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CHEMISTRY: ELECTRONS AND REACTIVITY

SODIUM AND POTASSIUM IN WATER

1. Compare the reactions of sodium and potassium in water.


2. Why do you think that they reacted similarly?

Click for Sodium and Potassium Movie

The Periodic Table


Groups or families are vertical columns in the periodic table
The zig- zag line separates metals from non-metals

Group or family Period

With the discovery of isotopes by Mosley in 1909, the Periodic Table was reorganized by increasing atomic number (number of protons). This is modern Periodic Table we use today!
3
3

Atomic Number = # protons (+)

BOHR MODEL OF ATOM:

Symbol

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Na
22.998
Atomic Mass = Mass # (rounded)= protons + neutrons

Energy Level filling 2 8 8 or 18 32

P+

Level 1 Level 2

Sodium contains how many of the following? Atomic # Mass # Protons Neutrons Electrons

LIGHTNING QUESTIONS

How many protons and electrons are found in an atom of Chlorine? How many neutrons are found in an atom of Sodium (Na) that has a mass number of 23 amu? What happens to an atom when you add another proton? How can you change the mass number of an atom of sodium?

COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING TABLE FOR ELEMENTS 1-21


Element Symbol LI Atomi Atomic c # Mass 3 6.941 Mass # 7 # Proton s 3 # # Neutron Electron s s 4 3 Bohr Model
2e3 4

1e-

1. How many outer shell electrons are present in all group 1A Elements? In Group 2A? In Group 3A? In Group 4A? 5A? 6A? 7A? 8A?

VALENCE ELECTRONS

These are the electrons found in the last level of an atom.

They are the MOST important electrons in determining the reactivity of an atom.
Elements with the same number of valence electrons will react similarly. As a rule elements in the same group have the same number of valence electrons. For example: Hydrogen, Lithium, Sodium etc all have 1 valence electron. GROUPS 1A 8A GIVE THE # OF VALENCE ELECTRONS

VALENCE ELECTRONS

Lithium is #3 in the periodic table. So it has THREE electrons. As we had stated before two electrons are in first level, leaving ONE electron in level 2. So Lithium has ONE valence electron.

LIGHTNING QUESTIONS!!!

How many electrons are there in an atom of Sulfur (S)?

How many valence electrons are found in an atom of Sulfur?

Name an element that would have similar chemical properties to Sulfur. Click here for: Graphing Lab #2 Click here: Post Lab Clip

WHY DO ELEMENTS REACT AND FORM COMPOUNDS?

Elements react in order to have 8 valence


electrons in their last energy level. This is called the Octet Rule In order to complete follow the octet rule, elements either gain or lose electrons and for IONS. Cations = lose e- form positive ions Anions = gain electrons and form negative ions Build and Atom Simulation

CA +2

CATIONS AND ANIONS

N-3

Metals lose their valence electrons to form cations Cations = positive. (Cats whiskers) Click here for: Cation clip

Nonmetals will gain enough electrons to form anions. They will take as many electrons they need to get 8 valence electrons. Anions = negative (An means to negate)
Click here for: Anion clip

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MULTIPLE CHOICE SAMPLE QUESTIONS


1.

Mr. Lopezs science class is playing an educational game to study the periodic table. He gives Trahn a card with some clues to help him identify a particular group on the periodic table. Below is Trahns card.

Which chemical group 1. Reacts with water to form basic solutions 2. Readily combines in nature to form other compounds 3. Loses 2 outer energy level electrons to form +2 ions

Trahns card describes which group on the periodic table? F. Group 1 G. Group 2 H. Group 16 I. Group 18
FCAT Science Sample Test Book 2007

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MULTIPLE CHOICE SAMPLE QUESTIONS


Julio is given an unknown element to study. After carefully analyzing his element he arrives at the following conclusions. His element has a very low density and when it reacts with other elements it gains 3 electrons to form an anion with a -3 charge.

In which of the following groups could we find Julios element?


A) Group 3 B) Group 5 C) Group 13 D) Group 15

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MULTIPLE CHOICE SAMPLE QUESTIONS


3. Suppose a scientist makes an unexpected discovery about the possible existence of a new element. The finding does not fit well with the initial hypothesis. The scientist is a member of a team of researchers. If the team behaves according to the best principles of scientific inquiry, which of the following would NOT occur? A) rejection of the finding as being impossible. B) willingness to repeat the studies that led to the finding for confirmation. C) urging the scientist to communicate findings to other researchers. D) insistence on reviewing all data carefully and systematically for any errors.

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