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COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT AND LANGUAGE

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Overview
A Definition of Development Piagets Theory of Cognitive Development Vygotskys Sociocultural Perspective Implications of Piagets & Vygotskys Theories for Teachers The Development of Language
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Language Development

Concept Map for A Definition of Chapter 2 Development


Cognitive Development and Language Piagets Theory of Cognitive Development

Implications: Piaget & Vygotsky

Vygotskys Sociocultural Theory


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Development is
Cognitive Social Physical Personal

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Principles of Development
Development
Occurs at different rates

Is relatively orderly
Happens gradually
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Brain Development
Neurons & synapses Plasticity Specialization and integration Lateralization Brain function affects learning
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Piagets Theory of Cognitive Development Organization


Schemes / schema Adaptation Assimilation Accommodation Equilibration/ Disequilibrium
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Schemes of Learning

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Piagets 4 Stages of Cognitive Development


Sensorimotor Preoperational Concrete operations Formal operations

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Piagets Stages of Cognitive Development

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Sensorimotor Stage: 02 Years


Learning through 5 senses Develops object permanence The beginning of goal-directed actions

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Preoperational Stage: 27 years


Semiotic function ability to use symbols One-way logic Difficulty with the principle of conservation Egocentrism Collective monologue
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Centration

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Reversible Thinking

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Concrete Operational Stage: 711 years


Hands on thinking

Identity Compensation Reversibility Classification Seriation


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Piagetian Class Inclusion Problem

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Formal Operational Stage: 11 years to adult


Hypothetico-deductive reasoning Abstract thinking Scientific reasoning Adolescent egocentrism & imaginary audience Not all individuals reach this stage

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Limitations of Piagets Theory


Issues with stage model

Underestimates children's abilities


Overlooks influence of cultural and social groups
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Teaching Model

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Social interactions shape learning Knowledge is co-constructed Adults and peers scaffold Zone of Proximal Development Cultural tools Private speech & self talk are selfguiding
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Vygotskys Sociocultural Perspective

Private Speech: Piaget & Vygotsky


Piaget Vygotsky

Developmental Significance Course of Development Relationship to Social Speech Relationship to Environmental Context

Not yet able to converse Declines with age Negative; immature Piaget did not comment
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Externalized thinking Increases in youth, then is internalized Positive; prompted Increases with task difficulty

Limitations to Vygotskys Theory


Humans may be more biologically predisposed to learn Consists mostly of general ideas He did not detail cognitive processes underlying developmental changes He developed few applications of his theories for teaching
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Implications of Piagets Theory for Teachers


Gives understanding of how students think Match teaching approach to each cognitive stage Since learners construct knowledge, teachers can build on what is learned Learners learn through play Disequilibrium motivates learning
See Woolfolk, Guidelines pp. 32, 34, 37
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Implications of Vygotskys Theory for Teachers


Provides assisted learning pairs Use scaffolding to find the zone of proximal development Engage in collaborative learning

Provide alternative assessments Identify the funds of knowledge from the familys culture
See Woolfolk, Guidelines, p. 50
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Reflection Questions
Compare: The role of social transmission in Piagets and Vygotskys theories. Implications for teaching when applying Piagets and Vygotskys theories. Creating disequilibrium with finding the zone of proximal development.
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Language Development
Cultures shape cognitive ability Benefits of learning multiple languages Loss of heritage language Teachers partner with parents Teachers use strategies to encourage development
*For Specific Strategies, See Woolfolk, Table 2.5, p. 53 Allyn & Bacon 2007

Language Development
Age 0-1
1-2 2-3 4-5

Vocabulary Milestones 1-2 words Imitates, hears name


5-20 words 2 word sentences 450 words Uses adjectives 1500 words Past tense, questions

5-6

10,000 words

Uses relational terms


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Language Development: Elementary School Years Some still learning


Pronunciation of s, z, v, th, zh Syntax of complex clauses, passive voice Vocabulary - from 10,000 to 40,000 words Pragmatics - appropriate use Metalinguistic awareness
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Diversity
Piagets conservation concepts develop years earlier or later depending on the cultural value they are given. Different families promote different kinds of language development, e.g., Some right & wrong answers, Others story telling
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Convergences
Cognitive development requires physical and social stimulation Development requires activity Play matters There is an optimal zone for learning Challenge with support will keep students engaged, not fearful
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Summary
Definition of Development Piagets Theory of Cognitive Development Implications of Piagets Theory Vygotsky Sociocultural Perspective Implications of Vygotskys Theory Development of Language
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Review Questions

What are the different kinds of development? Describe the three principles of development. What part of the brain is associated with higher mental functions? What is lateralization and why is it important? What are the main influences on cognitive development? What is a scheme?
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Review Questions
As children move through Piagets four stages, what are the major changes? What is the problem of the match? What is active learning? Why is Piagets theory consistent with active learning? What are some limitations of Piagets theory? What is assisted learning? Scaffolding?
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Review Questions
What is a students zone of proximal development? Explain how interpsychological development becomes intrapsychological development. What are the differences between Piagets and Vygotskys view of private speech and its role in development? Describe teacher actions and responses that encourage language development.
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Short Answer
When a child can focus on both width and length of two triangles in order to compare their areas, Piaget would say that the child is capable of _________________.
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Short Answer
When a child can focus on both width and length of two triangles in order to compare their areas, Piaget would say that the child is capable of decentering.

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Multiple Choice
According to Vygotsky, which of the following would be most influential on a childs learning? a. Social transmission b. Cognitive level c. Repetition of information d. Maturation
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Multiple Choice
According to Vygotsky, which of the following would be most influential on a childs learning? a. Social transmission b. Cognitive level c. Repetition of information d. Maturation
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Compare & Contrast Theories


Piaget
Key Concepts Role of Teacher Can development be accelerated? How does a childs thinking change? What is the role of social interaction?

Vygotsky

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Ways to Remember
Piagets influences on development? Piagets four stages? The zone of proximal development?

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MyLabSchool
Review this video clip and answer the related questions: Multiple Intelligences in the Classroom
(Assignment ID EPV2)

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