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MANAGERIAL FUNCTIONS

PLANNING ORGANISING STAFFING LEADING CONTROLING

ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR
A field of study that investigates the impact

that individuals, groups and structure have on behaviour within organisations, for the purpose of applying such knowledge toward improving an organisations effectiveness

DISCIPLINES THAT CONTRIBUTE TO THE OB FEILD


PSYCHOLOGY SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY SOCIOLOGY ANTHROPOLOGY

CHALLENGES & OPPORTUNITIES


RESPONDING TO GLOBALISATION 1. Increased Foreign Assignment 2. Working with people from different culture 3. Coping with anticapitalism backlash 4. Overseeing movement of jobs to countries

with low-cost 5. Managing people during the war on terror

contd
MANAGING WORK FORCE DIVERSITY IMPROVING QUALITY & PRODUCTIVITY IMPROVING CUSTOMER SERVICE IMPROVING PEOPLE SKILLS STIMULATING INNOVATION AND CHANGE COPING WITH temporariness WORKING IN NETWORKED ORGANISATIONS

WORK FORCE DIVERSITY


Gender Race National Origin Age Disability Domestic partners Religion

OPPORTUNITIES
HELPING EMPLOYEES BALANCE WORK-

LIFE CONFLICTS CREATING A POSITIVE WORK ENVIRONMENT IMPROVING ETHICAL BEHAVIOUR

personality
The sum total of ways in which individual

reacts to and interacts with others

Measuring personality
Self assessment Observer rating surveys Rorschach ink blot test Thematic apperception test( Murray and

Morgan)

contd
Personality inventories a. Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory

550 items to answer-true , false ,or not known b. Sixteen personality factor questionnaires Interview Case history method

Personality determinants
Heredity Environmental factors HEREDITY: factors determined at

conception, ones biological, physiological ,and inherent psychological make up Culture Situation family

Personality of twins

PERSONALITY TRAITS
Enduring characteristics that describes an

individuals behaviour When someone exhibits these characteristics ( shy, loyal, lazy ,timid )in large number of situations we call them personality traits

TRAIT THEORIES(biological)
Myers Briggs Type Indicator(MBTI) Big five model

MBTI
100 questions personality test On the basis of this people are classified as Extraverted or Introverted(E or I) Sensing Or Intuitive(S or N) Thinking Or Feeling(T or F) Judging Or Perceiving(J or P)

THE BIG FIVE MODEL


EXTRAVERSION AGREEABLENESS CONSCIENTIOUSNESS EMOTIONAL STABILITY OPENNESS TO EXPERIENCE

Other trait theories

Gordon Allports trait theory


Cardinal traits Central traits Secondary traits

contd

Source trait

Causal factor trait that determines how a person responds


Manifestation of a source trait

Surface trait

contd
Abstractedness: Imaginative versus practical

Apprehension: Worried versus confident

Dominance: Forceful versus submissive

contd
Emotional Stability: Calm versus high strung

Liveliness: Spontaneous versus restrained

Openness to Change: Flexible versus attached to the familiar

Perfectionism: Controlled versus undisciplined

contd
Privateness: Discreet versus open

Reasoning: Abstract versus concrete

Rule Consciousness: Conforming versus nonconforming

Self-Reliance: Self-sufficient versus dependent

contd
Sensitivity: Tender-hearted versus tough-

minded.

Social Boldness: Uninhibited versus shy

Tension: Impatient versus relaxed

Vigilance: Suspicious versus trusting

Warmth: Outgoing versus reserved

Sheldons trait theory


Physical component of personality Soft-circular endomorphy Tough-muscular mesomorphy Linear-fragile ectomorphy Three different temperament 1. Viscerotonia-love and comfort&affectionate 2. Somtononia-physical adventure and risk taking 3. Cerebrotonia-restraint and inhibition

Sheldons trait theory

Job-fit theory

type realistic Physical activity

characteristics Shy, genuine Stable, conforming

occupation Mechanic, farmer operator

contd

type investigative organizing

characteristic analytical curious

occupation biologist News reporter

STRUCTURE OF PERSONALITY

Psychoanalytical theory

psychoanalysis

Functions of management
Planning Organizing Controlling leading

Personality & behaviour


Self monitoring Self-esteem Need patterns Locus of control Authoritarianism Machiavellianism Introversion and extraversion

Bureaucratic personality

Type A and Type B

Psychoanalytical social learning


Direct experience Observation
Parents Teachers Peers Bosses

models

Psychoanalytical social learning


Attention processes Retention process Motor reproduction

processes Reinforcement processes a) Direct b) Vicarious c) Self-administration

Time cools, time clarifies; no mood can be maintained and unaltered through the course of hours -MARK TWAIN

AFFECT
A broad range of feelings that people

experience

emotions
Intense feelings that are directed at someone

or something

moods
Feelings that tend to be less intense than

emotions and that lack a contextual stimulus

EQ-emotional intelligence
Emotional intelligence is the ability to detect

and deal with the emotions of oneself and others.

tools
Self-awareness Control of emotions Empathy Cooperation Resolving conflicts

Work force diversity


Cultural diversity Cultural difference Work force diversity Emotional intelligence

MODELS FOR ORGANISATIONAL CHANGE


Lewins Three Step Change Model Kotters Eight Step Plan
Harriss Five Phase Model Fullans Change Themes Set Greiners Six Phase Process

Kurt lewins planned change


Assumptions 1. Change involves learning 2. Organisational change involves individual

change 3. Motivation is inevitable for change 4. Resistance is must 5. Reinforcement is needed for sustaining change

Lewins change model

unfreezing

moving

refreezing

moving
Identification internalisation

Kotters eight step plan


Common errors that leaders make Inability to create an urgency Failure to create a coalition Absence of vision Failure to communicate vision Failure to remove obtstacles from path Tendency to declare victory soon Failure to anchor the changes into the organisations culture

Kotters eight steps


1) Establish a sense of urgency 2) Create guiding coalition 3) Develop a vision and strategy 4) Communicate the change vision 5) Empower broad-based action 6) Generate short term wins 7) Consolidate gains and produce more change

8) Anchor new changes in culture

Harriss five phase model


1. Planning and initiation 2. Momentum 3. Problems 4. Turning point 5. termination

Fullans change themes set


1) Change is learning 2) Change is a journey not a blue print 3) Problems are our friends 4) Change is resource hungry 5) Change requires the power to manage it 6) Change is systematic 7) Large scale is implemented locally

Greiners six-phase process


1. Pressure and arousal 2. Intervention and re-orientation 3. Diagnosis and recognition 4. Intervention and commitment 5. Experimentation and search 6. Reinforcement and acceptance

attitude
It is the tendency to react positively or

negatively in regard to an object

characteristics
Attitudes have an object Attitudes have direction , degree , intensity Attitude have structure Attitudes are learned

sources
Direct personal experiences Association Social learning

Attitude and consistency


Consistency theories

Consistency theories
Balance theory Congruity theory Cognitive dissonance theory

Attitude measurement
Thurstone type of scale Likert scale

Semantic differential
Opinion surveys Interviews

Self-fulfilling prophecy

values
Importance of values

Meaning and definition of values


Values shapes

attitudes ,personality Values are global beliefs that guide actions and judgements across of situations

beliefs perceptions behaviour , interests

characteristics
Part of culture Learned response Inculcated Social phenomenon Gratifying responses Adaptive process

Sources of values
Familial factors Social factors Personal factors Cultural factors Religious factors Life experiences Role demands

Halo effects

Types of values
Instrumental values Terminal values