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Chapter 4

Atoms and their structure

Modern View
The atom is mostly empty space. Has two regions. Nucleus Electron cloud

Structure of the Atom

There are two regions. 1. The nucleus- contains protons and neutrons.
Positive charge. Almost all the mass.

2. Electron cloud- most of the volume of an atom (empty space).


The region where the electron can be found.

Subatomic particles
Relative Actual mass (g) Name Symbol Charge mass Electron Proton Neutron ep+ n0 -1 +1 0 1/1840 9.11 x 10-28 1 1 1.67 x 10-24 1.67 x 10-24

Counting the Particles


Atomic Number

Atomic Mass

Atomic Number = number of protons (# p) # of protons determines kind of atom. Helps find the atom in the periodic table In neutral atom, atomic number = # of e Atomic mass - avg mass of all isotopes of the atom Mass Number = (rounded atomic mass) # p + # n All the things with mass. NOT on the periodic table

Example
if

an element has an atomic number of 34 and a mass number of 79 what is the number of protons number of neutrons number of electrons
Name

Element

Symbol

Atomic Number

Atomic Mass

Mass Number of Number Number Number Protons of of Electrons Neutron s

23Na

39

19

38
F

38

50
10

20
50
127I 24Mg

40

18
50 69

Atomic Structure Video

Isotopes
Dalton was wrong. Atoms of the same element not identical, may have different masses. called isotopes different number of neutrons . Do isotopes of an element have the same number of protons? Electrons?

Nuclear Symbols

Contain the symbol of the element, the mass number and the atomic number.

Mass number Atomic number

Naming Isotopes
Can also be represented as follows: Put the mass number after the name of the element. carbon- 12 carbon -14 uranium-235

Symbols

Find the number of protons number of neutrons number of electrons Atomic number Mass Number Name

24 11

Na

Symbols
Find

the number of protons number of neutrons number of electrons Atomic number Mass Number
Name

80 35

Br

Symbols
if

an element has 91 protons and 140 neutrons what is the Atomic number Mass number number of electrons Complete symbol
Name

Symbols
if

an element has 78 electrons and 117 neutrons what is the Atomic number Mass number number of protons Complete symbol
Name

Atomic Mass
Is not a whole number because it is an average. are the decimal numbers on the periodic table.