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Understanding inclusion

Issues: Challenges and barriers to learning Approaches to teaching and learning Functional Skills Resources

Equality, diversity and inclusion

Visual aids Consider colours and their effectiveness. Write clearly in a legible style of writing. User expressions such as wipe board and chalkboard rather that whiteboard and blackboard.

Learning aids

Offer alternative formats, i.e. electronic, paper, large print, Braille, whenever possible.
Ensure coats, bags, etc. Are not left around the room, ensure there is sufficient space for moving around the classroom. Ensure that learners needs are addressed, which may involve using a specialist team of physical and educational support workers.


Challenges and barriers to learning

Think about your specialism and environment and consider: Evaluating the effectiveness of approach Strength of approach in terms of inclusivity Analyse how create inclusivity Understand assessment and functional skill opportunities Motivation and feedback Dont forget ground rules!

Challenges and barriers to learning

Challenges, barriers and attitudes to learning and general expressions, which means things that hold back learning. Challenges, in this context, usually mean making learning difficult; barriers mean things that prevent learning.

Challenges and barriers to learning

Attitudes are feelings and emotions brought into the class room by leaner's. As a teacher we want our learners to work to the best of their ability. Some learners may present themselves in our classes with more long term barriers challenges and attitudes.

Challenges and barriers to learning

Challenges, barriers and attitudes are often the reason(or occasionally the excuse!) for not learning. I cant do this or I've never been any good at... or I hate tests and any number of similar expressions can be heard in classrooms up and down the country. For teachers, if our learners are saying things like this they are demonstrating their lack of motivation or poor selfesteem.

Challenges and barriers to learning

We should think, how can I make this easier to understand? or is there something else behind that behaviour?
Whatever the cry, whatever the remedy, few people have a phobia of learning (sophophobia) - many have challenges, barriers and attitudes which inhibit their learning and so their success.

Challenges and barriers to learning

Remember some of the challenges, barriers or attitudes to learning can be made easier by using DELTA to classify them:
Disability Mobility Visual Hearing Long illness Dyslexia Dyscalculia Mental health Dexterity Chronic pain Emotional Finance Child care or Dependents Concentration Confidence Behaviour and Discipline Personal problems Commitments Previous experience Fear of unknown Peer pressure Parental pressure Employer pressure Stress/worry Hormones New surroundings Returning to education Poverty Language Foreign language Terminology Accent Pace Communication Rapport Basic skill needs Cultural difference Technology Computer skills Car breakdown Transport Heating Lighting Temperature Fear of technology Ability Short illness Absence Punctuality Motivation Resources Support Study support Inaccurate advice Teaching styles Large classes Personal skills

Challenges and barriers to learning

Learning to recognise the symptoms of these barriers is essential in attempting to resolve the issues. It returns to the idea that we should know our learners. Also, don't forget that people and enjoyment are excellent motivators. NB - it is usually a good indicator that you have lost the interest of your learners if you look up and they have gone!

Curing Your Learners Symptoms

Recognise changes in your learners behaviour and make time to listen to their concerns Include lots of smaller activities to build and develop and praise at each stage of development Offer one-to-one support during group activities Use nominated questions, aimed at differentiating to meet learners individual levels of ability, to increase self-esteem
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Challenges and barriers to learning

Before if gets that far; here are some things to look out for: Limited short-term memory
Carelessness in work Lack of eye contact Glazed looks Repeated and persistent errors Time - management difficulties Side effects to prescribed drugs Poor concentration Lack of participation Constantly demanding attention Poor behaviour Poor attention span Lateness

Curing Your Learners Symptoms

Vary your teaching techniques to ensure a variety of auditory, visual and kinaesthetic learning Offer comfort breaks within longer sessions of work Provide additional or extended work for less able or quick learners Offer rewards for good behaviour or good progress Encourage study skills. Stress key words and when to make notes

Approaches to teaching and learning

Teaching and learning strategies will vary according to what you want to get out of the session, what the learners are able to achieve within the time allowed, what materials and resources are available to you, the subject matter you are delivering, the needs of the learners and your personal style.

Approaches to teaching and learning

The choice of method will depend on whether you wish to deliver a formal teaching session in which all learners are working on the same topic at the same time, a leanercentred session, where learners are working on the same broad topic but using different methods and resources, or finally a self-study style where learners are working on different aspects of a topic or even different topics, using their own style of leaning.

Approaches to teaching and learning

Factors that influence teaching:

How leaner's learn and their preferred learning styles What the teacher wants to achieve The subject matter What the learners are capable of achieving Time constraints Resources implications What the learners want to get out of the session Where you will teach How dependent your learners are

Approaches to teaching and learning

First of all, you should separate teaching from learning in order to understand these influences. In short, teaching is what we do; learning is what your leaner's will do.
Each activity in the classroom will consist of teaching and learning activities. These should be balanced to meet the different needs of your learners and to develop motivation.

Approaches to teaching and learning

Modern technology allows for a blended learning style which incorporates traditional and computer based methods. This is often referred to as information learning technology (ITL) or information communication technology (ICT).

The use of computer based technology to enhance teaching methods and resources or develop learner autonomy is widely promoted.

Approaches to teaching and learning

The table considers some of the most frequently used approaches and compares them in the context of teaching and leaning activities.
Lecture (verbal exposition)

Value of teacher
High focus on teacher activity Excellent knowledge base required Clarity and tone of voice needs to be clear and interesting. Can be used to deliver to large groups easily Is enhanced by visual aids. Needs to be well organised before session Explains difficult parts of the task when verbal exposition is not suitable

Value to leaner
Requires good listening and note-taking skills Passive learning Limited opportunities to clarify understanding Appeals to auditory learners


Opportunities to see, hear and smell Allows a task to be broken down into smaller chunks

Approaches to teaching and learning

Activity Group work Value to teacher Less teacher focused teacher needs to monitor progress to keep on task Takes a long time to extract key points Free exchange of ideas on a given topic Needs careful management to ensure range of ideas and to keep on task Can be used to support other teaching methods Develops deeper understanding Different styles of technique: can be call-out or nominated in style Need to ensure everyone participates Good way of introducing or summarising a topic Assesses understanding of topic Value to leaner Suits kinaesthetic leaner's weak and strong leaner's work collectively

Discussion and debates

Allows ideas to be shared and is an opportunity to value other leaner's opinions Suits auditory leaner's Balanced teacher/leaner input.

Questioning (Q&A)

Challenges leaner's to think Nominated styles will ensure everyone is included in activity Instant feedback on response Appeals to kinaesthetic and auditory leaner's

Approaches to teaching and learning

Activity Presentations and seminars Value to teacher Similar to lectures with added dimension of learner activity Key information presented, then deeper understanding acquired through gathering of further information Highly motivational Simulation used for expensive or dangerous activities Builds on previously demonstrated skills Mirrors work place practice Can be costly and time consuming to organise; needs sufficient recourses for all Needs to be carefully managed to ensure skill is practiced accurately Some learners may feel self conscious Will promote and develop safe and healthy practice Value to leaner Able to gather key information and build upon it through their own research Learners investigate their topics and present back to their peers Develop individual styles Balance of teacher and Activities Suits all learning styles Opportunity to practice skills Ideal for kinaesthetic and visual leaner's Can experience emotions, feel, taste and smell Reinforces previous learning Can learn from teachers, support workers or peers.

Simulation, role-play and practical work

Approaches to teaching and learning

Variety in teaching and learning will ensure that you sessions are meeting individuals needs and are addressing different spans of attention, as well as being interesting for you and your leaners. By using a balance of teacher and learner centred activities you spread the responsibility of learning.

Approaches to teaching and learning

Activity Game/quizzes Value of teacher Develop competitive spirit Can be used to open or close a topic Useful to keep as a contingency plan if time allows or if you work well Teacher is a facilitator or resources rather than leader of learning Promotes independence in leaner's Develops higher levels of understanding on a topic Develops problem solving capabilities Develops critical thinking Value to learner Fun activity Suits kinaesthetic learners

Research-style activities

Suits visual and kinaesthetic learners

Case study

Enables leaner's to develop opinions and ideas from a given set of facts safe analysis which may impact on later application

Approaches to teaching and learning

Too many new teachers believe that they should perform for the entire lesson; all they do is exhaust themselves to a usually passive (and possibly bored) group of learners The basic strategy for every session should be a beginning, middle and an end. This will form the structure, and will also help when you come to plan and prepare for your sessions. By following this structure you will be demonstrating an organised approach to teaching and learning.

Approaches to teaching and learning

Simple structures Beginning The induction. Explain what is going to happen in the session Setting the scene. For example: Verbal exposition (VE) Questioning to check previous knowledge For example: Demo + practical VE + discuss + game Teacher-centred intro. Aim on board and spoken (Auditory. Visual) Collect any homework. Prompt and organised start, set any rules now Balance of teacher/learner activity. Visual/kinaesthetic Leaner-dominated. Auditory, visual and kinaesthetic Learner-centred. Opportunity to complete note Leaner-centred. Corrected script provides future notes Teacher-centred. Issue homework now


The content. Move from the known to the unknown. Give clear instruction on how the activity will progress/time allowed0 Assessment of what has been leaned. Conclusion and summary. Future development.


Fro example: Discussion. Evaluation Quiz or Q&A Ending in VE- prep for next session

Approaches to teaching and learning

In order to ensure that you are meeting individuals needs by using visual, auditory and kinaesthetic teaching and learning strategies, look at the following lists for some ideas for your teaching sessions, remembering to include a variety of techniques.

Approaches to teaching and learning

Visual learning techniques o Use cards, posters and prompt sheets o Display session tasks on board o Write key words on board o Collate ideas from group activities on board or flip chart o Supplement verbal exposition with pictures and diagrams o Ask questions which exploit visual imagination: What would it look like? o Encourage learners to see works/concepts in their mind o Use highlighter pens to annotate work o Use a glossary of terms in a vocabulary book or poster o Vary colour, font style/size in visual aids in leaner's handouts o Number sentences or bullet points

Approaches to teaching and learning

Auditory learning techniques o Listen to leaner's (teacher and peers) o Talk through ideas on posters, boards, handouts o Ask questions which exploit auditory skills: What does it sound like? o Introduce new words through language games o Give thinking time in group activities o Use musical connections to words (sing alphabet, use rhyme)

Approaches to teaching and learning

Kinaesthetic learning techniques o Use breaks/pauses to get leaner's moving, even within the room o Use role play or practical activities o Put words on cards to be sorted into types o Write letters on cards to make works o Use Post-it notes to record questions in lectures or demonstrations o Ask questions which exploit kinaesthetic skills: What did it feel like? o Provide opportunities for learners to do things

Functional Skills

Functional skills are a development initiative to standardise qualifications for English, Maths and ICT. In the past they have been known by several different names: Core skills Common skills Basic skills Key skills Minimum core

Functional Skills
Irrespective of the name, functional skills refers to the mastery of English/Literacy, Maths/Numeracy and ICT/Information Technology. These are the skills that underpin all learning and without them learners will struggle to meet the demands of their qualification, the world of work and life skills.

Functional Skills Qualifications were planned to be fully launched in 2010. In the interim, existing qualifications will remain and pilot programmes will gradually introduce the new revised qualification.

Functional Skills
Embedding functional skills into teaching and learning activities Embedding skills means that functional skills (things like literacy, numeracy and information technology) are taught within the main subject topic in a seamless way. Integrating functional skills into your teaching mean that you will set activities which meet the literacy and numeracy standards; they may or may not be in context. By incorporating functional skills into every activity they will become embedded. Every activity that occurs in a teaching and learning session had the potential to gather information which demonstrates a leaner's ability against functional skills the level of the functional skill will be determined by the complexity of the information. The following table demonstrates some examples of embedded functional skills.

Functional Skills
A leaner who is listening to the teacher at the beginning of a class is listening for and identifying relevant information In a question and answer session the learner will be both listening and speaking, or if it is a written question sheet they will be reading and writing By designing a poster for display in the classroom, in addition to the subject matter the learner will have to: Calculate the overall size of the poster Estimate the size of the smaller parts to be attached to the poster Decide on the ratio and proportion of text, picture and white space Present information in a visual format Gather data from a variety of sources the internet, books, magazines, people, etc. Write text (handwritten or word processed) Read data sources Interpret and summarise information Display image or pictures

Functional Skills
A catering leaner baking a cake will have to: read the recipe Interpret the information into a time plan of work Calculate the time the task will take Estimate the size and number of bowls required Measure the ingredients Talk to the teacher or support worker for advice and listen to their reply Talk to other leaner's, hopefully about the cake! Solve problems relating to the planned activity A visit to a supermarket will require the leaner's to: Write a shopping list Calculate the cost of two or more items Compare the price/weight of similar items Talk to shop assistants/cashiers Follow basic instructions Listen to total cost of shopping and give money Calculate the amount of change needed.

Functional Skills
A group of leaner's, investigate a topic and presenting their findings to the group will: Respond to extended questions on a range of topics Speak clearly and confidently using informal and formal language Design a presentation using IT software Present information grammatically correct, in a logical order and proofread the work Present information in graphical format Contribute within the group, engage in discussion about findings, arguments and opinions Summarise information from a number of sources

Functional Skills
Functional skills are essential; they will help your leaner's to achieve and succeed in life. By embedding the functional skills into the curriculum both you and your learners can overcome the fear of English and maths, which may have been a barrier to earlier success in the subject. Sometimes giving something a different label, whilst confusing the teacher, may side track the leaner into success.


Resources are the equipment and aids that a teacher or learner will use to promote learning. They can be classified in the same way that learner styles are classified and therefore a teacher will be able to choose resources to meet individual needs (differentiated)

Visual o Boards chalk, wipe, chart or electronic o Printed handouts, overhead projector (OHP), posters o PowerPoint presentation with note style handout (auditory + visual + kinaesthetic) Auditory o Tape recordings o Video/DVD hearing + sight Kinaesthetic o Models o Games

Resources - Some examples of resources and their link to learning styles.

Resources Purpose of Using Resources

Increase understanding Reinforce key facts Create deeper learning Motivate Variety Effective use of time Simplify ideas

Resources - Boards
Includes chalk boards, white or wipe boards, flipcharts and stands, electronic boards. Chalk boards are a little outdated now due to the dust they create, but may still be found in some teaching venues. More commonly, you will see the dust-free wipe boards or flip charts and stands. On a safety note, beware of the fumes that are given off by some permanent pens. More and more often you will see electronic or interactive boards in rooms.

Resources - Projectors
Overhead projectors (OHPs) are used to display overhead transparencies (OHTs). They are common in most areas and there are portable varieties for those working in community based venues. The skill in the use of the OHP is in the creation of professional OHTs. The modern equivalent is the laptop computer and a portable or ceiling-mounted projector.

Resource - Handouts
Handouts are the most commonly used resource due to availability of photocopying and printing facilities. Their versatility makes them useful in the classroom as information sheets, records of key words, aides-memoire, question sheets or notes pages. When creating a handout, the teacher should always consider the purpose of the resource:

Resource - Handouts
o Is it to be used to support the session or as additional information? o Are learners expected to write on it? o Does it need hole-punching to put into files? o Would it be better with pictures? o Does it comply with copyright guidance? o Is it user-friendly and does it respect equality of opportunity? o Is the writing eligible o Will learners read it or just file it? o Would coloured paper or coloured font make it clearer to read?

Resource Model and Games

These offer visual and kinaesthetic learners the opportunity to see or feel an item. A model is three-dimensional and can be a tactile way of looking at something

Resource Audio visual resources

For example, DVD, video slide shows. These are frequently used resources and offer good ways of visualising an activity or initiating discussion. They are usually of a high standard. If recording items from the television or radio, you should ensure that you have the necessary permissions for use. Again, as with teaching with learning activities, the success of resources will be variety: variety in terms of resources used and the way in which the teacher uses them, but also in terms of meeting needs of learners.