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LEARNING OUTCOMES

• To state another function of the


circulatory system
• To identify the three lines of
defence mechanism
• To describe phagocytosis
• To state the meaning of antigen
& antibody
WHY DO WE NEED THE
BODY’S DEFENCE
MECHANISM?

• To defend the body against


disease-causing
microorganism (pathogens)
• Pathogens are bacteria,
viruses & parasites
• Transmitted by air,
contaminated food & water,
animal (vector) &
contaminated needles. Also
by contact.
MAIN LINES OF DEFENCE
• Non-Specific
Defence : First line
defence & Second
line defence
• Specific Defence :
Third line defence
BODY’S DEFENCE MECHANISM

NON-SPECIFIC SPECIFIC

1ST LINE 2ND LINE 3RD LINE

SKIN : sweat, sebum Phagocytosis by Antibodies produced by


phagocytes lymphocytes
MUCOUS
MEMBRANES :
secretion of mucus
FIRST LINE of DEFENCE
• Skin – physical barrier (dead keratinised
layer  difficult to penetrate
• If there is a cut, the blood clots quickly  to
prevent blood loss & entry of m/organisms
• Tears secreted by tear gland & acidic sebum
(sebaceous gland) – contain lysozymes
which destroy some bacteria
• Mucus (mucous membrane) in nasal cavity
& trachea traps dust particles & microbial
spores
• The cilia (respiratory tract) sweep the
trapped particles to the pharynx  swallow
SECOND LINE of
DEFENCE
• The phagocytic white blood cell are
attracted by chemicals produced at the
sites of infection and move to these
sites.
• Engulf & digest the pathogens
• The soluble products are absorbed &
assimilated by the phagocytes
• May also be destroyed by toxins
produced by the pathogens
• Number of leucocytes increases to try
to destroy the pathogen & neutralise
THIRD LINE of
MECHANISM
• In higher group of animals have a more specific immune
defence mechanism against pathogen  IMMUNE
SYSTEM
• Two main types of lymphocytes :
– B-lymphocytes  produce antibodies
– T-lymphocytes  attack cells infected by pathogen or which
produce certain chemicals to coordinate the immunes response.
• ANTIGENS – large complex molecules
(proteins/polysaccharides) that the immune system recognises
as foreign found on the cell membrane of
m/organisms/dissolved in the blood plasma/interstitial fluid.
THIRD LINE of MECHANISM
(cont…)
• ANTIBODIES – A protein produced by
lymphocytes in response to the entry of an
antigen into the body.
• IMMUNE RESPONSE – interaction
between antibody & antigen which result
in the antigen being eliminated from the
body
MECHANISM TO DESTROY
ANTIGENS
AGGLUTINATION : the clumping of antigens  easy
targets for phagocytes to destroy

NEUTRALISATION : toxin are made non-toxic by


reaction with the antibodies

LYSIS : lysin (antibodies) bind to antigens  cause


antigens/pathogens to rupture

OPSONISATION : The binding of antibodies to


antigens stimulate phagocytes (macrophage) to
destroy the antigens.
• IMMUNITY : The state in which
the body is resistant to infection
by a disease-causing pathogens
@ the ability of an animal or
plant to resist infection by
pathogens
• IMMUNISATION : The process of
inducing immunity by
administering a vaccine
Defence system

Non specific Divided into


specific
is
Divided into
3rd line
1st line 2nd line through
eg are produce
lymphocyte antibody
Phagocyte
•Skin Carry out gives
immunity
•mucous Phagocytosis
Divided into
membrane passive active immunisation

Divided into Divided into

artificial natural natural artificial


VARIOUS TYPES OF
IMMUNITY
• ACTIVE IMMUNITY : when an
individual’s own immune system
produces its own antibodies to
defend against specific antigens

• Natural Active Immunity : after


recovered from certain disease
(examples : mumps, measles &
chicken pox)
• Artificial Active Immunity :
can be established upon
immunisation or vaccination.
(mumps, rubella, measles &
poliomyelitis)
VARIOUS TYPES of
IMMUNITY
• PASSIVE IMMUNITY : when an
individual is given the antibodies
required to defend against the
pathogen

• Natural Passive Immunity : when


antibodies produced by the mother
are passed across the placenta to the
foetus during development or in
early infancy through breast milk
(breast feeding). Colostrum (1st
formed milk) – rich in antibodies
• Artificial Passive Immunity : ready-made
antibody or serum is injected into the
individual. Prepared from cows or horses.
(rabies, hepatitis, tetanus & snakebites)
Ooo…sleeping in Biology
class ek?
So stubborn la.
Let me ‘teach’ U first before
Mr. FAZLI become angry!!!
Waa….mama!
Help me…. I don’t
want to fall asleep
in the class
anymore!!!
I SWEAR!!!