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Geothermal Energy?

Heat from within the earth.

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Tectonic Plate Movements

Boyle, Renewable Energy, 2nd edition, 2004

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Global Geothermal Sites

http://www.deutsches-museum.de/ausstell/dauer/umwelt/img/geothe.jpg

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Earth

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Geothermal

Geothermal

Greek word
Geo = earth Therme = heat

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Resources of Geothermal Energy

Porous rocks Hydro-thermal

Hot dry rocks Petro-thermal Geopressure

Magma Resources

Val canoes
Hot-Water Fields

Dry-steam

Wet-steam
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Advantages of Geothermal

http://www.earthsci.org/mineral/energy/geother/geother.htm

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Power Plant System

There are three designs for geothermal power plants, all of which pull hot water and steam from the ground, use it, and then return it as warm water to prolong the life of the heat source Dry steam Power Plant Flash Steam Power Plant Binary Cycle Power Plant
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Dry Steam Plant

. In the simplest design, the steam goes directly through the turbine, then into a condenser where the steam is condensed into water.

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Dry Steam Schematic

Boyle, Renewable Energy, 2nd edition, 2004

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Flash Steam Power Plant

http://www.worldenergy.org/wec-geis/publications/reports/ser/geo/geo.asp

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Flashed System

In a second approach, very hot water is depressurized or "flashed" into steam which can then be used to drive the turbine.

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Single Flash Steam Schematic

Boyle, Renewable Energy, 2nd edition, 2004

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Binary System

In the third approach, called a binary system, the hot water is passed through a heat exchanger, where it heats a second liquidsuch as isobutanein a closed loop. The isobutane boils at a lower temperature than water, so it is more easily converted into steam to run the turbine.

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Geysers

Clepsydra Geyser in Yellowstone

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geyser

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Hot Springs

Hot springs in Steamboat Springs area.

http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/solar.renewables/page/geothermal/geothermal.html

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Fumaroles

Clay Diablo Fumarole (CA)

White Island Fumarole New Zealand

http://lvo.wr.usgs.gov/cdf_main.htm

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http://volcano.und.edu/vwdocs/volc_images/img_white_island_fumerole.html

Methods of Heat Extraction

http://www.geothermal.ch/eng/vision.html

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Binary Cycle Schematic

Boyle, Renewable Energy, 2nd edition, 2004

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Hot Dry Rock Technology


Wells drilled 3-6 km into crust

Hot crystalline rock formations

Water pumped into formations Water flows through natural fissures picking up heat Hot water/steam returns to surface Steam used to generate power
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http://www.ees4.lanl.gov/hdr/

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Hot Dry Rock Technology

http://www.ees4.lanl.gov/hdr/

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Fenton Hill plant

Reservoir Temperature

Technology vs. Temperature


Reservoir Fluid Common Use

Technology commonly chosen

High Temperature >220oC (>430oF).

Water or Steam

Power Generation

Direct Use

Flash Steam Combined (Flash and Binary) Cycle Direct Fluid Use Heat Exchangers Heat Pumps Binary Cycle Direct Fluid Use Heat Exchangers Heat Pumps Direct Fluid Use Heat Exchangers

Intermediate Temperature 100-220oC (212 - 390oF). Low Temperature 50-150oC (120-300oF).

Water

Power Generation Direct Use

Water

Direct Use

http://www.worldbank.org/html/fpd/energy/geothermal/technology.htm

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Geothermal Performance

Boyle, Renewable Energy, 2nd edition, 2004

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Environmental Impacts

Water

Land

Vegetation loss Soil erosion Landslides

Watershed impact Damming streams Hydrothermal eruptions Lower water table Subsidence

Air

Noise Benign overall

Slight air heating Local fogging Reservoir cooling Seismicity (tremors)


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Ground

http://www.worldbank.org/html/fpd/energy/geothermal/assessment.htm

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Cost Factors

Temperature and depth of resource Type of resource (steam, liquid, mix) Available volume of resource Chemistry of resource Permeability of rock formations Size and technology of plant Infrastructure (roads, transmission lines)

http://www.worldbank.org/html/fpd/energy/geothermal/cost_factor.htm

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Costs of Geothermal Energy


Costs highly variable by site

Dependent on many cost factors

High exploration costs High initial capital, low operating costs

Fuel is free

Significant exploration & operating risk

Adds to overall capital costs Risk premium


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http://www.worldbank.org/html/fpd/energy/geothermal/

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Costs of Geothermal Energy


Costs highly variable by site

Dependent on many cost factors

High exploration costs High initial capital, low operating costs

Fuel is free Adds to overall capital costs

Significant exploration & operating risk

http://www.worldbank.org/html/fpd/energy/geothermal/

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Geothermal Development

http://www.worldbank.org/html/fpd/energy/geothermal/assessment.htm

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Cost of Water & Steam


Cost (US $/ tonne of steam) High temperature (>150oC) Medium Temperature (100-150oC) Low Temperature (<100oC) 3.5-6.0 3.0-4.5 20-40 Cost (US /tonne of hot water)

10-20

Table Geothermal Steam and Hot Water Supply Cost where drilling is required

http://www.worldbank.org/html/fpd/energy/geothermal/assessment.htm

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Unit Cost Unit Cost Cost of Geothermal Power (US /kWh) High Quality Resource Small plants (<5 MW) Medium Plants (5-30 MW) Large Plants (>30 MW) 5.0-7.0 4.0-6.0 (US /kWh) Medium Quality Resource 5.5-8.5 4.5-7

Unit Cost (US /kWh) Low Quality Resource 6.0-10.5 Normally not suitable Normally not suitable

2.5-5.0

4.0-6.0

http://www.worldbank.org/html/fpd/energy/geothermal/assessment.htm

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Geothermal Prospects

Environmentally very attractive Attractive energy source in right locations Likely to remain an adjunct to other larger energy sources

Part of a portfolio of energy technologies

Exploration risks and up-front capital costs remain a barrier

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Application

Generation of electric power Industrial Process heat Food processing Space heating for building Bathing facilities

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Environmental Effects
Air pollution emission of poisonous gases such as H2S,AMMONIA,METHANE,CARBON DIOXIDE etc. Noise Pollution Thermal Pollution Land subsidence caused by fluid withdrawal Dense fog on local atmosphere. Radio-active material escaping

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Thank

You!!!

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