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The convergence will start in the network core, which will carry all types of traffic in packets, and

have the following layered (horizontal) structure: Connectivity backbone network - optimized for the transport and switching of large amounts of data Service and control layer - here the intelligence in the network resides for everything from call control to signaling. Content and application servers - reside outside the network itself - for instance, on the Internet It is possible to use common fiber, synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH), and synchronous optical network (SONET) technology as a common transport network for a number of different services.

The AXE 810 system further strengthens AXEs position as being a leading switching system and telephony server node plus a vehicle for migration to multi-service and 3G networks. Other emerging Ericsson system platforms will gradually supplement AXE on the Server layer and the Media Gateway layer. The main features of AXE are as follows: AXE modularity Meeting network operators requirements AXE as a telecommunications node

Signaling systems
For access signaling there are different systems: - Analogue signaling (PSTN) - Digital subscriber signaling (ISDN)

Analogue signaling
The information about the B-number, from the subscriber on the analogue connection to the exchange is normally transferred either by decadic pulses or as a combination of two tones. The combination of tones is known as dual tone multi frequency (DTMF) signaling. Two tones are used for each digit

Digital signaling
Digital subscriber signaling system no. 1 (DSS 1) is the standard access signaling system in ISDN and is also called a D-channel signaling system. The signaling protocols are based on the open systems interconnection (OSI) reference model layers 1 to 3.

Inter-exchange signaling
Inter-exchange or trunk signaling can be divided into two main categories or methods: Channel Associated Signaling (CAS)(speech and signaling follow the same physical way through the network) Common Channel Signaling (CCS)(define an independent logical signaling network)


The register signals are only used during the call set up phase. The line signals can be sent and received before, during, and at the end of the call.

Services that require signaling transmission via the SS7 network are Telephony, ISDN, Data Networks, Intelligent Networks (IN), Mobile Services -> different User Parts (UP) or Applications Part (AP) have been developed

Advantages of SS7
High speed High Capacity High Reliability High Flexibility Reduced equipment volume Multiservice Improved economy


CCS is divided into: - User Parts/Application Parts (Telephone User Part - TUP, ISDN User Part - ISUP) - Message Transfer Part (MTP) (common transport system for reliable transfer of
signaling messages)

MTP is used to deliver signaling packages between two signaling points in the network.

Packages should bee:

- Correct (errors detected and corrected by the system)
- Correct changed)

order (if re-transmissions have to be made, the order of the signals must not be

Message Transfer Part