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Indian Railway is a department owned and controlled by the Govt.of India,via the Ministry of Railways. Indian railway is divided into zones,which are further divided into divisions. Jaipur is the zonal headquarter of the North Western Railway zone The formal inauguration ceremony of IR was performed on 16th April 1853 with the first passenger train steamed out of Howrah station destined for Hooghly, a distance of 36 km . .


It runs 12000 trains every day. It is fuel efficient system. Railways has 7500 engines,38000 coaches & about 2.5 lakh of wagons 7000 stations & about 500 computerized passenger reservation centers 1 lakh km of track 17 lakh employee(10 lakh in Group C) including 10000 officers


All over the world Railway transportation is increasingly used, as this mode of transport is more energy efficient and environmentally friendly than road transportation. Trains move on steel rail tracks and wheels of the railway vehicle are also flanged Steel wheels. Hence least friction occurs at the point of contact between the track & wheels. Therefore trains carry more loads resulting in higher traffic capacity since trains move on specific tracks called rails, their path is to be fully guided and there is no arrangement of steering

Clear of obstruction as available with road transportation, so there is a need to provide control on the movement of trains in the form of Railway signals which indicate to the drivers to stop or move and also the speed at which they can pass a signal Since the load carried by the trains and the speed which the trains can attain are high, they need more braking distance before coming to the stop from full speed. Without signal to be available on the route to constantly guide the driver accidents will take place due to collisions

Railway Signalling & Signal Workshop

Signal: Signal is a medium to convey a particular
predetermined meaning in non-verbal form
Trains uses signaling to control movement of trains on tracks and divides tracks into several sections which are protected by

the signals.

Vitality of track circuiting: To ensure safety of train operators , track circuits are vital components of signaling system.

They are recommended to safeguard against reception of trains on occupied lines.

Obstructions to track circuiting: Virtual scarcity of wooden sleepers. Prohibitive cost.

Environmental consciousness.


It is an electronic device consisting of :-

a) A set of Track inductors that counts in the number of axles passing over them. (Fitted at the entrance of length of track)

b) A set of Track inductors that counts out the number of axles passing over them. (Fitted at the exit of the length of track)
c) An evaluator that registers counts in and counts out. It shows clear the line if counts in=counts out It shows occupied if the 2 counts are different

Principle for counting axles: The Magnetic Flux generated by 5KHz current flowing in the transmitting coil induces a voltage in the receiver coil on either side of running rail. When a wheel passes between these 2coils , the magnetic flux gets disturbed and the induced voltage in the receiver coil is substantially reduced. The reductions called dip are processed in the evaluator. The system consists of:-

Track maintaining and track side equipment. Central evaluator with EV relays and SUP relays as its output. Reset box and Line verification box.


Does not require wooden sleepers.

Can cover a very long section of 15 kms. Not susceptible to flooding of tracks or poor maintenance of tracks. Does not require insulating joints , thus , rails can be continuously welded. Reduces track maintenance cost.

Lowers wear and tear of tracks.

Increases travelling comforts

EVOLUTION: Simple telephone wires formed the basis of communication in the earliest era of Indian Railways.

Two stations were connected via telephone lines but the communication was subjected to the problem of limited channels.
NEW CONCEPT: Optical fiber cables were capable of carrying large number of channels. Under this system , many complex and sophisticated instruments exist. Optical fiber is delicate and requires a correct and fix approach as a mistake of 0.01% can fail the whole system.

Optical fiber consists of 3 layers: 1. a core of highly pure glass with high refractive index. 2. a middle layer of glass with low refractive index namely Cladding that protects the core of glass from scratches and surface imperfections. 3. an Outer Polymer Jacket that protects the fiber from damage. To have a higher refractive index for core glass , it is doped with dopant (small and controlled amount of impurity). Dopant reduces the speed of light. The best dopant for pure glass Silica is Germanium because of same no. of outer electrons present in them.

Optical fiber communication

Optical fiber connector


: Mainly 6*4 OFCS are used in Railways. 6*4 means that there are 6 groups , each containing 4 cables or optical fibers so that there is total of 24 optical fibers in each cable. MAINTENANCE: To prevent the malfunctioning of fibre - a)Isopropyl solution

b)Isopropane solution
are used to remove the dust from the tip.

Microwave communication
The international telecommunications system relies on microwave and satellite links for long-distance international calls. Microwaves are electromagnetic waves whose frequencies range from 1 GHz to 1000 GHz. There are large number of bands in microwave region

Before the advent of fiber optics, these microwaves formed the heart of the long distance telephone transmission system. In its simplest form the microwave link can be one hop. A single hop is typically 30 to 60 km in relatively flat regions for frequencies in the 2 to 8 GHz bands.

Application Of Microwave In Indian Railways controlling of trains. to give correct running and stopping information of the trains. It help the railway staff to communicate for this purpose. Stations on average of 40 km can communicate with each other by microwave.

Public Reservation System

Computerized passenger reservation system is the most useful facility, which enhances the image of Indian railways in public. Initially it was installed in Delhi by Criss and for western and central railways a common super computer is installed CSTN and the trains of both railways are programmed on this computer. When more than one terminal is required at a place then another 8 terminal modem Mux called CODEC is used. In PRS there is only one set of computer in which all the information regarding the main coaches, reservation fare, status are available

Public Reservation System(PRS)

Modulation :- Process of superimposing original signal on carrier signal is b/a modulation. Multiplexing :- Converting multi input signal into one output signal is known as multiplexing. MODEM :- It is the combination of modulator and demodulator. Actually multiplexer is also a device which itself also as multiplexing and demultiplexing. It is analogous to modem the help of modulation analog data is converted into is converted into analog data. PGM:- Pluse code modulation. It is the process of tranferring the digital data through the fiber. The analog data is first converted into digital data. (sampling, Filtering , Quantization)

Internet and Railnet

In early days the officials works in railway was done on the paper like information to department or any other instruction for the employee was given only in the written way on the paper. The networks used in railway are

1) 2)

Railnet FOIS : Freight operation and information system

Indian railways have decided to setup their own Corporate Wide Information system called Railnet to provide computer connectivity between Zonal railways, production units

Composition of Railnet Intranet Intra-net is an internal network of Indian railway allowing the railway officer and staff to communicate on this digitzed network. Internet Internet allows users to get into a global communication and global pool of knowledge advertisement and entertainment through www ( World Wide Web) in a secured manner. It is operated by railway board.

The main server is attached to all station and exchanges with help of interface protocol & MUX. The railway department has taken 2 MB stream of MTNL.