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INTRODUCTION TO RECTIFIER

Although in our daily life we use A.C. current devices. But rectifier is a Electronic device which converts A.C. power into D.C. power. The study of the junction diode characteristics reveals that the junction diode offers a low resistance path, when forward biased, and a high resistance path, when reverse biased. This feature of the junction diode enables it to be used as a rectifier.

The alternating signals provides opposite kind of biased voltage at the junction after each half-cycle. If the junction is forward biased in the first half-cycle, its gets reverse biased in the second half. It results in the flow of forward current in one direction only and thus the signal gets rectified. In other words, we can say, when an alternating e.m.f. signal is applied across a junction diode, it will conduct only during those alternate half cycles, which biased it in forward direction.

CLASSIFICATION
. However, all rectifier circuits may be classified into one of two categories, as follows: 1) HALF WAVE RECTIFIER 2) FULL WAVE RECTIFIER

HALF WAVE RECTIFIER


The purpose of the half wave rectifier section is to convert the incoming ac from a transformer or other ac power source to some form of pulsating dc. That is, it takes current that flows alternately in both directions as shown in the first figure to the right, and modifies it so that the output current flows only in one direction, as shown in the second and third figures below..

FIGURE

THEORY
In half wave rectification of a single-phase supply, either the positive or negative half of the AC wave is passed, while the other half is blocked. Because only one half of the input waveform reaches the output, mean voltage is lower. Half-wave rectification requires a single diode in a single-phase supply, or three in a three-phase supply.

The simplest rectifier circuit is nothing more than a diode connected in series with the ac input, as shown to the right. Since a diode passes current in only one direction, only half of the incoming ac wave will reach the rectifier output. Thus, this is a basic half-wave rectifier.

The orientation of the diode matters; as shown, it passes only the positive half-cycle of the ac input, so the output voltage contains a positive dc component. If the diode were to be reversed, the negative half-cycle would be passed instead, and the dc component of the output would have a negative polarity. In either case, the DC component of the output waveform is vp/?=0.3183vp, where vp is the peak voltage output from the transformer secondery winding.

It is also quite possible to use two half-wave rectifiers together, as shown in the second figure to the right. This arrangement provides both positive and negative output voltages, with each output utilizing half of the incoming ac cycle. Note that in all cases, the lower transformer connection also serves as the common reference point for the output.

It is typically connected to the common ground of the overall circuit. This can be very important in some applications. The transformer windings are of course electrically insulated from the iron core, and that core is normally grounded by the fact that it is bolted physically to the metal chassis (box) that supports the entire circuit. By also grounding one end of the secondary winding, we help ensure that this winding will never experience even momentary voltages that might overload the insulation and damage the transformer.

A real rectifier will have a characteristic which drops part of the input voltage (a voltage drop, for silicon devices, of typically 0.7 volts plus an equivalent resistance, in general nonlinear), and at high frequencies will distort waveforms in other ways; unlike an ideal rectifier, it will dissipate power. Rectifiers yield a unidirectional but pulsating direct current; half-wave rectifiers produce far more ripple than full-wave rectifiers, and much more filtering is needed to eliminate harmonics of the AC frequency from the output.

ADVANTAGES
ADVANTAGES

1) Simplicity. A full wave rectifier takes twice the components in exchange for reduced ripple on the output. 2) In half wave rectifier there are only two diodes connecting opposite to each other , hence their is possibility 0f only 90 degree phase will gane to us .thus we got the dc voltage wave . The half wave rectifier is cheaper one,it will give the pure dc.

DISADVANTAGES
1) The output current in the load contains, in addition to dc component, ac components of basic frequency equal to that of the input voltage frequency. Ripple factor is high and an elaborate filtering is, therefore, required to give steady dc output. 2) .DC saturation of transformer core resulting in magnetizing current and hysteresis losses and generation of harmonics.

DISADVANTAGES
3) .The power output and, therefore, rectification efficiency is quite low. This is due to the fact that power is delivered only half the time. 4) Transformer utilization factor is low. 5) Since the peak-to-peak ripple voltage is lower, the head-room between filtered and regulated voltage is less, meaning less power is dissipated by the regulator.

APPLICATIONS
Half Wave Rectifier mostly used in Battery Applications.

EXPERIMENTAL SETUP
First take all the components of the experiiment Now put the step down transformer on the bread board. Place the Resistor and the Capacitor in the series of the step down transformer. Note down that the Resistor and the Capacitor are parallel to each other.

Now connect the Multimetre and take out the readings of the output. We can also place one voltage regulator for smooth reading of the output.

RESULT
By performing this experiment we get that the dc output from input of the ac. Here we give the input of 230 V ac to the Half Wave Rectifier and we get the 5 V dc voltage smooth by using the voltage regulator. This ac to dc voltage helps us in battery applications.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
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