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MIMO (MULTIPLE INPUT MULTIPLE OUTPUT)

Presented By:
Padmapriya.H.N(4bw07is401)

Project coordinator: Mrs.Sumathi.S.K


Senior Lecturer,Dept of CS&E B.G.S.I.T

Under the guidance of: Mr.Yogaprakash.M.G


Asst.Professor, Dept of CS&E B.G.S.I.T

OUTLINE

Abstract Introduction Conventional SISO wireless system MIMO-An overview MIMO Types MIMO Scalability MIMO Hardware requirements Benefits of MIMO Disadvantages of MIMO Features of MIMO Applications

Abstract

Traditional wireless communication systems this systems are known as single input single output (SISO) Significant progress has been made in developing Systems that use multiple antennas known as Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) systems link budget / spatial diversity improvement and throughput improvement from spatial multiplexing. MIMO technology is its ability to scale data transmission speed

Conventional (SISO) Wireless Systems


channel
Bits TX DSP Radio Radio DSP RX Bits

Single Input Single Output system has single transmitters and single receiver.
Single data stream with single antenna on both side. Digital Signal Processing(DSP) and Radio Frequency that has a single path to transmit a signal. It is low-cost and simple to communication system.

(contd..)
Conventional Single Input Single Output (SISO) systems have some shortcomings: Outage occurs if antennas fall into null. Energy is wasted by sending in all directions. Can cause additional interference to others Sensitive to interference from all directions Output power limited by single power amplifier

MIMO Wireless Systems

Multiple Input Multiple Output is effectively a radio antenna technology as it uses multiple antennas at the transceiver. Variety of signal paths to carry the data, choosing separate paths for each antenna to enable multiple signal paths to be used.

Arogyaswami Paulraj and Thomas proposed the concept of Spatial Multiplexing . Bell Labs was the first to demonstrate MIMO in 1998,
To overcome SISO technology MIMO technology was used.

(contd..)
Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) systems with multiple parallel radios improve the following: Outages reduced by using information from multiple antennas Transmit power can be increased via multiple power amplifiers Higher throughputs possible Transmit and receive interference limited by some technique. Capacity of MIMO channels is that transmission rate over wireless channels increased using multiple antennas.

(contd..)
Radio Radio Radio

Bits TX

D S P

channel

Radio

D S P RX

Bits

The MIMO system transmitter radio and receiver radio here it consist of two radio frequency channel in transmitter and in receiver. Where H = U+V where U is an nr nr matrix and V is an nt nt matrix.

MIMO Channel Mode

The h is channel and from h1nt upto Hnrnt are data streams. multiple antennas at the transmitter or receiver has given rise to maximum Signal to Noise Ratio If high SNR means more noise found in the transmitting signal.

MIMO Alternatives
There are two basic types of MIMO technology: Beamforming MIMO Spatial-multiplexing MIMO

Beamforming MIMO Overview


The change in the energy of each antenna based on the quality of the channel and thereby maximizes the SNR for the receiver. Beamforming the transmitter has no knowledge of the channel and simply sends the signal. The single or multiple antennas used in transmitter and also receiver.

Radio Bits TX D S P RX

Radio
Radio

Bits

Bits TX

D S P

Radio
Radio Radio Bits RX

Beamforming(contd..)

If the transmitter does not know the channel we can not exploit "Beamforming". If some symbol is sent through no. of antennas with the maximum SNR is referred to as transmit beamforming. In transmit beamforming, the transmitter must have the CSI. This presents us with a bit of a problem. Some of the Benefits of beamforming are Power gain with dynamic high-gain antenna

Spatial Multiplexing MIMO Concept

Spatial multiplexing a high rate signal is split into multiple streams Transmitted from a different transmit antenna in the same frequency channel. Spatial multiplexing is a very powerful technique for increasing channel capacity at higher Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR). Signals from the various antennas can be combined to form a signal stronger data.

DSP Bits Bit Split TX DSP

Radio
Radio

Radio

DSP
DSP

Bit Merge RX

Bits

Radio

Spatial Multiplexing MIMO Difficulty


Transmitter and receiver to communicate at higher total data rates. The signal sending with spatial multiplexing technique and in this there are separate data streams of different antennas but leading to cross path in receiving side. Bits merge the data will be merged improperly resulting in garbage output or bit.

DSP Bits Bit Split TX DSP

Radio Radio

Radio

DSP DSP

Bit Merge RX

Garbage

Radio

Spatial Multiplexing MIMO Reality


Types of transmit spatial diversity, open-loop and closed-loop. Receiving multiple data streams from multiple antennas at the same time, and in the same frequency spectrum. The spatial diversity is used where signals received on multiple antennas are weighted and combined. The single DSP is used to combine the bits so that the bits properly combine to give the accurate bit output.

DSP Bits Bit Split TX DSP

Radio Radio

Radio

D S P

Bit Merge RX

Bits

Radio

Spatial Multiplexing MIMO Example

High data rate Data rate increases by the minimum of number of transmit and receive antennas Example of 2-by-2 system: Transmitted signal is unknown, x1 , x2 Received signal is known, y1 , y2 Related by the channel coefficients, h11, h12 , h21, h22 y1 h11x1 h12 x2 y2 h21x1 h22 x2 The receiver can then filter (separate) out the desired data stream from a particular antenna in SM.

MIMO Scalability

MIMO technology scale data transmission speed with the number of antennas and radio and signal processing hardware.

Notation
R:

data rates (Mbps) Es: spectral efficiency (bps/Hz) Bw: bandwidth (MHz) Ns: number of spatial streams NR: number of Rx. NT: number of Tx.

MIMO Scalability

Data Rates SISO System =>R = ES * BW -> Scales the Data Rate. MIMO System R = Es * Bw * Ns -> Scales with bandwidth and the number of spatial streams Example 11a/g: Es = 2.7; Bw = 20MHz; Ns=1; R = 54Mbps Spatial multiplexing MIMO Es = 3.75; Bw=40MHz;Ns = 2; R = 300Mbps The data rate of a MIMO system becomes: R = ESS * BW * NS

MIMO Hardware Requirements


MIMO Transmitter (parallelism and data rate scaling)
MOD FEC
Stream Split

IFFT Spatial Mapping

RF

MOD

IFFT

RF

1* (Bw*Es*Ns)

Ns * (Bw*Es)

1* (Bw*Es*Ns*NT)

NT* (Bw*Es)

NT* Analog RF

MIMO Transmitter

In order to maintain multiple independent data streams, multiple RF and baseband chains are required. Number of spatial streams. I.e.: NS = min (NR, NT) Increased link margin, and performance with a single stream systems, NR = NT = 2 could be used. Forward Error Correction(FEC) boots coverages range and signal. IFFT processor can be configured to improve power efficiency with no. of input data sequences and the sequence length.

MIMO Hardware Requirements


MIMO Receiver (parallelism and data rate scaling)
RF FFT Demod

MIMO Equalizer
RF

Stream Merge

DEC

FFT

Demod

NR* Analog RF

NR* (Bw*Es)

1* (Bw*Es*NR*Ns2)

Ns* (Bw*Es)

Ns* (Bw*Es)

1* (Bw*Es*Ns)

MIMO Receiver

It indicates the parallelism and required data rate scaling. The MIMO equalizer and will equalize the signal in the antenna Stream merge modes in hardware and will merge in signal processing and decodes the signal using DEC. Many parallel Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithms adopt multiple stages architecture to increase performance.

Features of MIMO technology

Achieve high throughput without consuming extra radio frequency. Achieve high link reliability of wireless communication.

Benefits of MIMO:

Faster speeds More simultaneous users Less signal fading Better resistance to interference Supports Multipath Propogation Achieve High Data Rates

Disadvantages of MIMO Routers

MIMO routers have a premium MIMO Complexity Occasionally Leads to cross-paths

Applications of MIMO:

MIMO technology has been used in Wireless LAN. MIMO applications in future wireless standards 3GPP MIMO-CDMA,IEEE 802.11n: MIMO-OFDM and IEEE 802.16: MIMO-OFDM MIMO technology has led to the creation of the IEEE 802.11n standards group(Wi-Fi). Wi-Fi market intend to develop pre-standard versions of MIMO products.

General Application from MIMO Technology


For Business Enables truly wireless office replaces Ethernet Improves VoIP performance For Consumers One AP covers your whole home with reliable service Supports new wireless multimedia applications

Other Two Functions:

Precoding: It is multi-layer beamforming in a narrow sense or all spatial processing at the transmitter in a widesense. Diversity coding: This techniques uses the coding technique to to improve the diversity.

Conclusion

It highlights the various architectures of MIMO systems. More merits than SISO with high throughput and link reliability. The types increases data rates by transmitting parallel data streams that gives accurate performance of the network in data transmission. MIMO technology is technique of 4G cellular communication and WLAN.

References:

[1] Andrea Goldsmith. Wireless Communications.

Cambridge University Press, 2005.


[2] Ezio Biglieri , Robert Calderbank , Andrea Goldsmith. MIMO Wireless Communications.

[3] H. Bocskei and A. J. Paulraj, Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) wireless


systems, Cambridge University Press, 2003. [4] G. J. Foschini and M. J. Gans, On limits of wireless communications in a fading environment using multiple antennas, Wireless Personal Commun, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 311-355, 1998. [5] IST METRA, METRA public Deliverables http://kom.auc.dk/~schum/MIMO/index.html, 2002.

THANK YOU