING IS A FUNCTION OF THE QUALITY OF

Germanischer Lloyd 2010

48

Draft MIL-STD-810G, METHOD 528

Definitions Random Vibration


Power Spectral Density mean square value of the signal in the
frequency interval f, at the centered frequency in g2/Hz. In most cases, the random vibration test would be less severe than the sinusoidal test of MIL-STD-167-1A; however, it may be more representative of the actual environment. However, a waiver is required from SEA 05P1.

Germanischer Lloyd 2010

Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012

49

Draft MIL-STD-810G, METHOD 528

BASIS OF USING RANDOM VIBRATION TESTING


Actual ship environmental data is available and indicates
random vibration is the best representation of the environment. The Alternating Thrust of the propeller is below 1.5 % of mean thrust.

Germanischer Lloyd 2010

Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012

50

Draft MIL-STD-810G, METHOD 528

Vibration Environment
Validate the accelerometer's sensitivity before and after testing.

Germanischer Lloyd 2010

Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012

51

ACCELEROMETER PROBLEMS

Germanischer Lloyd 2010

Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012

52

Vibration Standards

(.557/.45 =1.2 test levels exceed ship environment)

(.28/.05 = 5.6)

(.297/.075 = 4.0)

For stern of combatant test levels are 7 times higher than shipboard measurements ( (1.2 + 4.0 + 5.6) = 3.6); (Assuming Mag. Factor of 2: 3.6 X 2 7)
Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 53

Isolation Mountings
For Type I testing of material to be installed shipboard on isolation mounts, testing
shall be performed on isolation mounts or hard mounted to the testing machine, or as specified. Type I testing of a particular test item on isolation mounts is valid only for the isolation mount type and configuration used during testing. Ensure the transmissibility across the mounts does not exceed 1.5 within the blade frequency range of 80% to 115% of design RPM. If material is tested for Type I vibrations hard mounted to the test fixture throughout the duration of the test, the test is valid for either hard mounted or isolation mounted shipboard installations, provided the isolation mounts are Navy standard mounts contained in MIL-M-17191, MIL-M-17508, MIL-M-19379, MIL-M-19863, MIL-M-21649, MIL-M-24476, or distributed isolation material (DIM).

The endurance test is for a total period of two hours at the frequency moist seriously
affecting the equipment. One of the frequencies selected should be the isolation mount frequency if the test is to be performed on isolation mounts.

Germanischer Lloyd 2010

Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012

54

Design Power Calculation



IAI = 2X F = ma = 2Xm T(torque) = 2X2m P(power) = T = 3X3m P = (2f)3X2m; f= RPM/60 P (RPM) 3

Power (1/2) 0.8 Design RPM


Power 80% Design RPM Record Response Prominences Output/input = 1.5 and greater

Germanischer Lloyd 2010

Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012

55

Balancing
A process of minimizing the distance, , between the mass centerline and the
geometric centerline of a rotor.

G: balance quality grade in mm/sec. G = (eccentricity from balance in mm) = G/ (units of are rad/sec) Note is the distance between the shaft axis and rotor center of gravity. Mass unbalance occurs when the center of mass of a rotor does not coincide with
the rotors geometric center.
Mass center

Geometric center
Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012

56

Balance Limits for Rigid Rotors


When balanced as specified, the maximum allowable residual unbalance is given by
the following formula: Given:
U = W and G = = 2 f U is the maximum allowable residual unbalance G is the total balance quality grade (mm/sec) as specified W is weight of the rotor (lbs) N is the maximum rotor rpm is the eccentricity limit (mm) It can be shown that U = 60GW / 2 N (lbs mm) or U = 6GW/N (oz in)

For rigid rotors that operate below 1000 rpm, the total balance quality grade shall not
exceed G = 2.5 mm/s. For rigid rotors that operate at 1000 rpm and above, the total balance quality grade shall not exceed G = 1.0 mm/s. For rigid rotors that require low noise, a balance quality grade of G = 1.0 mm/s can be specified for all speeds. For guidance on balance quality grades of rigid rotors, see ANSI S2.19.

Germanischer Lloyd 2010

Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012

57

Balance Quality Grades


Application of U = 6GW/N (U in oz/sec, G in mm/sec, W in lbs, N in RPM)

In MIL-STD-167-1, U(per plane) = 4W/N


What is the balance quality grade, G, for this requirement ? Set 6GW/N = 4W/N ; 6G = 4; G = 2/3 per plane G (total) = 2(2/3) = 4/3 mm/sec for two planes In MIL-STD-167-1A, G(total) has been reduced to 1 mm/sec for noise
sensitive rotors.

This is a more severe requirement. Since: G(total) = (e is ecentricity from balance in mm)
The distance e between the shaft axis and the rotor center of gravity has been
reduced in MIL-STD-167-1A
58

Germanischer Lloyd 2010

Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012

Balance Quality Grades


Allowable Unbalance Example
What is the maximum allowable residual unbalance, U in oz-in, For a 500 lb
Rotor which is to be balanced to balance quality grades of 2.5, 4/3 and 1.0 mm/sec at 6000 RPM?

For G = 2.5 mm/sec : U = 6G(W/N) = 6(2.5) 500/6000 = 1.25 oz-in total and G =

; = G/ = 2.5/(2 6000/60) = 2.5/200 = 0.004 mm allowed eccentricity ( = 2 f = 2 RPM/60) For G = 4/3 mm/sec (Old 4W/N requirement) : U = 6GW/N = 6(4/3) 500/6000 = 2/3 oz-in total ; G = ; = G/ = 4/3/(2 6000/60) = (4/3) 1/628 = 0.0021 mm allowed eccentricity For G = 1.0 mm/sec ; U = 6GW/N = 6(1) 500/6000 = oz-in total; For low noise rigid rotors G= ; = G/ = 1.0/(2 6000/60) = 0.0016 mm allowed eccentricity.

The lower the balance quality grade, the quieter the rigid rotor because of the
small eccentricity, .

Germanischer Lloyd 2010

Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012

59

Approval Process for Vibration Testing Data Reports


Disapprove
Approve Certified Government Vibration Testing Approver
NAVSEA

Test from Certified Manufacturer Tester

Test from Certified Contractor Tester

Test from Certified Government Tester

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Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012

60

VIBRATION DEFINATIONS

Vibration may be in any linear direction, and it may be rotational (torsional).


Vibration may be resonant, at one of its natural frequencies or forced.

It may affect any group of components, or any one. It can occur at any
frequency up to those which are more commonly called noise.

As ship design advances, particularly with regard to structural optimization


and high speeds to meet market demands, there is a tendency for noise and vibration problems to become more pronounced.

Design practice should include elements of model testing, calculation and


heuristic deduction from previous experience
Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 61

VIBRATION DEFINATIONS
The total vertical movement is called the Peak to Peak Displacement of the vibration.
This is an indication of the amount of the amount of lateral movement of the machine and is good indication of the amount of out of balance in a machine when the value is compared to a standard for that machine. This parameter is often used when balancing.

The Vibration Velocity is the speed of movement of this point ,being highest as the
point passes through its at rest position. It gives good guide to the amount of energy being generated by the vibrating object. This energy usually results in wear and eventual failure.

The amount of energy is proportional to the square of the velocity of vibration.


Velocity being a good indication of the amount of wear taking place in a machine is used exclusively in monitoring systems.

Germanischer Lloyd 2010

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VIBRATION DEFINATIONS
For analysis purposes the r.m.s value is used.

For very low speed machines where the velocity is low


the displacement may be used instead.

The Vibration Frequency is the time taken to complete


one cycle .The shaft below is said to have a fundamental frequency equal to the shaft rotational velocity.

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SHAFT VIBRATION
Any elastically coupled shaft or other system will have one or
more natural frequencies which, if excited, can build up to an amplitude which is perfectly capable of breaking crankshafts.

Elastic in this sense means that a displacement or a twist


from rest creates a force or torque tending to return the system to its position of rest, and which is proportional to the displacement.

An elastic system, once set in motion in this way, will go on


swinging, or vibrating, about its equilibrium position forever, in the theoretical absence of any damping influence

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FUNDAMENTAL OR NATURAL FREQUENCY

The frequency of torsional vibration of a single mass


will be
Where,

q is the stiffness in newton-metres per radian, and I is the moment of inertia of the attached mass in kg
metres2.

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FUNDAMENTAL OR NATURAL FREQUENCY

For a transverse or axial vibration


Where,

s is the stiffness in newtons per metre of deflection and


m is the mass attached in kg.

The essence of control is to adjust these two


parameters, q and I (ors and m), to achieve a frequency which does not coincide with any of the forcing frequencies.
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Vibration frequency
The equation is true only when the majority of the vibration
occurs at one frequency.

In reality machines vibrate in a much more complex way with


vibration occurring at several frequencies.

By analysis of the frequency at which each of the vibrations are


occurring it is possible to ascertain whether they are being generated from within the system or externally.

By further analysis it is possible to locate the source of


vibration within complex machinery.
Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 67

Vibration spectrum

Vibration phase can be defined as the angular relationship between the positions of maximum vibrations and some fixed point on a rotating shaft at any instant.

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Vibration effects and types

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VIBRATION PARAMETERS
It is important to understand that with sinusoidal vibration, the
relationship between acceleration, velocity and displacement is fixed and frequency dependent.

It is not possible to vary any one of these three parameters without


affecting another, and for this reason, one must consider all of them simultaneously when specifying or observing sine vibration.

The three parameters of acceleration, velocity and displacement are


all linear scalar quantities and in that respect, at any given frequency, each has a constant, proportional relationship with the other

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VIBRATION PARAMETERS
In other words, if the frequency is held constant,
increasing or decreasing the amplitude of any one of the three parameters results in a corresponding proportional increase or decrease in both of the other two parameters.

However, the constant of proportionality between the


three parameters is frequency dependent and therefore not the same at different frequencies.

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Acceleration, Velocity and Displacement


In general, sinusoidal vibration testing uses the following
conventions for measurement of vibration levels.

Acceleration is normally specified and measured in its peak


sinusoidal value and is normally expressed in standardized and normalized dimensionless units of gs peak. In fact, a g is numerically equal to the acceleration of gravity under standard conditions, however, most engineering calculations utilize the dimensionless unit of gs and convert to normal dimensioned units only when required.

Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 72

Acceleration, Velocity and Displacement


Velocity is specified in peak amplitude as well. Although not often used in vibration
testing applications, velocity is of primary concern to those interested in machinery condition monitoring. The normal units of velocity are inches per second in the English system or millimeters per second in the metric system of units.

Displacement is usually expressed in normal linear dimensions, however, it is


measured over the total vibration excursion or peak to peak amplitude. The normal units of displacement are inches for English or millimeters for the metric system of units.

The second is that velocity has a proportionally increasing (or decreasing)


relationship with either displacement or acceleration. In other words, the velocity will increase (or decrease) in direct proportion to the frequency if either of the other parameters are held constant. Velocity is of interest when damping components or back EMF issues are important to the testing.

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Acceleration, Velocity and Displacement


As mentioned previously, these quantities are not independent and
are related to each other by the frequency of the vibration. Knowing any one of the three parameter levels, along with the frequency of operation, is enough to completely predict the other two levels. The sinusoidal equations of motion stated in normal vibration testing units are as follows:

where:
g= acceleration, gs peak D= displacement, inches, peak to peak V= velocity, inches per second, peak f = frequency, Hz
Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 74

Vibration characteristics

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ACCELERATION MEASUREMENT

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Vibration measurements units


There are three different ways of expressing vibration
measurements 1. Peak to peak 2. Half peak 3. Root mean Square

They are related as follows.


R.M.S. = Peak to Peak / 2.83 Half peak value = Peak to peak / 2 .

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VIBRATION MEASUREMENT
Standard measurement groups include:
FFT, order tracking, octave, swept-sine, correlation, time capture, and time/histogram

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VIBRATION MEASUREMENT
Averaging A wide selection of averaging techniques to improve your signal-to-noise
ratio. RMS averaging reduces signal fluctuations, while vector averaging minimizes noise from synchronous signals. Peak hold averaging is also available. Both linear and exponential averaging are provided for each mode

Order Tracking Order tracking is used to evaluate the behavior of rotating machinery.
Measurement data is displayed as a function of multiples of the shaft frequency (orders), rather than absolute frequency. Combined with a waterfall plot, or "order map" of your data as a function of time or rpm. Using the slice feature, the amplitude profile of specific orders in the map can be analyzed. In tracked order mode, the intensity of individual orders vs. rpm is measured

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VIBRATION MEASUREMENT
Octave Analysis
Real-time 1/1, 1/3 and 1/12 octave analysis, at frequencies up to
40 kHz (single channel) or 20 kHz (two channel). Octave analysis is fully compliant with ANSI S1.11-1986 (Order 3, type 1-D) and IEC 225-1966. Switchable analog A-weighting filters, as well as A, B and C weighting math functions, are included. Averaging choices include exponential time averaging, linear time averaging, peak hold, and equal confidence averaging. Broadband sound level is measured and displayed as the last band in the octave graph.

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VIBRATION MEASUREMENT
Swept-Sine Measurements Swept-sine mode is ideal for signal analysis that involves high dynamic range or
wide frequency spans. Gain is optimized at each point in the measurement, producing up to 145 dB of dynamic range. A frequency resolution of up to 2000 points is also provided. Auto-ranging can be used with source auto-leveling to maintain a constant input or output level at the device under test (to test response at a specific amplitude, for instance).

Time/Histogram The time/histogram measurement group is used to analyze time-domain data. A


histogram of the time data vs. signal amplitude is provided for accurate time domain signal characterization. Statistical analysis capabilities include both probability density function (PDF) and cumulative density function (CDF). The sample rate, number of samples, and number of bins can all be adjusted

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VIBRATION MEASUREMENT
Time Capture
Analog waveforms can be captured at sampling rates of 262
kHz or any binary sub-multiple, allowing to optimize sampling rate and storage for any application. For example, 8 Msamples of memory will capture 32 seconds of time domain data at the maximum 262 kHz sample rate, or about 9 hours of data at a 256 Hz sample rate. Once captured, any portion of the signal can be played back. The convenient Auto-Pan feature lets you display measurement results synchronously with the corresponding portion of the capture buffer to identify important features

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VIBRATION MEASUREMENT
Waterfall Waterfall plots are a convenient way of viewing a time history of data. Each
successive measurement record is plotted along the z-axis making it easy to see trends in the data. All FFT, octave and order tracking measurements can be stored in waterfall buffer memory. Waterfall traces can be stored every n time records for FFT and order tracking measurements. For order tracking measurements, new records can be acquired at a specific time interval or change in rpm. In octave measurements, the storage interval is in seconds (as fast as every 4 ms). While displaying waterfall plots, you can adjust the skew angle to reveal important features, or change the baseline threshold to eliminate low-level clutter. Any z-axis slice or x-axis record can be saved to disk or displayed separately for analysis.

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VIBRATION MEASUREMENT PLOTS


Order Tracking Waterfall

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FACTORS AFFECTING VIBRATION PARAMETERS

The four elements of importance in ship vibration are: Excitation, Stiffness, Frequency Ratio, and Damping

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REDUCING VIBRATION PARAMETERS


i) Reduce exciting force amplitude, F. In propeller-induced ship
vibration, the excitation may be reduced by changing the propeller unsteady hydrodynamics. This may involve lines or clearance changes to reduce the non-uniformity of the wake inflow or may involve geometric changes to the propeller itself.

ii) Increase stiffness, K. Stiffness is defined as spring force per


unit deflection. In general, stiffness is to be increased rather than decreased when variations in natural frequency are to be accomplished by variations in stiffness. It is not a recommended practice to reduce system stiffness in attempts to reduce vibration.

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REDUCING VIBRATION PARAMETERS


iii) Avoid values of frequency ratio near unity; /n = 1 is
the resonant condition. At resonance, the excitation is opposed only by damping. Note that /n can be varied by varying either excitation frequency or natural frequency n. The spectrum of can be changed by changing the RPM of a relevant rotating machinery source, or, in the case of propeller-induced vibration, by changing the propeller RPM or its number of blades, n is changed by changes in system mass and/or stiffness; increasing stiffness is the usual and preferred approach.
Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 87

REDUCING VIBRATION PARAMETERS


iv) Increase damping, . Damping of structural
systems in general, and of ships in particular, is small; << 1. Therefore, except very near resonance, the vibratory amplitude is approximately damping independent. Furthermore, damping is difficult to increase significantly in systems such as ships; is, in general, the least effective of the four parameters available to the designer for implementing changes in ship vibratory characteristics.

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No. 88

Vibration mitigation on a naval vessel


It is important to prevent or counter vibrations as it ultimately becomes destructive.
Important becomes imperative on naval and other vessels that, for operational reasons ,must operate silently.

Much vibration can be avoided by careful design and manufacture ,for example
ensuring that rotating masses on machines are balanced.

Otherwise ,it can be dealt with by isolating the responsible machinery from its base
support structure ,interrupting the path which vibration is transmitted from its source,

Impressing a counter vibration on the source such that the unwanted vibration is
cancelled , or by controlling the response of ships structure by imposing a counter vibration on it.

Instead of attempting to isolate structure from source vibration ,the response of the
structure to that vibration could be sensed and actively controlled using strategically placed transducers and cancellation techniques

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Strategies of naval vibration minimization


Naval designers use finite element and impedance
modeling to help designers achieve structures whose natural vibration frequencies are well separated from the excitation frequencies likely to be generated by the ships propulsion and other machinery.

Failure to ensure this can lead to resonances in which


structural oscillations ,fed with energy from in phase source of vibrations, may grow to damaging proportions.

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Strategies of naval vibration minimization


If , despite these precautions ,vibration still develops
,it may be necessary to address the problem by judiciously adding balance weights, and a number of firms specialize in static and dynamic balancing.

Classic fix' now is to mount them to their base via


anti vibration mounts incorporating resilient material. Natural rubber ,once the material of choice for absorbing vibration energy ,has since been joined by a range of elastomer and other materials. This is called a passive machinery mount/vibration isolator
Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 91

Passive vibration isolator


A passive machinery mount/vibration isolator has two roles.; to support and secure the machine in question ( propulsion engine, generator ,pump
etc.) and to isolate vibration source (machine) from the receiver ( base structure)

The former requires the mount to be stiff as possible , while for the latter it needs to
be highly resilient. indeed, for maximum effect, as soft as possible.

This is a contradictory requirement, so passive dampers tend to be a compromise


and are least effective at low frequencies.

Nevertheless ,passive mounts can substantially reduce medium or high frequency


vibrations.-typically by some 10dB. Most solid mounts comprise metal/elastomer combinations in which metal most of the stiffness required to support and locate the subject machine while the elastomer absorbs the vibration energy.

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Type of passive vibration isolators

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No. 93

Tuned vibration absorbers (TVAs)


Whilst passive dampers based on resilient materials
are often cost effective ,their performance can sometimes be bettered by alternative source of resilience.

Thus, engineers have devised fluidic/hydraulic,


pneumatic and electro-magnetic systems. Also available are tuned vibration absorbers (TVAs) ,the performance of which is optimized for particular frequencies.

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Tuned vibration absorbers (TVAs)


For low speed engines ,electro-mechanical vibration
compensators can be more effective. These utilize rotating masses electrically driven in synchronism with mechanical out of balance forces, but anti phase to produce a canceling effect.

A signal representing engine rev/min sensed by a


tacho-graph, is fed to a synchronizer module which ensures correct drive speed and phasing.

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Electrically operated tuned vibration absorber

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Location of the TVA


Units can be selected to counter vibration propagated
transversely, longitudinally or vertically.

Typically a pair would be mounted at specific points


near main engine ,to feed counter vibrations into the base structure.

The system can also be beneficial for certain propeller


vibration modes ,and in those cases it is usually mounted at the thrust block.

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Active vibration isolator


Another approach shown to be effective with slow-turning
engines is to supplement passive isolation with the element of active cancellation.

In essence ,the active means which is somewhat


analogous to the now well-known anti noise cancellation technique. -- impose vibration on a machinery mount in such away that it cancels the unwanted source vibration . As a result ,vibration passing to the base structure is minimized.

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Active vibration isolator system


System requires an electro-mechanical actuator to impose the
anti-vibration oscillations, accelerometer sensors to sense the source of vibration ,a central data acquisition /processor/control unit and a power supply.

Sensor signals are digitized and analyzed by the processor


,which then generates an appropriate digital cancellation signal. This is converted back to analogue and passed via a power amplifier to the actuator.

The control loop can be closed by a feed back or feed forward (


anticipatory) term depending on the situation. A tachograph fitted to the subject machine provides the necessary revolutions rate reference signal.
Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 99

Active vibration isolator control element


An active control element can be included as a part of the isolator itself ,in
which case it is in series (in line) with the passive resilient element, or it can be mounted alongside it so that the active and passive elements are in parallel.

The latter arrangement has the advantage that the active element does not
have to bear the source machines weight ,but the inertial actuator has to be powerful enough to overcome the stiffness of the passive mount.

State-of the-art active control systems can provide as much as 20-30 dB


attenuation, including at the low frequencies that defeat passive isolators.

Smart Spring mount fail to a safe condition since, should the active
component or power fail ,they can still operate passively.

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Active vibration isolator (parallel config)

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Concept Design Approach


Concept design is where the vibration avoidance process
must begin. It is clear that if the vibration problems, repeatedly identified by experience as the most important, are addressed at the earliest design stage, ultimately serious problems, involving great cost in correction efforts, may be avoided.

The focus is on planning for vibration early at the Concept


Design stage, where there has been no development of details. If as much as possible can be done in concept design with the simple tools and rules of thumb available at that level, it will help to avoid major vibration problems.

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Concept Design Approach


While quantification of all four elements is required in
calculating the vibration response level, acceptable results may consistently be achieved with reasonable effort by focusing attention in concept design on two of the four elements. The two of the four elements of importance are excitation and frequency ratio.

While quantification of all four elements is required in


calculating the vibration response level, acceptable results may consistently be achieved with reasonable effort by focusing attention in concept design on two of the four elements.
Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 103

Concept Design Approach


The two of the four elements (excitation, stiffness,
frequency ratio, damping) of importance are excitation and frequency ratio. The achievement in design of two objectives with regard to these elements has resulted in many successful ships: Minimize dominant vibratory excitations, within the normal
constraints imposed by other design variables, and Avoid resonances involving active participation of major subsystems in frequency ranges where the dominant excitations are strongest.

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No. 104

Attention to vibration design of ships


Experience has shown that attention to vibration in concept design of large
ships can usually be paid to the following items: i) Hull girder vertical vibration excited by the main engine. ii) Main machinery/shafting system longitudinal vibration excited by the propeller. iii) Superstructure fore-and-aft vibration excited by hull girder vertical vibration and/or main propulsion machinery/shafting system longitudinal vibration.

A myriad of local vibrations, such as hand-rails, antennas, plating panels,


etc., may be encountered on new vessel trials in addition to these three.

But local problems usually involve local structural resonances and often
considered as minor problems, as the correction approach by local stiffening may be easily achievable
Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 105

DESIGNING OUT VIBRATION

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Effect of engine vibrations

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Sources of vibration excitation


There are a number of sources of vibration and noise present
in a ship or marine vehicle. Typically these may include: 1. The prime movers - typically diesel engines. 2. Shaft-line dynamics 3. Propeller radiated pressures and bearing forces. 4. Air conditioning systems. 5. Maneuvering devices such as transverse propulsion units 6. Cargo handling and mooring machinery. 7. Vortex shedding mechanisms The major sources are the low-speed diesel 8. Intakes and exhausts. main engine and the propeller. Gas turbines are 9. Slamming phenomena. generally considered to give less excitation
than diesel engines.
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Other causes of vibration form prime movers and auxiliaries

Typical causes could be nbalance, U Misalignment, Damaged or worn bearings, Damaged or worn teeth Resonance, loose components Bending or eccentricity of shafts, Electromagnetic effects, Unequal thermal effects Aerodynamic forces (turbocharger) Hydraulic forces Bad belt drives Oil whirl Reciprocating forces. The great majority of the above create a vibration at a multiple of the fundamental

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No. 109

Excitation due to slow speed diesel engine


Excitations generated by the engine can be divided into two
categories:

1) Primary excitations, which are forces and moments originating


from the combustion pressure and the inertia forces of the rotating and reciprocating masses. These are characteristics of the engine as such, and they can be calculated in advance and be stated as part of the engine specification, with reference to a certain speed and power

2) Secondary excitations, stemming from a forced vibratory


response in a sub-structure. The vibration characteristics of substructures are almost independent of the remaining ship structure
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No. 110

Vibration Aspects of Two-stroke Diesel Engines The vibration characteristics of the twostroke low speed diesel engines can for practical purposes be, split up into four categories: External unbalanced moments :These can
be classified as unbalanced 1st , 2nd and may be 4th order external moments, which need to be considered only for certain cylinder numbers Guide force moments Axial vibrations in the shaft system Torsional vibrations in the shaft system.
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No. 111

External unbalanced moments and guide forces

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No. 112

Diesel engine forces


Diesel engine force components are
comprised of static loads (I.e. loads arising from bolted assembly) and dynamic loads.

The dynamic loads are due to forces


arising from two sources. 1. The fluctuating gas pressure in the
cylinder. 2. The inertia forces. 3. Rotating masses

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No. 113

External unbalanced moments


The inertia forces originating from the unbalanced rotating and reciprocating
masses of the engine create unbalanced external moments although the external forces are zero.

This can be Mathematically, expressed as follows: Of these moments, only the 1st order (one cycle per revolution) and the 2nd order
(two cycles per revolution) need to be considered, and then only for engines with a low number of cylinders.

On some large bore engines the 4th external order moment may also have to be
examined.

The inertia forces on engines with more than 6 cylinders tend, more or less, to
neutralize themselves.

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No. 114

1st and 2nd order external moments


The external moments are known as the 1st ,order moments (acting
in both the vertical and horizontal directions) and 2nd order moments (acting in the vertical direction only, because they originate solely in the inertia forces on the reciprocating masses.

The 1st order moments acts with a frequency corresponding to the


engine speed x 1.

Generally speaking, the 1st order moment causes no vibration


problems. For 4-cylinder engines, however, it is recommendable to evaluate the risk because in rare cases this cylinder configuration may cause vibration levels of a disturbing magnitude

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No. 115

1st order resonance and solutions


Resonance with a 1st order moment may occur for hull vibrations with 2 and/or 3
nodes.

This resonance can be calculated with reasonable accuracy, and the calculation for
the specific plant will show whether or not a compensator is necessary.

In rare cases, where the 1st order moment may cause resonance with both the
vertical and the horizontal hull vibration mode in the normal speed range of the engine,

The adjustable counter-weights should be positioned so as to make the vertical


moment harmless, and a 1st order compensator fitted in the chain tightener wheel in order to neutralize the horizontal moment.

With a 1st order moment compensator fitted aft, the horizontal moment will
decrease to between 0 and 30% of the value, depending on the position of the node. The 1st order vertical moment will decrease to about 30% of the value.

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No. 116

1st order vertical & horizontal moment compensator

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No. 117

2nd order resonance


The 2nd order moment acts with a frequency corresponding
to twice the engine speed. The 2nd order moment acts in the vertical direction only.

Owing to the magnitude of the 2nd order moment, it is only


relevant to compensate this moment on 4, 5 and 8-cylinder engines,

Resonance with 4 and 5 node vertical hull girder vibration


modes can occur in the normal engine speed range.

In order to control the resulting vibratory responses, a 2nd


order compensator can be installed
Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 118

Solutions for 2nd order compensator


Several solutions, from which the most cost-efficient one can be chosen, are available to cope
with the 2nd order vertical moment: a) No compensators, if considered unnecessary on the basis of the natural frequency, nodal point and size of the 2nd order moment b) A compensator mounted on the aft end of the engine driven by the main chain drive, c) A compensator mounted on the front end, driven from the crank shaft through a separate chain drive d) Compensators on both the aft and fore ends of the engine, completely eliminating the external 2nd order moments, e) An electrically driven compensator, synchronized to the correct phase relative to the free moment.

This type of compensator needs preparations in the form of an extra seating, prefer-able in the steering gear room, where deflections are largest and the compensator, therefore, will have the greatest effect,

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No. 119

2nd order moment compensators

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No. 120

2nd order moment compensators

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No. 121

Action of 2nd order compensator


Compensation of an external moment by means of a compensating
force is possible if there is an adequate distance from the position where the force is acting to the node of the vibration (i.e. an excitation force is inefficient when acting in a node).

The counterweights on the chain wheel produce a centrifugal force


which creates a moment, the size of which is found by multiplying the force by the distance to the node.

Due to the positioning of these counter-weights, the direction of the


compensating moment will always be opposite to the direction of the external moment

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No. 122

Guide force moments


The so-called guide force moments are caused by the gas
force on the piston, and by inertia forces.

When the piston is not exactly in its top or bottom


position, the gas force, transferred through the connecting rod, will have a component acting on the crank-shaft perpendicular to the axis of the cylinder. Its resultant is acting on the guide shoe and, together, they form a guide force moment,

In a multi-cylinder engine, gas and inertia forces and their


resultants form a system of guide force moments containing all orders.
Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 123

TYPES OF GUIDE FORCES.


Two kinds of guide force moments exist: The so-called H and X-moments. The H-type guide force moment, which is dominating on
engines with less than seven cylinders, tends to rock the engine top in the transverse direction. The main order of the H-moment is equal to the cylinder number.

The X-type guide force moment is the dominating for


engines with more than six cylinders, The X-moment tends to twist the engine in an X-like shape, and the main order is equal to half the number.
Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 124

Guide forces and top bracings


For engines with odd numbers of cylinders, the main
orders are mostly the two orders closest to half the number of cylinders.

In order to counteract the possible impact on the hull from


guide force moments, it is recommend the installation of a set of top bracings between the upper gallery of the main engine and the hull structure (casing side).

The top bracing can either be mechanical with frictional


connection or hydraulically adjustable
Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 125

H-type Guide Force Moment (MH)


Each cylinder unit produces a force couple consisting of:
1: A force at level of crankshaft centre-line. 2: Another force at level of the guide plane.

The position of the force changes over one revolution, as


the guide shoe reciprocates on the guide plane. As the deflection shape for the H-type is equal for each cylinder the Nth order

H-type guide force moment for an N-cylinder engine with


regular firing order is: N MH(one cylinder).

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No. 126

H-type Guide Force Moment (MH)


The size of the forces in the force couple is:

Force = MH /L kN
where L is the distance between crankshaft level and the middle
position of the guide plane (i.e. the length of the connecting rod).

As the interaction between engine and hull is at the engine seating


and the top bracing positions, this force couple may alternatively be applied in those positions with a vertical distance of (LZ).

Then the force can be calculated as: ForceZ =MH /LZ kN


Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 127

X-type Guide Force Moment (MX)


The X-type guide force moment is calculated based on the same
force couple as described, however, as the deflection shape is twisting the engine each cylinder unit does not contribute with equal amount.

The centre units do not contribute very much whereas the units at
each end contributes much.

A so-called Bi-moment can be calculated The X-type guide force moment is then defined as:

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No. 128

Alignment of guide forces

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No. 129

Action of the bracings


These bracings act as detunes of the system double
bottom and main engine, which means that the natural frequency of the vibration system will be increased to such an extent that resonance occurs above the running range of engine speed and the guide force moments will, therefore, be harmless.

The mechanical top bracing comprises stiff connections


(links) with friction plates and alternatively a hydraulic top bracing, which allow adjustment to the loading conditions of the ship.
Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 130

Hydraulic and mechanical top bracings

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No. 131

Internal forces and moments


It is the responsibility of the engine de-signer to provide the
engine frame with sufficient stiffness to cope with the internal forces and moments so that de-flections and corresponding stresses can be kept within acceptable limits.

If the engine frame could be assumed to be infinitely stiff,


internal moments and forces would not be able to give excitations to the ships structure. How-ever, it is obvious that an infinitely stiff engine frame cannot be obtained and,

therefore, it is the relative stiffness between the engine


frame and the connected hull structure which has to be considered
Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 132

Internal & external forces and moments

Germanischer Lloyd 2010

Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012

No. 133

Secondary forces
These excitation forces are not generated within the
engine, but are resultant of the interaction effect of the prime mover the propeller and the shafting system.

Performance of the system also depends on the response


of the system to the oscillations imposed on to the system.

The vibration characteristics may be modified by the


impressed effect on it by the remaining system.

There are two main types of these vibrations: Axial vibrations and torsional vibrations.
Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 134

Torsional vibrations
The varying gas pressure in the cylinders
during the working cycle and the crankshaft/connecting rod mechanism create a varying torque in the crank-shaft. It is these variations that cause the excitation of torsional vibration of the shaft system.

Torsional vibration causes extra stresses,


which may be detrimental to the shaft system.

The stresses will show peak values at


resonances, i.e. where the number of revolutions multiplied by the order of excitation corresponds to the natural frequency

Germanischer Lloyd 2010

Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012

No. 135

Mechanisms of torsional vibrations

Germanischer Lloyd 2010

Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012

No. 136

Power Related Unbalance (PRU)


To evaluate if there is a risk that 1st and 2nd order external moments will excite
disturbing hull vibrations, the concept Power Related Unbalance can be used as a guidance.

With the PRU-value, stating the external moment relative to the engine power, it is
possible to give an estimate of the risk of hull vibrations for a specific engine. Based on service experience from a greater number of large ships with engines of different types and cylinder numbers, the PRU-values have been classified in four groups as follows: from 0 to 60 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . not relevant from 60 to 120 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . unlikely from 120 to 220 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . likely above 220 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . most likely

Germanischer Lloyd 2010

Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012

No. 137

Power unbalance and torsional vibration


Designers tend to rely on reasonably correct balance among cylinders.

It is important to realize that an engine with one cylinder cut out for any
reason, or one with a serious imbalance between cylinder loads or timings, may inadvertently be aggravating a summation of vectors which the designer, expecting it to be small, had allowed to remain near the running speed range.

In general any kind of irregularity in the cylinder firings produces and enlarged
vibratory stresses in the components of the propulsion plant.

The absence of firing of one unit significantly changes the whole picture of
the propulsion plant vibration behavior.

Misfiring in any one cylinder gives rise to resonances that are small or even
negligible during the normal operation of plant
Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012

No. 138

Coupling of variable torque, angular momentum and variable propeller thrust


Torsional vibrations of the entire shaft system are mainly excited by
the tangential force T.

Torsional vibration can, excite vibration in the hull through the


coupling phenomena present in the connecting rod mechanism and in the propeller.

Torsional vibration induced moments and forces due to connecting


rod mechanism . If a harmonic angular velocity is superimposed upon the normal uniform rotation of the crank-throw, as in the case of torsional vibrations, this will cause harmonic forces and moments to occur.

However, due to the connecting rod mechanism, the reaction forces


will not solely be of the same order as the super-imposed torsional vibration, but significant orders of n-2, n-l, n+l and n+2 will also appear.
Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 139

Torsional vibration analysis


The reciprocating and rotating masses of the engine
including the crankshaft, the thrust shaft, the intermediate shaft(s), the propeller shaft and the propeller are for calculation purposes considered as a system of rotating masses (inertias) interconnected by torsional springs.

The gas pressure of the engine acts through the


connecting rod mechanism with a varying torque on each crank throw, exciting torsional vibration in the system with different frequencies

Germanischer Lloyd 2010

Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012

No. 140

Torsional vibration analysis

Potentially the most damaging form of vibration is the


torsional mode, affecting the crankshaft and propeller shafting (or generator shafting).

There will be as many modes in which the shaft can be


induced to vibrate naturally as there are shaft elements.

A node is found where the deflection is zero and the


amplitude changes sign. The more nodes that are present, the higher the corresponding natural frequency.
Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 141

Torsional vibration solutions


In general, only torsional vibrations with one and two
nodes need to be considered.

The main critical order, causing the largest extra stresses


in the shaft line, is normally the vibration with order equal to the number of cylinders.

This resonance is positioned at the engine speed


corresponding to the natural torsional frequency divided by the number of cylinders.

The torsional vibration conditions may, for certain


installations require a torsional vibration damper.
Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 142

MULTINODE SHAFTING OSCILLATION


In the one-node case, when the masses forward of the
node swing clockwise, those aft of it swing anticlockwise and vice versa.

In the two-node case, when those masses forward of the


first node swing clockwise, so do those aft of the second node, while those between the two nodes swing anticlockwise, and vice versa.

The problem arises when the forcing frequencies of the


externally applied, or input, vibration coincide with, or approach closely, one of these natural frequencies.
Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 143

Single and double node shaft excitation

Germanischer Lloyd 2010

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No. 144

Torsional vibration solutions


Based on statistics, this need may arise for the following types of
installation: Plants with controllable pitch propeller Plants with unusual shafting layout and for special owner/yard requirements Plants with 8, 11 or 12-cylinder engines

The so-called QPT (Quick Passage of a barred speed range Technique), is


an alternative option to a torsional vibration damper, on a plant equipped with a controllable pitch propeller. The QPT could be implemented in the governor in order to limit the vibratory stresses during the passage of the barred speed range.

The application of the QPT has to be decided by the engine maker


Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012

No. 145

Factors affecting amplitude and frequency


The most significant masses in any mode of
vibration are those with the greatest amplitude on the corresponding elastic curve. Changing them would have the greatest effect on frequency.

The most vulnerable shaft sections are those


whose combination of torque and diameter induce in them the greatest stress.

The most significant shaft sections are those


with the steepest change of amplitude on the elastic curve and therefore the highest torque.

These are usually near the nodes but this


depends on the relative shaft diameter.

Changing the diameter of such a section of shaft


will also have a greater effect on the frequency.

Germanischer Lloyd 2010

Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012

No. 146

Torsional resonance or critical speeds

Germanischer Lloyd 2010

Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012

No. 147

Effect of running the engine at critical RPM


If an engine were run at or near a major critical speed it would sound rough
because, at mid-stroke, the torsional oscillation of the cranks with the biggest amplitude would cause a longitudinal vibration of the connecting rod.

This would set up in turn a lateral vibration of the piston and hence of the
entablature.

Gearing, if on a shaft section with a high amplitude, would also probably be


distinctly noisy.

It is usually difficult, and sometimes impossible, to control all the possible critical
speed, so that in a variable speed propulsion engine it is sometimes necessary to bar a range of speeds where vibration is considered too dangerous for continuous operation.

Torsional vibrations can sometimes affect camshafts also


Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012

No. 148

Control of stresses during the resonance


Designers can nowadays adjust the frequency of
resonance, the forcing impulses and the resultant stresses by adjusting shaft sizes, number of propeller blades, crankshaft balance weights and firing orders,

By using viscous or other dampers, detuning couplings


and so on.

Gearing, of course, creates further complicationsand


possibilities. Branched systems, involving twin input or multiple output gearboxes, introduce complications in solving them; but the principles remain the same.
Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 149

Stress limits and barred speed range

Germanischer Lloyd 2010

Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012

No. 150

Stress limits and barred speed range


The classification societies prescribe two limits, 1, and 2, for the
torsional stress in the speed range up to 80 per cent of MCR :

The lower 1,: Determines a stress level which may only be exceeded for a short time, i.e.
not during continuous running, which means that the propulsion plant requires a barred speed range of revolutions.

The upper limit 2 : May not be exceeded at all,

At engine speeds where the lower limit 1, is exceeded, it will be necessary


to introduce a barred speed range in which continuous operation is prohibited.
Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 151

Germanischer Lloyd 2010

Torsional vibration calculations


Four, five and six-cylinder engines, require special attention. On
account of the heavy excitation, the natural frequency of the system with one-node vibration should be situated away from the normal operating speed range, to avoid its effect.

This can be achieved by changing the masses and/or the stiffness of


the system so as to give a much higher, or much lower, natural frequency, called under-critical or overcritical running, respectively.

Owing to the very large variety of possible shafting arrangements that


may be used in combination with a specific engine, only detailed torsional vibration calculations of the specific plant can determine whether or not a torsional vibration damper is necessary.
Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 152

TORSIONAL VIBRATION DAMPERS


There two type of dampers for torsional vibrations: The spring mass type The viscous type.

Torsional dampers are placed behind the engine as


vibrational dampers when the powertrain does not include a separating and starting clutch.

The purpose of using a torsional damper is to keep engine


torque peaks as well as operational irregularities away from the powertrain and connected units.
Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012

No. 153

TORSIONAL VIBRATION DAMPERS


A torsional damper ensures peace and quiet
operation.

If the forces operating in the powertrain area were not


countered, the powertrain components would also show considerably higher levels of wear.

A standard solution today for decoupling torsional


vibrations in powertrains is to use a bolt-on torsional damper that builds on the technology in clutch discs with torsional damping.
Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 154

SPRING MASS TYPE DETUNERS

Germanischer Lloyd 2010

Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012

No. 155

The spring mass type


The torsional damper consists of a set of coil springs
positioned in windows that allow a limited amount of rotary movement between the crankshaft and the transmission input shaft and a friction device.

By selecting the right torsional damper size and spring set,


characteristic curves can be adjusted to meet the individual needs of specific applications.

Vibrational decoupling can therefore be adapted in


optimum fashion, and ignition-related rotational irregularities can be reduced.
Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 156

VISCOUS TYPE DETUNERS

Germanischer Lloyd 2010

Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012

No. 157

VISCOUS TYPE DETUNERS


The torsional damper is integrated into the respective
installation space by a simple adjustment of the external bolt-on area and by selecting the corresponding spline profile to match the drive shaft.

The most famous type of torsional damper used on marine


engine of a ship is Viscous type dampers, which consist of an inertia ring added to the crankshaft enclosed in a thin layer of highly viscous fluid like silicon.

The inertia ring is free to rotate and applies a lagging torque


on the crankshaft due to its lagging torsional motion.
Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 158

Torsional vibration nodes

Germanischer Lloyd 2010

Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012

No. 159

Lumped mass system


The continuous shafting system needs to be divided in the
so-called lumped mass system where, after applying equations of motion, one evaluates natural frequencies, accompanied mode shapes and, in the case of forced torsional vibrations, angular displacements of all masses.

After that, it is straightforward to determine vibration


torques and stresses.

Equations of motion of the lumped mass system could


be gathered in a common matrix equation:

Germanischer Lloyd 2010

Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012

No. 160

Lumped mass equation


where J is the diagonal inertia matrix, C is the symmetric
damping matrix, K is the symmetric stiffness matrix, and , and are the angular acceleration, velocity and displacement vectors, respectively. On the right hand side, f denotes the applied load, expressed with vibration excitation vector.

Forced damped torsional vibration response could be


obtained in various ways. By assuming harmonic excitation:
Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 161

Lumped mass equation


and harmonic response in the form:

where F is the complex excitation torque amplitude, is


the excitation frequency, t is the time, and is the complex angular displacement amplitude, the system of equations readily transforms into a system of linear algebraic equations with complex coefficients:

Vibration torque amplitudes between the adjacent


masses could then be obtained from:
Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 162

Estimation of vibration stresses


where kt is the shaft stiffness, (i+1 i) is the
amplitude of the shaft element twist, and m is the number of shaft elements. Afterwards, the vibration stresses could be easily determined from

where d is the shaft element diameter.

Germanischer Lloyd 2010

Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012

No. 163

Axial vibrations
When the crank throw is loaded by the gas pressure
through the connecting rod mechanism, the arms of the crank throw deflect in the axial direction of the crankshaft, exciting axial vibrations.

Through the thrust bearing, the system is connected to


the ship`s hull. Generally, only zero-node axial vibrations are of interest. Thus the effect of the additional bending stresses in the crankshaft and possible vibrations of the ship`s structure due to the reaction force in the thrust bearing are to be considered.

Germanischer Lloyd 2010

Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012

No. 164

Axial vibrations
An axial damper is fitted as standard to all MC engines minimizing
the effects of the axial vibrations.

For an extremely long shaft line in certain large size container


vessels, a second axial vibration damper positioned on the intermediate shaft, designed to control the on-node axial vibrations can be applied.

Alternating thrust, the excitation for longitudinal vibration of the


shafting/main machinery system, occurs at blade rate frequency (Propeller RPM Blade number N) and its multiples.

The fundamental is usually much larger than any of its harmonics,


however. Alternating thrust is produced by the blade number circumferential harmonic of the hull wake.
Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 165

Axial longitudinal vibrations

Germanischer Lloyd 2010

Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012

No. 166

Axial vibration frequency and mode


When the crank-throw is loaded by the gas
force through the connecting rod mechanism, the arms of the crank throw deflect in the axial direction of the crank-shaft, exciting axial vibrations which, through the thrust bearing, may be transferred to the ships hull.

The dominating order of the axial vibration is


equivalent to the number of cylinders for engines with less than seven cylinders. For engines with more than six cylinders, the dominating order is equal to half the numbers of cylinders.

For engines with odd numbers of cylinders, the


dominating orders are mostly the two orders closest to half the cylinder number.

Germanischer Lloyd 2010

Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012

No. 167

Axial vibration damper


These influenced the
vibration behavior of the crankshaft, the engine frame, and the superstructure.

The axial vibration damper


alone actually eliminates the problems, and reduces the vibration level in the deck house to below the IS0 recommended values.
Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 168

Axial vibration damper


The Axial damper is fitted on the crankshaft of the engine to dampen the shaft
generated axial vibration i.e. oscillation of the shaft in forward and aft directions, parallel to the shaft horizontal line.

It consists of a damping flange integrated to the crankshaft and placed near the
last main bearing girder, inside a cylindrical casing. The casing is filled with system oil on both side of flanges supplied via small orifice. This oil provides the damping effect.

When the crankshaft vibrates axially, the oil in the sides of damping flange
circulates inside the casing through a throttling valve provided from one side of the flange to the other, which gives a damping effect.

The casing is provided with high temperature alarm and pressure monitoring
alarms located on both sides of damping flanges. They give alarm if one side oil pressure drops more than the set value as a result of low LO supply, sealing ring failure etc.
Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 169

AXIAL VIBRATIONS AND DAMPERS


The torsional deformation causes
changes in the length of the crankshaft which is seen as axial vibration at the free end of the crankshaft.

The torsional vibration also causes the


propeller to rotate with varying speed, which in turn gives a varying thrust.

The varying thrust excites the


propulsion shafting axially, which also causes axial vibration to be seen at the free end of the crankshaft.
Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 170

Excitations due to the propeller working in the non-uniform


wake field will be transmitted to the hull either through the shaft system as forces and moments or through the water as pressure fluctuations acting on the hull surface,

Propeller excitations due to non-uniform wake field

The forces and moments should also be considered when


calculating the torsional, axial, and lateral vibrations of the shaft system.

The excitation can be reduced by modifying wake field and


propeller design,

Germanischer Lloyd 2010

Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012

No. 171

Axial vibration nodes


Axial vibrations are longitudinal
shafting vibrations. The masselastic system is used for axial vibration calculations and the mode shapes of the two lowest modes which are of relevance.

For engines more than 6


cylinders main critical resonance with O-node vibration mode below MCR speed.

The 1 -node vibration mode is normally of less importance. Its natural frequency is determined by the mass and stiffness of the entire shafting system. Especially the stiffness of the thrust bearing and its support is very decisive. Normally, the natural frequency is so high that no dynamic amplification of this mode will occur

Germanischer Lloyd 2010

Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012

No. 172

Hull Wake
Hull wake is one of the most critical aspects in avoidance
of unacceptable ship vibration.

Propeller-induced vibration problems in general start with


unfavorable hull lines in the stern aperture region, as manifest in the non-uniform wake in which the propeller must operate. Unfortunately, propeller excitation is far more difficult to quantify than the excitation from internal machinery sources.

This is because of the complexity of the unsteady


hydrodynamics of the propeller operating in the nonuniform hull wake
Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 173

Non-uniform hull wake


In fact, the non-uniform hull wake is the most
complicated part; it is unfortunate that it is also the most important part.

Propeller-induced vibration would not be a


consideration in ship design if the propeller disk inflow were circumferentially uniform. Any treatment of propeller excitation must begin with a consideration of the hull wake.

Germanischer Lloyd 2010

Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012

No. 174

Wake field analysis.


For engineering simplification, the basic concepts allow for the
circumferential non-uniformity of hull wakes, but assume, for steady operation, that wake is time invariant in a ship-fixed coordinate system.

Nominal wake data from model scale measurements in towing tanks


are presented either as contour plots or as curves of velocity versus angular position at different radii in the propeller disc.

The position angle, , is taken as positive counterclockwise, looking


forward, and x is positive aft. The axial wake velocity vX and tangential wake velocity vT are dimensionless on ship forward speed, U.
Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 175

Nominal wake distribution


the axial velocity is symmetric in
about top-dead-center (even function) and the tangential velocity is asymmetric (odd function).

This is a characteristic of single


screw ships due to the transverse symmetry of the hull relative to the propeller disk; such symmetry in the wake does not, of course, exist with twinscrew ships
Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 176

Wake asymmetry
The streamlines are more or less horizontal along the skeg
and into the propeller disk. The flow components along the steep buttock lines forward of the propeller disk are small.

The dominant axial velocity field of the resultant wake has a


substantial defect running vertically through the disk along its vertical centerline, at all radii.

This defect is the shadow of the skeg immediately forward.


The tangential flow in the propeller disk, being the combination of the component of the upward flow toward the free surface and any disk inclination relative to the baseline, is much smaller.
Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 177

Propeller cavitation and vibration


Each of the blades will be lightly loaded in position
90 135 deg ( high axial velocity ), while in position 0 degree it will be heavily loaded.

The area around 0 deg in Fig 1 is called the wake


peak.

In such a wake peak ,the blade loading will increase


as the blade continues through it and cavitation will occur at the back of the blade( suction side cavitation) .

When the blade moves out of the wake peak ,the


loading will decrease and the cavitation gradually disappears.

This variation in cavity volume per unit time makes


the largest contribution to propeller-induced vibration of the hull.

Germanischer Lloyd 2010

Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012

No. 178

Propeller Radiated Signatures


The basis of the development of the propeller induced hull
pressure signature is the acceleration of the cavity volumes with respect to time on the propeller blades, modified by the self induced component of pressure generation arising from the vibration of the ship structure at the point of interest.

As such, the hydrodynamic excitation process is a time


domain event whose physical processes can better understood through the pressure time series.

Germanischer Lloyd 2010

Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012

No. 179

Propeller Radiated Signatures


There are blade surface pressure changes which vary
from blade to blade in a single revolution and changes from one revolution to the next.

These changes are random in nature and result from


the interaction of the temporal changes in the flow; the flow field, this being the sum of the steady inflow field and the seaway induced velocities; and the blade to blade geometric variations due to the manufacturing tolerances of the propeller blades.

Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 180

Propeller Radiated Signatures


These changes influence both the general form of the
cavity volume variation and the higher frequencies and noise generated from the random perturbations of the topological form of the underlying cavity structure.

A number of candidate approaches offer themselves


and among these are Short Form Fourier Transforms, Joint Time-frequency analysis, wavelet techniques and a double integral analysis of the underlying pressure signature.

Germanischer Lloyd 2010

Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012

No. 181

Highly Skewed Propellers


According to one manufacturer ,the highly skewed blade
design offers perhaps the most beneficial type of propeller by reducing hull vibration and improving fuel consumption on most types of vessel.

Highly skewed blades have been used for decades on


fixed pitch propellers, but their application on controllable pitch propellers has been fairly limited. The highly skewed design is characterized by a remarkable backward sweep of the edge in relation to the direction of rotation.

Germanischer Lloyd 2010

Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012

No. 182

Highly Skewed Propellers


On a propeller with sufficient skew on the blades ,the
duration of the cavitation will be lengthened compared to conventional propeller .This reduces the rate of variation of cavitation with time and therefore vibration.

A skewed propeller will also reduce the dynamic forces


absorbed through the propeller shaft.

There has been no full scale measurements but it has been


experienced that a reduction in propeller induced vibration level of about 50 per cent, where it has been possible to compare conventional with highly skewed blades.
Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 183

Vortex Shedding Mechanisms


Vibration induced from the flow over structural
discontinuities such as sea chest openings has been a troublesome feature in some ships and has prevented the meeting of localized comfort criteria.

Such vibrations, which commonly manifest themselves


in local structural resonant behavior, are clearly not directly related to machinery rotational speeds.

Rather, they are related to vortex shedding over the sea


chest hull opening grills and, therefore, are Strouhal and Froude number dependent based on ship speed.
Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 184

Vortex Shedding Mechanisms


These have included A-brackets, extended centre-line
skegs and fin appendages fitted to ships to improve course keeping stability.

The characteristics of these problems were high vibration


levels in the ship structure or failure of the structural elements.

Vortex shedding occurs when the fluid flow around the


after part of an appendage is separated from the structure at a given Reynolds number and the oscillating pressures cause the elastic structure to vibrate.
Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 185

Vortex Shedding Mechanisms


The shedding frequency is given in terms of Strouhal
number and for bodies with rough surfaces at ship scale it is frequently acceptable for estimation purposes to use a value for the Strouhal number of 0.2.

When structures vibrate in the transverse direction with a


frequency at or near the vortex shedding frequency they tend to increase the strength of the shed vorticity which, in turn, may increase the structural excitation.

Germanischer Lloyd 2010

Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012

No. 186

Vortex Shedding Mechanisms


Furthermore, if the vortex shedding frequency is close to the
natural frequency of the structure it will move to the frequency of the structure. Then once the vortex shedding frequency is synchronized with the frequency of the structure it will often tend to remain at that frequency even when the flow speed changes over a limited range.

The dynamic behavior of structures subjected to vortex shedding


excitation depends upon the ship speed, the structural profile and its trailing edge shape, the structural natural frequencies and damping and the interaction between the fluid flow and structural vibrations.
Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 187

Vortex Shedding Avoidance


Reduction of the vibration amplitudes of the structure
caused by vortex shedding may be achieved by: Avoidance of resonance between the vortex-induced excitations
and the structural natural frequency. Lowering the vortex excitation levels. Reducing response of the structure.

Resonance can be avoided by modifying either the


vortex excitation frequency or the structural natural frequency.

Germanischer Lloyd 2010

Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012

No. 188

Vortex Shedding Avoidance


Ordinarily the structural natural frequency should be
increased sufficiently to avoid resonances with vortex shedding mechanisms. That may be achieved by increasing the structures stiffness or changing the aspect ratio.

Other solutions can be to increase the vortex shedding


excitation frequency by changing the structures trailing edge shape. In all cases it is necessary to evaluate the structural natural frequencies and ensure that they are not coincident with the vortex shedding and propeller excitations

Germanischer Lloyd 2010

Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012

No. 189

After-body Slamming
Shock impacts such as slamming also need consideration since
as well as generating structural tertiary stresses in the ship structure, these events can be disturbing to passengers.

In particular after-body slamming can excite resonant conditions


in the ship structure ; most typically the 2-node vertical mode.

The incidence of after-body slamming, in contrast to fore-body


slamming, frequently reduces with increasing ship speed. This is because the ships entrained wave system increases at higher speed and gives a measure of protection to the hull after-body from the otherwise uninterrupted incidence of the environmental wave system.
Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 190

After-body Slamming
The incidence of after-body slamming, in contrast to forebody slamming, frequently reduces with increasing ship speed.

This is because the ships entrained wave system


increases at higher speed and gives a measure of protection to the hull after-body from the otherwise uninterrupted incidence of the environmental wave system.

Germanischer Lloyd 2010

Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012

No. 191

After-body Slamming
In addition to being a function of reducing ship speed,
the slamming threshold speed is also dependent on the sea state, recognizing that the resultant sea state comprises both underlying swell and wind induced wave components which strongly influence the directional slamming threshold.

Furthermore, a common characteristic possessed by


ships that suffer from after-body slamming is a relatively flat after-body design coupled with relatively small immersion.
Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 192

After-body Slamming
after-body slamming has been known to occur in sea
conditions with wave heights less than 1m.

Consequently, the exploration at an early design stage


of hull forms that avoid this problem in association with the predicted sea and ship motions is of particular importance

Germanischer Lloyd 2010

Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012

No. 193

Thank you for your attention!

Germanischer Lloyd 2010

Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012

No. 194

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