Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 39

SEMINAR ON LCD & FLAT PANEL DISPLAYS

BY CLOVER DISPLAY LTD. (HONG KONG S.A.R, CHINA) AN LCD MANUFACTURER SINCE 1983 URL http://www.cloverdisplay.com & DATE : Sept 29, 2005 SPEAKER Mr. JOHNNY C. L. CHOU

<Topics> 1. FLAT PANEL DISPLAY 2. INTRODUCTION TO LCD TECHNOLOGY. 3. HOW LCDs ARE MADE. 4. COLOR LCD 5. TODAYS LCD 6. CUSTOM DESIGN LCD & LCM (MODULES). 7. TOUCH PANEL, Bi-STABLE LCD & ORGANIC LED. 8. QUESTION & ANSWER. Edition #7 (2005)

1.0. FLAT PANEL DISPLAYS


Display Types ( commonly used Display ) CRT ( Cathode Ray Tube ) Emits Light Yes Voltage Current Patterning Flexibility ( scanning )

High DC

Low

VFD ( Vacuum Florescent Displays )


LED ( Light Emitting Diode ) Plasma Displays EL ( Electro Luminescent Displays ) LCD ( Liquid Crystal Display ) OLED (Organic LED)

Yes
Yes Yes Yes

High DC
Low DC High DC High DC Low AC Low DC

Low
Medium Low Low Low Lowmedium

Medium
Low Low High High High

NO
Yes

P.1.

2.0. LIQUID CRYSTAL


2.1. Three major characteristics of Liquid Crystal 2.1.1. The Thermal Nature Solid State Liquid Crystaline (Crystal) State
Low Temp Melting Point Clearing Point

Liquid State
High Temp

2.1.2. The Optical Nature of a LC molecule XXX


Light Light passing through

NO light passing through

2.1.3. The Electrical Nature of the LC molecules

Electrodes

No potential field

AC potential
P.2.

2.2. COMMON STRUCTURAL PHASES in the Liquid Crystal State Smectic Phase Nematic Phase Cholesteric phase

2.3. Two other components to make a Liquid Crystal Display Panel 2.3.1. Transparent Electrodes ---- Glass with conductive ITO layer which is etched to form a pattern. 2.3.2. The Polarizer Film

Light wave & its axis

Polarizer & its light axis

Outgoing light & its axis

P.3.

2.4. A TYPICAL TN TYPE LCD CELL


Polarizer (Axis 0 degree)

Glass with electrodes

NO power supply

With AC Volts connected

Glass with electrodes


Cell Gap = The separation between two glasses

Polarizer (Axis 90 degrees)


Positive Mode = Black digit on the grey background Negative Mode = Clear digits on the dark background P.4.

Light

2.5. THREE COMMON TYPES OF LCD


2.5.1. TRANSMISSIVE TYPE
Eyes LCD Light (Back Light)

POLARIZER ON BOTH SIDES 2.5.2. REFLECTIVE TYPE


LCD

Incident Light

POLARIZER ON THE FRONT SIDE 2.5.3. TRANSFLECTIVE TYPE


LCD Day Light

REFLECTOR ON THE BACK SIDE

Night Light (Back Light)

POLARIZER ON THE FRONT SIDE

TRANSFLECTOR ON THE BACK SIDE


P.5.

2.6. CHARACTERISTIC CURVES


Vs (Saturation Voltage) % LIGHT ABSORPTION (or TRANSMISSION) 90% changes Vth of LC

At higher Temp.

5v 4v 10% change VOLTS -40 deg C +80 deg C

0 volt

Vth (Threshold Voltage)

% Light Absorption

LC Fluid Viscosity mm2/sec


10,000 At a lower Temp. Time 100 -40 deg C +80 deg C

Ton 5ms to 100ms

Toff 20ms to 300ms

Depending on how the LCD fluid is formulated. The smaller the cell gap, the faster response.
P.6.

2.7. TN & STN (Super Twisted Nematic)


The LC molecule mid-plane tilt angle Vth Vs

% Light Absorption 90 deg Twisted

% Light Absorption

% Light Absorption

180 deg Twisted

240 deg Twisted

Volts

Narrow View Angle

Wide View Angle

TN LCD Grey Background in the positive mode

STN LCD Yellow Green background color In the positive mode P.7.

2.8. HTN (Highly Twisted Nematic) & FSTN (Film STN)


TN 90 deg Twisted Narrow View Angle STN 180 deg or higher deg Twisted Wide View Angle BUT with Darker Color Background & Blue or dark blue patterns. HTN 110 deg Twisted Wider View Angle than TN but narrower than STN FSTN 240 deg or higher deg Twisted View angle same as 240 deg STN BUT in Grey Background Color & Black patterns. Polarizer LCD Cell

1st Minimum TN Little wider View Angle than TN (see later pages)

DSTN (Double STN Cells) Old way when NO Retardation film 1st Cell with patterns Same as usual STN 2nd Cell without pattern But in reverse twisting

Retardation Films on Polarizers to correct the color phase P.8.

2.9. COMPARISON AMONG TN, HTN, STN & FSTN 2.9.1. Positive Mode (Pattern on a Clear Background)
Either
Deg Twisted Background Color Pattern Color Temp Range Multiplex Ratio View Angle View Direction Voltage

TN
90 Grey

HTN
110 Grey

STN
180 Yellow Green or Grey Dark Blue or Blue -20C to +70C =<1/32 duty 120 deg May specify 6 or 12 Oclock 3v min 5v typical

STN
240 Grey or Yellow Green Blue or Dark Blue -20C to +70C =<1/240 duty 120 deg May specify 6 or 12 Oclock 5v typical, (higher duty, higher volts)

FSTN
240 Grey

Black

Black

Black

-40C to +85C =< 1/8 duty 60 deg At 6 or 12 Oclock ONLY 2.5v min 5v typical

-20C to +40C =<1/16 duty 80 deg At 6 or 12 Oclock ONLY 3v min 5v typical

-20C to +70C =<1/240 duty 110 deg All

5v typical, (higher duty, higher volts) P.9.

2.9.2. Negative Mode (Clear Pattern on a Color Background)


TN
Degree Twisted Background Color Pattern Color 90 deg Black Clear

HTN
110 deg Black Clear

STN
180 deg (Seldom used) (Seldom used)

STN
240 deg Dark Blue Clear

FSTN
240 deg Black Clear

Other natures same as the Positive Mode.

2.10. Gooch-Tarry Curve --- The 1st Minimum TN LCD


% Transmission 12%

n : Birefringence (reflective indices of


Light transmitted in parallel & perpendicular To the director of LC molecules.

8%

d : the cell gap

4%

0% 0.48 (1st Min* ) 1.05 (2nd Min) 1.64 (3rd Min)

d n (um)

*The 1st Min process is patented by E. Merck.

P.10.

2.11. THE STATIC & MULTIPLEX DESIGN OF ELECTRODES

4 pairs of electrodes 8 connectors needed. No time sharing for the input signals The STATIC Design

5 electrodes 5 connectors needed. 1/4 time sharing for the input signals to each of the top electrode. No time sharing for the bottom glass. We call the top electrodes the SEGMENT while the bottom electrodes the COMMON.

4 electrodes in matrix 4 connectors needed. 1/2 time sharing for the input signals to both the top and bottom electrodes---The MULTIPLEX Design. We call it 1/2 duty if the 1/2 time sharing is used on the Common.

PROBLEM: The higher the duty ratio, the shorter time the power signal goes into each electrode pair. Finally the power rms value may NOT be enough to fully drive the LC twisting properly. P.11.

2.12. THE PASSIVE AND ACTIVE LCD


Signal X1

Y1

Y2

Time Signal

X2 An ACTIVE Component ; MIM (metal insulator metal) Diode Or TFT (thin film transistor) The LCD Pixel

Time

The TFT method is commonly used today on the large DOT MATRIX LCD, we call it the ACTIVE MATRIX LCD, or AMLCD The LCD built together with the Active Component is not only the TFT LCD. The LCOS is also an LCD built on a silicon wafer with active components to control the LCD. In general, the duty ratio over 1/256 may not give a good contrast in the Passive design. But there are still some special design to work in the Passive way, such as; Dual Scan STN (DSTN), High Performance Addressing (HPA), . etc P.12.

2.13. THE HISTORY OF LC & LCD


Application Approx Year 1888 1904 1960 Thermometer 1965 1970 Calculator Major Development

Liquid Crystalline initially described by an Austrian Scientist, Mr. Friedrich Reinitzer.


E. Merck sold the first Liquid Crystal substrates to the research market. Westinghouse used the cholesteric LC as a temperature indicator. RCA demonstrated a dynamic scattering LCD to show numeric symbols. Kent State Univ. in Ohio USA presented an LCD operated at room temp. Rockwell (USA) and Sharp (Japan) made LCD Calculators. Hull Univ. in England synthesised new biphenyls with excellent physical properties for display use. Higher Contrast Twisted Nematic Mode in use. OCLI (USA) coated ITO on glass as electrodes. BDH (UK) sold LC to LCD manufacturers.

Time pieces 1975 Instruments

Hamlin Inc (USA) in TN LCD mass production. E. Merck introduced Biphenylcyclohexanes LC for higher multiplex. Motorola built LCD on 4 x 4 glass substrates Microma (USA) further improved the mass production technique and Fairchild Semiconductor Inc. moved LCD production to Hong Kong. Timex (USA) bought RCA LCD facility and merged with Fairchild. The Japanese developed a Chemical Sealing process for cost reduction. P.13.

Data bank & PDA

2.13. THE HISTORY (continued)


Application Approx Year Major Development

The first LCD scriber made by Villa Precision Inc. (USA)


1980 5x7 Character Dot Matrix Graphic Word Processor Full Dot Matrix & TV Panels 1985 PDA, Laptop & Notebook PC 1990 Mobile phones 1995 E Books 2000 New Display to replace LCD ?---- OLED, PLED Bi-stable Cholesteric LCD Roche, BDH, E.Merck improve LC mixtures for TN, STN Fairchild scaled up to 14x14 substrates Clover Display Ltd established in May 1983 MIM & TFT AMLCD invented Brewer Science Inc. & OIS of Troy, USA developed colour AMLCD for space shuttle use. Full color TFT panel for Notebook PC

P.14.

3.0. HOW LCDs ARE MADE 3.1. THE FRONT END PROCESS
ITO Glass ITO = Indium Tin Oxide, a transparent conductive layer coated on the Sodium Lime Glass. Its resistance is from 10 Ohms to 120 Ohms/square. Glass area usually in 14x16. Thickness in 1.1, 0.7, 0.5, 0.4, 0.3mm Artwork & Mask Design

Clean Glass with DI water

Patterning the Electrodes on ITO

Methods: Photo Masking, Resist Ink Printing, ITO Ink direct Printing, Laser Cutting.

Alignment Layer

To form a rough surface to hold the LC molecule chains

Sealing Frame & Silver Dot Printing

To form the cell and the inter-connections between the top and bottom glasses

Top/bottom Glass Alignment and Seal

The Laminated pairs

P.15.

3.2. THE BACK END PROCESS


Laminated Pair Cutting into cells

Liquid Crystal Mixture Formulation

Liquid Crystal Filling

End Sealing & Cleaning

Testing & Inspection Polarizer Cutting Polarizer Fixing Metal Pin or Heat Seal Connector fixing Cosmetic Check Optional Process LCD Module Assembly (COB, TAB, COG, COF)

Shipments

P.16.

4.0. THE COLOR LCD 4.1. THE FULL COLOR LCD


Black and White LCD
Segments Slice ITO into narrow sections RGB Color Filter

Full Color LCD

Common

Common

In order to give a better color mixing, the RGB line widths are usually less than 30 micron in width per color. Hence the same for the ITO electrodes.

The color LCD can be built as a Passive LCD. But most large size Dot Matrix Color LCDs are built in the Active design.

P.17.

4.0. THE COLOR LCD (continued)


4.2. THE ECB (ELECTRICALLY CONTROLLED BIREFRINGENCE) COLOR LCD
% Light Absorption

Various ECB Types;


1) Homogeneous Type Red->Yellow->Green->Blue 2) Deformation of Vert Aligned Plane (DAP) Type Blue->Green->Yellow->Red 3) Hybrid Aligned Nematic (HAN) Type Green->Red->Blue 4) Vertical Aligned Nematic (VAN) Type

0 Clear Dark Grey Y O R P B G Color around 2.4v to 3.7v Dark

V
No pure color, 50% Green + 25% Red + 25% Blue at this point

P.18.

4.3. DOUBLE CELL COLOR LCD


There are two kinds of double cell can generate colors; A) With Color Polarizer B) With usual Polarizers at certain angles (Only working in Transmissive Mode) (Reflective Mode is also possible)

4.4. GUEST HOST LCD (Single fixed color)


Mixing color dye in the LC fluid and build LCD in Negative Mode. It will show clear pattern on a color background. Such method was used in the early date.

4.5. LCD WITH COLOR POLARIZER, COLOR FILM OR COLOR REFLECTOR IN CERTAIN AREA (fixed color)
Pre-printed color polarizer is expensive.

4.6. COLOR INK PRINTING ON THE BOTTOM GLASS SURFACE (fixed color)
This is the cheapest way to make LCD with fixed colors. The LC image & color area may not coincide well due to the glass thickness. P.19.

5.0. TODAYS LCD


Duty Ratio

Active LCD
LCD TV & Monitors

1/256 1/128 1/64 1/32 1/16

Passive LCD

Projector

Portable TV Digital Camera Office Equipment

Notebook Panels 1M+ Pixels

PDA 100K Pixels Mobile Phone Digital Instruments 10K Pixels

STN TN

1/8 1/4 1/3 1/2 1/1 Static 10 mm2

Data Bank Film Camera Calculator 100 Pixels Time pieces Hand Held Games 1K Pixels

Panel Size 100 1,000 10,000 100,000 mm2 P.20.

6.0. CUSTOM DESIGN LCD & LCM --- The factors to consider 6.1. LCD PANEL DIMENSIONS
Outer Dimensions (Be economical size)
View Area (normally 2mm from the edges) End Seal (0.5mm thick) Active Area (Area with patterns) Pinout or Connection Area (2 to 2.5mm) Glass Thickness (1.1, 0.7, 0.5, 0.4 or 0.3mm/one side) ( Glass Material: Sodium Lime Glass with SiO2 barrier, surface polished for STN use ) Economical Panel Size: The outer dimension may use up most the raw glass sheet area. or Raw Glass Sheet 7x8 inches (178x203mm) 14x16 inches (355x406 mm) (The usable area is 7mm off the edge) For small order size or pilot run, 7x8 inches sheets are used to boost up the yield and save the tool cost.

P.21.

6.2. PANEL CONFIGURATIONS


A Eyes B C D

The thick lines representing the pinout areas. Connectors suitable: Zebra (Silicone Rubber) A, B, Heat Seal or TAB A, B, C, D, Metal Pins C, D,

All the above 4 models required Ag (silver) connections inside the LCD cell. If such Ag connection not to be used or unable to be used, the configurations will be as follows;

Models E, F & G are good for combination use of Zebra and Heat Seal connectors together. Most TAB connections are also applying on such models. For TN LCD, dont forget to specify the View Direction 45+deg 15+deg 15+deg 45+deg 6 Oclock P.22. 40+deg 40+deg

12 Oclock

6.3. PATTERN LAYOUT

Too Long Trace

Cross Over

Narrow down trace

Good Bad Layout Layout C S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S6 S3 C S1 S2 S4 S5

P.23.

6.4. ZEBRA CONNECTORS


Side Wall Insulators Conductive Layers Insulation Layers

Three kinds of Rubber


1. Sponge Rubber 2. Silicon Rubber 3. Super Soft Rubber

Metal Mounting Bezel

Pitch: (Conductor/Insulator Layers) Low Cost Type --- 0.25+-0.05mm General Type ----- 0.18+-0.04 mm Dot Matrix Type 0.10+-0.03 mm Graphic Type ------0.05+-0.025 mm
PCB Contact Resistance: 1000 1500 ohms at 10%-15% compression LCD Zebra

LCD Zebra

Assembly

Precautions in Assembly
Pre-clean Zebra Three or more conductors in contact PCB wraping <0.375mm / 50 mm Bezel has opening gaps with PCB 0.3mm or 10%-15% compression Dummy zebra use with single side contact LCD. Insulation side wall quality. P.24.

Mis-aligned Good

A safer way (wider contact on PCB)

6.5. HEAT SEAL CONNECTORS


Conductors (~20 um particles) printed on a Polyester (PET) Film of 20 -25um

Contact Resistance & Graphite Type --- 35 to 100 ohms/sq Silver Graphite Type ---- 0.5 ohm/sq Silver Type ------ 0.05 ohm/sq

Pitch 0.40, 0.60, 2.80 mm 0.23, 0.35, 2.80 mm 0.23 mm

Choose proper LCD configuration:


LCD PET side PCB LCD PET side Conductor side PCB

Hot Press

PET film

Welded

Precautions in Assembly
The Hot Press head temperature 120-140 deg C at joint 32 Kg/sq cm pressure is recommended Leveling the press for even pressure along the joint. Properly select the sealing time to prevent uneven flow or wash away the conductor particles. 100pcs/mm2 particles at contact area is suggested. Peeling off strength be >200gm (Vertical) & >500gm (Horizontal) P.25.

PCB

PET side

6.6. METAL PIN CONNECTORS ( for 0.7 & 1.1mm glass )


LCD

Standard Pitch: 1.27mm, 1.8mm, 2.0mm, 2.54mm Pin Length: 20mm, 30mm, & 45mm max Clip Depth 2.0mm to 2.4mm max Contact Resistance: <0.05 ohm Precautions in Assembly:
Prolong soldering may damage the Pin contact to glass ---- A good LCD will add carbon cushion between pin clip and glass contact area. Care on bending the pins ---- LCD maker provides pin lead forming. Pin length under 4.0mm is not recommended. Wave solder is not recommended ---- Polarizer is weak Mechanical stress on pin or temperature changes may cause LCD background color changed.

Epoxy enforcement Wider seal area is required.

All the above connections may have IC on PCB by SMT, Wire Bonding (COB) or Insert & Solder.

6.7. TAB (TCP IC BONDING)


IC on a flexible film with conductors. The Film is heat sealed onto the LCD pinout area
TAB = Tape Automation Bonding TCP = Tape Carrier Package LCD

P.26.

6.8. CHIP ON FILM (COF)


LCD Same as TAB, but with more components on the film like a circuitry on PCB

6.9. CHIP ON GLASS (COG)


The IC Chip for COG is different from those for usual wire bonding on PCB. Same as an usual LCD Glass with Fine traces Fan-in & Fan-out Most panels with Metal Pins LCD

ACF* film is used to fix the COG chip onto the glass. The ACF film is similar to Heat Seal but with much finer Pitch and conductive particles.

IC Chip

* ACF=Anisotropic Conductive Film

P.27.

6.10. TRICKS ON THE LCD PANEL DESIGN 6.10.1. THE BIAS VOLTAGE
% LIGHT ABSORPTION Applied to Segment Applied to Common 10% 0 volt Vth Volts Volts Resulting Waveform to LCD

Recommended Driving Freq 60 Hz to 120 Hz

Theoretical Driving Waveform 90%

Off Practical Design Waveform

On

(Example: Waveform to LCD at 1/3 Bias) V 2/3V 1/3V 0 -1/3V -2/3V -V On

Off

Off

The Bias Voltage Time

The driving Voltage

P.28.

6.10.1. THE BIAS VOLTAGE (continued)


The formula and design facts;
N: Multiplex Rate. Example: N=3 for 1/3 duty S: Bias The ideal design S=1+ N Vd: The supply voltage to the panel. Von = ( Vd / S ) x Voff = ( Vd / S ) x N S 2 ( N-1+S ) / N [ N 1 + ( S 2 )2 ] / N 2 2 3 2 4 3 8 4 16 5

Vd
Voff Von Von Voff

3 volts
1.06 v 2.37 v 1.31 v

3 volts
1.22 v 2.12 v 0.90 v

3 volts
1.00 v 1.73 v 0.73 v

3 volts
0.88 v 1.27 v 0.39 v

5 volts
1.22 v 1.58 v 0.36 v

Less than 1 volt ! Beware the drifting under temp changes

P.29.

6.10.2. CROSS OVER LAYOUT


S1 S2 S3 S4

Epoxy Sealing Frame

Ag Dot Connection

C1 C2 C1 2 cross over points

Hided under Frame

6.10.3. THE POLARIZER SELECTION


The Glue Type or Non-glue Type polarizer. The Polarizer with the UV Barrier may extend the LCD Life under strong UV exposure. The Anti Glare Polarizer may improve the contrast. The high durability polarizer may stand for wider temperature environment. The slightly orientation of Polarizer axis may change the background color.

6.11. THE THERMAL COMPENSATION


It is recommended to use the thermal compensation circuit when a LCD will be operated under a wide temperature range.

P.30.

6.12. TEMPERATURE RANGE


Wide Temp Type Melting point Low Temp Type General purpose Clearing point Temp Deg C -30 -20 0 deg +50 +60 +75 deg

Operating Temp. Storage Temp

10 deg C lower

10 deg C higher

The STN temp is 10 deg narrower than TN Problem when exceeds rated temp. Black Spots Slow response Background blackened Cross Talk

All the above defects are reversible at room temp Possible design Specific for Low Temp Specific for High Temp

Temp -40 deg +10 +30 deg +100 P.31.

6.13. BACK LIGHTS


Choice of Back Light
Side LED Type ( Fig. 1 ) Array LED Type ( Fig. 2 ) EL (ElectroLuminescent) CCFL (Cold Cathode Fluorescent Lamp)

Descriptions
Wedge diffuser (Light Guide) and reflector are needed. Poor illumination for large panel Consuming more power and generating more heat. Beware the difference in supply voltages of each model. Easy assembly The best in even brightness and light weight. But less brighter than LED Backlight. High voltage and EMC consideration. The strongest illumination. High voltage and EMC consideration.

Common Color
Yellow Green, Blue, White Yellow Green, Red. Green, Blue, White. White.

Important: The Transmissive and the Transflective Type LCD absorb the different light intensity. Light Light Diffuser Paper Light Guide

LED wiring + Fig. 2. P. 32.

LEDs
Fig. 1. Reflector domes Reflector Paper

7.0. BI-STABLE LCD


Bi-stable Cholesteric Display, or SSCT Surface Stabilised Cholestric Texture Display, or Multi-stable Chiral Nematic Display, or E-Book Display This is a new technology in LCD making use of the Cholesteric Liquid Crystal. Mr. John West and Mr. D. K. Yang of Kent State University, Ohio, USA filed the patent in 1995. The display image is retentive in the absence of an electric field. It has a excellent readability and wide view angle under the daylight or strong ambient light. No Polarizer is required on this kind of display panels. The Liquid Crystal is switchable and stable in two kinds of texture. (a) The Twisted Planar Texture, which has the LC layers parallel to the display surface, reflects the incident light. (b) The Focal Conic Texture, whose LC is in fragmentary, scatters the incident light.

Switch-able (a) (b)

The above two textures are switch-able under 30V to 180V pulse of 10ms to 100ms, and stable in zero electric field. By properly adjust the pitch of the Twisted Planar Texture, it can reflect R, G, B lights.
P.33.

8.0. ORGANIC LED


The Organic Electro Luminescent Displays (OELD) , or The Organic Light Emitting Devices (OLED) The EL ( Electro-luminescence ) Back Light for LCD has been used for many years. It operates at high voltage (>100V). In 1987, Tang and Van Slyke in Kodak, USA reported a low voltage (<10V) Organic EL. It comes a new display ---- the OELD.

8.1. THE BASIC STRUCTURE


DC volt

Metal Cathode Electron Transport Layer Re-combination and Emission Layer Hole Transport Layer ITO Layer (Anode) Glass Substrate Light emits

8.2. THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN LCD & OLED


LCD OLED No Light emission Emits light in colours (100cd/sqm) Narrow view angle Wide view angle (>150 degrees) Slow response Fast response (<10 microsec) OLED has most the advantage of LCD such as; Easy patterning Low operating voltage but at high current ( 20ma/cm2) Low manufacturing cost Thin and light weight

P.34.

8.0. ORGANIC LED (continued) 8.3. THE OLED & PLED


a. There are two major ways to build the OLED; The small molecule process ---- by spluttering the organic materials onto the ITO patterns. Kodak uses such way. The large molecule process, or the polymer process ---- by spin coating, dip coating or screen printing the organic pastes layer by layer. Cavendish Lab in Cambridge, UK and Dow Corning, USA developed such process and materials in 90s.

b.

Some people now call the OLED made under polymer process the PLED. The small molecule process is also applying to making the ACTIVE OLED. Pioneer, Japan seems the first one in mass production for the OLED. It is expected the OLED will replace the LCD step by step from 2005. CLOVER DISPLAY GROUP has started a joint venture with the University of Hong Kong to research and develop the materials and process for OLED. The newly formed joint venture company is named COLED DISPLAY LTD., established Sept 2002.

P.35.

9.0. TOUCH PANELS 9.1. ANALOG TYPE


A PE film with ITO layer is sealed onto an ITO Glass with epoxy dots as Spacer to maintain a gap. When the external pressure of touching makes contact of two ITO layers, the sensing IC circuit with give an analog reading corresponding to the touch position.

PE Film With ITO Ra Rb Silver Conductors

Epoxy dots As Spacer Glass with ITO Rd Rc Pin out Area

9.2. DIGITAL TYPE


The ITO on the PE Film and the ITO Glass are etched out into sectors. When touched, the corresponding sectors are shorted circuit and reflected to the pins concerned. PE Film With ITO

Epoxy dots As Spacer Glass with ITO Pin out Area

P.36.

10.0. CUSTOM LCD/LCM DEVELOPMENT GUIDE.


Enquiry from Customer Feasibility Study & NRE Charge / Unit Price Quoted

Free quote in 2-4 working days

NRE Order Confirmation

NRE payment in advance ** normally 10-20 LCD or 3-5 LCM samples will be free. For more qty, please notice us in advance when confirm the NRE order.

LCD Panel 1 week Panel Drawing for Approval 3-4 weeks

PCB & Circuit 1 week Circuit diagram & PCB Layout 3-10 weeks

External Casing 1-3 weeks Case Drawing 3-6 weeks

Mask Design & Samples** for Approval

PCB Tool Design & Samples** for Approval

Hand mould up sample

Final Case Mould


3-9 weeks

Primary Sample

Final Sample

Total development time; LCD Panels 4-7 weeks, LCM Modules 4-10 weeks; With External Case 7-18 weeks

P.37.

11.0. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT & DECLAIMER


We have tried our best to present up-to-date and correct information here. Some of them to be explained together with photographs and demonstration samples to form a complete part of the Introduction. We wish that the information discussed in this seminar may help the design engineers to make a cost effective and quality custom design in an easier and logical way. However, this is not an academic seminar that we have used a simply way in the presentation. All information here is provided in good faith without any expressed or implied warranty. The reader should seek for more detail advice from the industry. The information in above are partly referring to the following documents; Proceedings of the Liquid Crystal Seminar HK by E. Merck, Darmstadt, Germany. Various articles in the SID International Symposium and Information Display by the Society for Information Display, Inc. USA LCD Displays, the leading edge in flat panel displays, by Sharp Technical Library, Vol. 1, of Sharp Corporation, Osaka, Japan. Editions: 7th edition Sept 29, 2005 6th edition Mar 13, 2003. 5th edition Sept 19, 2001. 4th edition Apr 16, 2000. 3rd edition Sept 6, 1999. 2nd edition Sept 1, 1998. 1st edition May 19,1997. All copy rights reserved Clover Display Ltd. H.K. P.38.

1. 2. 3.

Prepared by; Johnny C. L. Chou, Clover Display Ltd. Room 1006, 26 Hung To Road, 10/F, Kwun Tong, Hong Kong Tel: 23428228, 23413238 Fax: 23418785, 23574237 email: cdl@cloverdisplay,com URL: http://www.cloverdisplay.com (in English) http://www.cloverdisplay.com.hk (in Japanese) http://www.cloverchina.com (in Chinese)