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Chapter 3: MatterProperties and Changes

Section 3.4 Types of Matter Elements & Compounds

What is matter?
Anything that has mass and takes up space Mass is a measurement of the amount of matter in an object. It is different than weight which measures the amount of matter AND the gravitational pull on an object.

Now that youre an expert, which of the following is matter?


Matter 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. A book A house A thought Your brain Light Your cell phone Radio waves Not Matter

There is so many different kinds of matter, that we need to organize it.


Substances have a uniform and unchanging composition examples: salt,
water, sugar

Chemical symbols
Make it easy to write the formulas for chemical compounds Ex: salt water NaCl H2 O

Elements
A pure substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by physical or chemical means 91 naturally occurring elements Symbolized by one capital letter or one capital letter and 1 lower case
ex: S = sulfur Na = sodium

In mid 1800s, no chart for organizing the elements that were known at the time

Dmitri Mendeleev--1869

-Organized the known elements into a table of rows and columns based on their similarities and masses.

Periodic table
Organized into horizontal rows called periods and vertical columns called families Called periodic because properties of elements repeat as you move from period to period Mendeleevs table left blank spaces for elements yet to be discovered and predicted their properties

Compounds
A combination of 2 or more different elements that are combined chemically Most of the matter in the universe are compounds Ex: water (H2O), sugar (C12H22O11), salt (NaCl), aspirin (C9H8O4)

Compounds
Can be broken down into simpler substances by chemical means Usually requires energy

Compounds
Properties of a compound are different from its component elements Ex: waterliquid at room temp.
Hydrogena colorless, tasteless gas Oxygena colorless, tasteless gas

Sodium chloride
As a compound, it is a white, unreactive solid that adds flavor to food Its component elements:
Chlorinepoisonous, pale, green gas

Sodiuma highly reactive element that fizzes in water

States of Matter
Classification based upon the following: Particle arrangement Energy of particles Distance between particles State of matter is dependent on temperature and pressure of the surroundings

3 states of matter

States of Matter
1. Solidhas a definite shape and volume exs: wood, desk, shoes, sugar -particles are tightly packed, incompressible

States of Matter
2. Liquidshave a constant volume,
-no definite shape -takes the shape of its container -particles are not held rigidly in place, allows material to flow

States of Matter
3. Gaseshave no definite shape or volume -particles are very far apart -particles are easily compressed

Section 3.3
Mixtures of Matter

Mixtures
A combination of 2 or more pure substances in which each pure substance retains its individual chemical properties.

Types of Mixtures
1. Heterogeneousindividual substances remain distinct

Types of Mixtures
2. Homogeneoushas a constant composition throughout -called a solution

Types of Solutions
Gas-gas: air Gas-liquid: soft drinks Liquid-gas: moist air Liquid-liquid: vinegar Solid-liquid: Crystal Light Solid-solid: steel (called alloysmixture of metals producing greater strength)

Separating Mixtures
1. Physical separation: hand selection or pouring through sieves

Separating Mixtures
2. Filtrationuses a porous barrier to separate a solid from a liquid

Separating Mixtures
3. Distillationbased on differences in the boiling points of the substances involved

Separating Mixtures
4. Crystallizationresults in the formation of pure solid particles of a substance from a solution containing the dissolved substance

Separating Mixtures
5. Chromatography separating the components of a mixture based on the tendency of each to travel across the surface of another material.

Matter

Mixtures

Pure substances

Heterogeneous Mixtures

Homogeneous Mixtures

Elements

Compounds

Dirt, blood, milk

Lemonade, gasoline, steel

Oxygen, gold, iron

Salt, baking soda, sugar

Section 3.1
Properties of Matter

Physical Properties of Matter


A characteristic that can be observed or measured without changing the composition of the sample Properties such as density, color, odor, taste, hardness, melting point, boiling point

Physical Properties of Matter: Two Types


1. Extensive: dependent on the amount of substance present --length, volume 2. Intensive: independent of the amount of substance present --density, melting point, boiling point --used to identify substances

Chemical Properties
Ability or inability of a substance to combine with or change into one or more other substances

Physical Properties

Chemical Properties

Conducts Forms dark blue electricity solution with Malleable ammonia Ductile Forms green compound when Reddish brown exposed to air Shiny Density = 8.92 g/cm3 Melting pt = 1085C Boiling pt = 2570C

Classify each as a physical or chemical property:


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Iron and oxygen form rust. Iron is more dense than aluminum Magnesium burns brightly when ignited. Oil and water do not mix. Mercury melts at -39C.

Section 3.2
Changes in Matter

Physical Change
Changes in a substances appearance, not in composition

Types of physical changes:


Bend, grind, crumple Split, crush, twist

Boil, freeze, melt, vaporize


(changes of state or phase)

Chemical Changes
A change in the composition of a substance Also called a chemical change or chemical reaction Ex: rust, corrode, tarnish, rot, burn, ferment, explode, oxidize

becomes

The substance has changed.


becomes

Evidence of Chemical Change

2. Energy change: absorbed or released

3. Odor changes or production

4. Gas production 5. Precipitate formation

Classify each as a physical or chemical change:


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. A dead fish rotting Dissolving salt in water Boiling salt water until only salt remains Melting steel Bending steel Cracking ice

Section 3.3 & 3.4


Laws of Matter

Law of Conservation of Mass


Mass is neither created nor destroyed during a chemical reactionit is conserved. (Antoine Lavoisier)

Mass of reactants = Mass of products

Antoine Lavoisiera French scientist


o 1743-1794 o Father of Modern Chemistry

o One of the first to use an analytical balance

When you burn a big pile of wood, why do you only end up with a tiny pile of ashes?

In an experiment, 10.00 g of red mercury (II) oxide powder is placed in an open flask and heated until it is converted to liquid mercury and oxygen gas. The liquid mercury has a mass of 9.26 g. What is the mass of oxygen formed in the reaction?

Practice problemspg. 65 #6, 7, 9

Law of Definite Proportions


John Dalton A pure substance will always have the same percent by weight Ex: water (H2O) = 11.2 % hydrogen 88.8% oxygen

To find percent by mass:


Percent by mass = mass of element x 100 mass of compound

Analysis of sugar:
20.0 g sugar 500.0 g sugar

Carbon

8.44 g

42.2%

Carbon

211.0 g

42.2%

Hydrogen

1.30 g

6.5%

Hydrogen

32.5 g

6.5%

Oxygen

10.26 g

51.30%

Oxygen

256.5 g

51.30%

Therefore
Sugar always has the same proportions of ingredients If a substance has different proportions, it is a different substance

A 78.8 g sample of an unknown compound contains 12.4 g of hydrogen. What is the percent by mass of hydrogen in the compound?

Percent by mass =

mass of element x 100 mass of compound

Practice problemspg. 76 #21-24

Law of Multiple Proportions


When different compounds are formed using the same elements, different masses of one element combine with the same relative mass of the other element in small, whole number ratios.

Carbon monoxide/carbon dioxide


CO CO2

O= C=

1 1

O= C=

2 1

Copper (I) chloride

Copper (II) chloride