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4 Revolutions in the Arts

Artistic and Intellectual movements both reflect and fuel changes in Europe during the 1800s

Romantic Movement

The Ideas of Romanticism Romanticism Interest in nature, preferring emotion, individuality Romanticism linked to folk traditions and nationalism. Romanticism rejects the Enlightenment ideas that elevate reason as the ultimate reality, and validated emotion as an authentic experience of reality. Emotions of trepidation, horror, terror, and awe gain a new emphasis.

Romantic Movement

in Literature

music, and painting are the arts best suited to romanticism Many British romantic poets believe nature is the source of beauty

British Romantic Poets

William Wordsworth Lord Byron

Don Juan

Lyrical Ballads, with a Few Other Poems

Percy Bysshe Shelley John Keats

Prometheus Unbound (play)

"Ode on a Grecian Urn"

"Hymn to Intellectual Beauty"

Samuel Taylor Coleridge (not pictured)

"Kubla Khan; or, A Vision in a Dream: A Fragment"

German writers
Germanys Johann Wolfgang von Goethe is a great early romanticist. 28 August 1749 22 March 1832 He wrote the play Faust about a doctor who sells his soul to the devil to get whatever he wants.

German Writers

Jakob and Wilhelm Grimm, known as The Brothers Grimm popularized stories like:

Rumpelstiltskin Snow White Rapunzel Cinderella Hansel and Gretel The Frog Prince

French Romantics

Victor Hugo

Les Miserables The Hunchback of Notre Dame

Gothic Fiction

Gothic horror novels taking place in medieval castles become popular

The Castle of Otranto
(1764) by Horace Walpole is considered the first gothic novel.

Walpole built his English villa Strawberry Hill in the Gothic Revival style much like a medieval castle.

Examples of Gothic Fiction

The penny dreadful serialized novels such as The String of Pearls: A Romance (1846-47) which debuts the character Sweeney Todd: The Demon Barber of Fleet Street. Penny dreadfuls were the precursors to pulp fiction and the modern comic book. Another popular penny dreadful was Varney the

Vampire or The Feast of Blood

anonymously written for publication (1845-47).

Examples of Gothic Fiction

Stories by Edgar Allen Poe

The Fall of the House of Usher The Pit and the Pendulum The Tell Tale Heart

Examples of Gothic Fiction

The most well known gothic novel is Frankenstein by Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley.

Composers Emphasize Emotion

Composers abandon Enlightenment style of music Ludwig van Beethoven leads the way from Enlightenment to romanticism Some composers draw on literature or cultural themes

Ludwig van Beethoven

baptized 17 Dec. 1770 26 March 1827 He was a crucial figure in the transitional period between the Classical and Romantic eras in Western classical music, and remains one of the most acclaimed and influential composers of all time. Around 1796, Beethoven began to lose his hearing. Beethoven's hearing loss did not prevent his composing music, but it made playing at concerts lucrative sources of income increasingly difficult.

Franz Liszt
October 22, 1811 July 31, 1886 Was a Hungarian composer, virtuoso pianist and teacher. Liszt became renowned throughout Europe during the 19th century for his great skill as a performer. He was said by his contemporaries to have been the most technically advanced pianist of his age and perhaps the greatest pianist of all time.

Robert Schumann
8 June 1810 29 July 1856 German composer, aesthete and influential music critic. He is one of the most famous and important Romantic composers of the 19th century.

Felix Mendelssohn
February 3, 1809 November 4, 1847 German composer, pianist, organist and conductor of the early Romantic period. He was born into a notable Jewish family, although he himself was brought up initially without religion, and later as a Lutheran Christian. He was recognized early as a musical prodigy

Frederic Chopin

1 March 1810 17 October 1849 Was a Polish composer and virtuoso pianist. He is considered one of the great masters of Romantic music. The great majority of Chopin's compositions were written for the piano as solo instrument.

Hector Berlioz

December 11, 1803 March 8, 1869 French Romantic composer, best known for his compositions Symphonie fantastique and Grande

messe des morts (Requiem).

Berlioz made significant contributions to the modern orchestra with his Treatise on Instrumentation. He specified huge orchestral forces for some of his works; as a conductor, he performed several concerts with more than 1,000 musicians.

Guiseppe Verdi

October 9 or 10, 1813 January 27, 1901 an Italian Romantic composer, mainly of opera. He was one of the most influential composers of the 19th century. One of his most well known tunes is "La donna mobile" ("Woman is fickle") from the opera Rigoletto

Richard Wagner

22 May 1813 13 February 1883 German composer, conductor, theatre director and essayist, primarily known for his operas. Unlike most other opera composers, Wagner wrote both the music and libretto for every one of his works. Wagners music is controversial because Wagner himself was antisemitic in his essays. The Nazis appropriated much of Wagners writings and music for their own ends.

The Shift to Realism in the Arts


art style attempting to depict life accurately Paintings and novels in this style show the working class

Photographers Capture Reality

Daguerreotypes, early photographs, are surprisingly real They are named after their French inventor, Louis Daguerre

Daguerreotype photos

The solar eclipse of July 28, 1851 was the first correctly exposed photograph of a solar eclipse, using the daguerreotype process.

The best-known image of Edgar Allan Poe was a daguerreotype taken in 1848 by W.S. Hartshorn, shortly before Poe's death.

The first authenticated image of Abraham Lincoln was this daguerreotype of him as U.S. Congressman-elect in 1846, attributed to Nicholas H. Shepard of Springfield, Ill.

Photographers Capture Reality

William Talbot invents negative, allows copies of photograph

Writers Study Society

Charles Dickens and Honore de Balzac write about society and class. Some realist literature sparks reforms in working conditions.

Honor de Balzac

French author who wrote a 100 novel series titled La Comdie humaine, The Human Comedy, about life in France after the fall of Napoleon Bonaparte.

mile Zola

French author who wrote a series of realistic novels describing the conditions of French life in his time. One series of his novels was a 21 novel series titled Les RougonMacquart about a family between 1852 and 1870. One of his most famous books, Germinal, was in this series and is considered a classic in French literature.

Charles Dickens

Dickens was in favor of liberal reforms in British society, and used his realistic descriptions of the plight of the poor to promote such reform. His serialized works were popular in the United States as well. Works include:

A Christmas Carol Oliver Twist Nicholas Nickleby Little Dorrit Hard Times A Tale of Two Cities David Copperfield Bleak House

Impressionists React Against Realism


New Movement Impressionism art style that tries to capture precise moments in time

Life in the Moment


like Claude Monet portray life of rising middle class Edgar Degas and Pierre-Auguste Renoir also leading impressionists

Claude Monet

14 November 1840 5 December 1926 Founder of French impressionist painting, and the most consistent and prolific practitioner of the movement's philosophy of expressing one's perceptions before nature, especially as applied to plein-air landscape painting. The term Impressionism is derived from the title of his painting

Impression, Sunrise

Impression, Sunrise

The Lunch on the Grass

The Woman in the Green Dress

Garden at Sainte-Adresse

Edgar Degas

19 July 1834 27 September 1917 French artist famous for his work in painting, sculpture, printmaking and drawing. He is regarded as one of the founders of Impressionism although he rejected the term, and preferred to be called a realist.

The Dance Class

The Absinthe Drinker or Glass of Absinthe

At the Races

Pierre-Auguste Renoir
February 25, 1841 December 3, 1919 Leading painter in the development of the Impressionist style.

The Theater Box

The Swing

On the Terrace and Dance in the City

The Bohemian


composers use music to create mental pictures

Maurice Ravel
Claude Debussy