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PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM

DEVELOPING AND AFECTIVE PERFORMANCE APPRISAL SYSTEM


R. Wayne Mondy Robert M. Noe Shane R. Premeaux Edisi 8
Oleh : 1. Jovita P. Montolalu 2. Robert Mangerongkonda 3. Merryane Karaeng

PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM

Performance Appraisal

Is a formal, structured way of measuring, evaluating, and influencing an employee. Involves the performance appraisal and the entire setting in which the appraisal take place.

PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM

PAS

The term Performance Appraisal System is uses.

PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM

Tujuan Penilaian Prestasi Kerja

Untuk mengetahui prestasi kerja karyawan di waktu yang lalu dan sebagai prediksi prestasi kerja di waktu yang akan datang. Penilaian dimaksudkan untuk mengetahui sejauh mana efektivitas perusahaan dalam mengangkat, menempatkan, dan memotivasi karyawan sesuai dengan visi, misi, values dan strategi organisasi

PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM

Uses of performance appraisal


Human Resource planning Recruitment and selection Training and development Career planning and development Compensation program Internal employee relations Assesment of employee potential

PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM

Factors affecting how well the system works


The

characteristic of the organization Characteristic of the rater The pool of employees being rated Individual employee

PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM

PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM

PAS requires the organization to :


Identify the needs of the business and the implication for managing human resources Conduct the job analysis to identify job duties and responsibilities for which criteria needs to developed Choose an appropriate and valid performance appraisal method to asses job behavior outcomes Develop a process for conveying job expectation to employees prior to the appraisal period Establish a feedback system relating to job performance Evaluate how well the PAS is doing in relation to its stated objectives and make necessary revisions

PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM

Identify specific performance appraisal goals Establish Job expectatioan (Job analysis)

Examine work performed

Appraisal Performance

Discuss Apraisal with Employee

i n t e r n a l e n v o ri n m e n t

E x t e r n a l e n v i r o n m e n t

PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM

Performance appraisal environmental factors


Legislation requires that appraisal system be nondiscliminatory Labor union Factors within the internal environment can also effect PAS process

PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM

PAS Cycle

PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM

PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM

Why PAS are important ??


PRODUCTIVITY IMPROVEMENT

TECHNOLOG Y

CAPITAL

HUMAN RESOURCES

PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM

Performance can be measured by an employees job related :

Output Behavior Attitudes Level of absenteeism Improvement potential

PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM

Dengan pengelolaan faktor manusia yang baik dan benar dapat menghasilkan kinerja organisasi yang optimal.

Merupakan kewajiban bagi organisasi agar selalu memastikan karyawan bekerja baik, kreatif, dan inovatif.

PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM

2 Tujuan utama PAS

Evaluative Developemental

PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM

The Evaluative category includes:

Performance Measurement Compensation Motivation

PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM

The Developemental category includes:

Management Development Identification of Potential Feedback Human Resources Planning Communication Performance Improvement Research and Legal Complience

LINE MANAGERS

Extensive Partnership in PAS


HR PROFESIONALS

EMPLOYEES

1. Work with HR Professional and employee to develop business relevant criteria for appraisal 2. Develop and understanding of how common appraisal error can be avoided 3. Fill out appraisal form carefully and conscientiously 4. Give constructive and honest feedback to the employees 5. Seek and accept constructive feedback about own performance 6. Use performance information for decision making

1. Work with line managers and employees to develop the criteria for appraisals 2. Coordinate the administrative aspect of the appraisals process 3. Train everyone who provides appraisal information (peers, subordinate, supervisor) how to avoid error in appraisal 4. Train line managers to give feedback 5. Support line managers in their effort to keep the performance management system going 6. See and accept constructive feedback about own performance

1. Work with line managers and HR professionals to develop criteria for appraisals 2. May appraise the work of other employee 3. May appraise their own performance 4. May appraise the performance of the Bos 5. See and accept constructive and honest feedback

PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM

Performance Appraisal as a system and procedures

PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM

Identifying Criteria
A valid PAS grows out of an analysis of the needs of the business and a job analysis that is identified important job duties and task Criteria are targets constituting job performance

At Chrysler, the criteria established for mangers included team work, communication, and quality

PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM

Outcomes and organizational effectiveness

Depending on the organizations strategy and its ability to measure performance, criteria that relate to individual or group job behavior or out comes, or overall organizational effectiveness.

Example Profitability, having high quality, meeting costumers service goals

PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM

Single or Multiple Criteria

If coordinating market activities is the only job duty, than only the criteria that relate to the single duty are needed. More often, however, jobs are multidimensional, composed of numerous duties and related task.

Weighting Criteria

PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM

Matching the purpose to the period

Most organization require formal performance review seasons at six-month to one-year intervals The evaluation period can also very depending on the purpose of the appraisal

PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM

The Appraisal Period


Typically prepared at specific intervals Usually made either annually or semiannually Appraisal period may begin with each employees date of hire. All employees may be evaluated at the same time

PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM

Choice of raters

Appraisals sources includes:

Immediate Supervisor Peers Subordinetes Self-appraisal Customers Computer monitoring

SUCCESSFUL PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL

UNSUCESSFUL PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL

1. We were both prepared 2. Employer backed up all the negative and positive feedback with examplesmade me feel she really understood and thought about my work 3. The feedback was supported by naratives and review of goals and objectives 4. It give me developmental feedback that I learned from 5. It provided freedom of debate without retribution 6. It provide real, honest, open communication and sharing of experiences and expectations 7. My supervisor was open to clarifying statements that were ambiguous. We had a very honest exchange and I had a clear understanding 8. The process gave me an opportunity to highlight contribution, an opportunity to make suggestions.

1. Unprepared and preoccupied employer gave me only praise 2. My supervisor didi not take my work sheet input seriously 3. There was no elaboration on expectations and no real details about my accomplishments 4. Criticism was personal and not objective 5. Supevisor showed fear and lack of confort with giving me feedback 6. General feedback did not seem unique to me and was therefore not meaningful 7. One supervisor told me Ill let you know when you are not doing a good job, and that was the entire appraisal.

PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM

PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM

Characteristics of An Effective Appraisal System


Job related criteria Performance expectations Standardization Trained Appraisers Continuous Open communication Performance reviews Due Process

PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM

The Appraisal Interview

Before the interview - Schedule in advance (time, date, place) - Self review - Gather relevant information

PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM

Choose an interview style

Tell and sell approach, mereview prestasi kerja karyawan dan mencoba meyakinkan karyawan untuk berprestasi lebih baik. Tell and listen approach, memungkinkan karyawan untuk menjelaskan berbagai alasan, latar belakang dan perasaan defensif mengenai prestasi kerja. Problem solving approach: mengidentifikasi masalah-masalah yang mengganggu prestasi kerja karyawan, kemudian melalui latihan, coaching atau konseling upaya-upaya dilakukan untuk memecahkan penyimpanganpenyimpangan.

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PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM

Tips for the development of an action plan include

Stay focused; avoid irrelevant discussion Discuss objective performance indicators Focus on things the employee can control Ask employee to identify barriers to excellence Have employee suggest solution to problems Be open to suggestion for improving your own effectiveness Work out defined and measurable targets Get employees commitment to strive for new targets Set review date and follow through

PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM

Effective feedback

Whether negative or positive, feedback is not easy to provide

Effective feedback is information on performance that is understandable, acceptable, accepted, and invited Specific rather than general Focused on behavior rather than on the person Takes receivers needs in to account

PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM

Pendekatan Umpan balik bagi karyawan


Tekankan pada aspek positif prestasi kerja karyawan Beritahukan bahwa periode evaluasi adalah untuk meningkatkan prestasi, bukan menegakkan disiplin Selenggarakan periode review secara pribadi Review sekurang-kurangnya 1 tahun sekali Ajukan kritik-kritik specifik, bukan umum dan tidak jelas. Pusatkan kritik pada prestasi kerja, bukan pribadi

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PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM

Tenang dan tidak berdebat dengan orang yang dievaluasi. Identifikasi kegiatan-kegiatan khusus yang dapat dilakukan karyawan untuk memperbaiki prestasi kerja. Tunjukkan keinginan penilai untuk membantu usaha-usaha karyawan dan perbaikan prestasi kerja. Akhiri periode evaluasi dengan menekankan aspek-aspek positif prestasi kerja karyawan.

PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM

Positive Reinforcement system

Is the use of positive rewards to increase the occurrence of desires performance

People perform in ways that they find most rewarding to them By providing the proper rewards, it is possible to improve performance

PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM

Steps in a positive reinforcement system

Performance Audit

Performance standards or goals

Direct feedback to employee

Praise or other reinforcers from supervisor

PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM

The six rules for using reinforcement


Do not reward everyone the same way

Recognize that failure to respond also as reinforcing consequences

Tell people what they must do to be rewarded

Tell people what they are doing wrong

Do not punish anyone in front of others

Be fair

PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM

Upaya mengurangi Distorsi:


Pemberian

latihan bagi penilai Umpan balik. Pemilihan teknik-teknik penilaian prestasi secara tepat. (Hani Handoko, 1985: 103).

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PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM

Latihan untuk penilai:

Mencakup tiga tahap: 1. Kenali berbagai bias atau kesalahan dan penyebab-penyebabnya 2. Pentingnya sifat objektivitas dan tidak memihak. 3. Kesempatan menerapkan ukuranukuran prestasi kerja sebagai bagian latihan mereka.
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PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM

Umpan Balik untuk penilai:

Memungkinkan penilai memperbaiki perilaku mereka di masa mendatang

Pemilihan Teknik-teknik Penilaian: Metode yang berorientasi pada prestasi di masa lalu Metode yang berorientasi di masa depan

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PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM

Metode-Metode Penilaian

PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM

Ranking

Straight Rangking Dalam rangking langsung, atasan mengurutkan para pemegang jabatan, dari yang terbaik sampai yang terburuk, yang biasanya berdasarkan kinerja secara keseluruhan. Rangking semacam ini hanya cocok dalam organisasi kecil karena semakin banyak pemegang jabatan maka semakin sulit melihat perbedaan-perbedaan kinerja mereka

PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM

Alternative rangking

Penilai akan memilih pekerja yang terbaik untuk posisi teratas dan pekerja terburuk di posisi terburuk. Kemudian memilih pekerja kedua terbaik di posisi kedua terbaik dan pekerja terburuk kedua di posisi kedua terburuk. Demikian seterusnya hingga posisi yang tengah dapat terakhir diisi

PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM

Paired Comparison
Involves comparing each employee to every other employee, two at a time, on a single standard to determined who is better Problem : A is rated better than B B is rated better than C but C is rated better than A

PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM

Forced-distribution

Is used because the supperior must assign only a certain proportion of subordinates, to each saveral categories on each factor. A common forced distribution scale is divided in to fifve categories.
Lowest 10% 5 Next 20% 10 Middle 40% 20 Next 20% 10 Highest 10% 5

Number of employees 50

PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM

Rating Scale
Evaluasi subyektif dilakukan penilai terhadap karyawan dengan skala tertentu dari rendah sampai tinggi. Formulir penilaian biasanya diisi oleh atasan langsung dengan menandai tanggapan yang paling sesuai untuk setiap dimensi pelaksanaan kerja.

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Contoh Penilaian Rating Scale


Faktor-faktor Penilaian SB 5 B 4 S 3 J 2 SJ 1

1.
2. 3. 4. 5.

Keandalan
Inisiatif Kehadiran Sikap Kerjasama

n. Kualitas hasil kerja Total

Skor Total

PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM

BARS Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales


Langkah pertama yang harus dilakukan dalam metode ini adalah mengumpulkan data yang menggambarkan perilaku yang baik, rata-rata, dan buruk untuk masingmasing kategori jabatan. Kejadiankejadian ini kemudian dikelompokkan menjadi dasar penilaian yang akan dilakukan. Kemudian kejadian-kejadian tersebut diberi nilai sesuai dengan kontribusinya pada kinerjanya.

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PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM

Behavioral Observation Scales

Metode ini sangat mirip dengan BARS atau dengan Skala standar campuran. Perbedaan ini adalah bahwa BOS menilai kinerja pelayanan karyawan dengan cara megamati seberapa sering mereka melakukan kejadian-kejadian kritis (critical incidents) serta frerkuensi kejadian-kejadian tersebut. Nilai diperoleh tiap pelaku dengan memberi angka kepada penilaian frekuensi secara keseluruhan.

PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM

Checklist
Penilai tinggal memilih kalimat-kalimat atau kata-kata yang menggambarkan prestasi kerja dan karakteristik-karakteristik karyawan. Tanpa sepengetahuan penilai, bag. Personalia dapat memberikan bobot yang berbeda. Bisa memberikan suatu gambaran prestasi secara akurat, bila daftar penilaian berisi item-item yang memadai.

disembunyikan

Contoh
Cek disini
-

Bobot
1.

Dimensi Penilaian
Karyawan bersedia kerja lembur bila diminta

2.

Karyawan menjaga tempat kerja atau meja kerja tetap rapi


Karyawan bersedia membantu karyawan lain dengan sikap kerjasama Karyawan merencanakan

3.

4.

5.

Karyawan merawat peralatan dengan baik


Karyawan mendengarkan saran orang lain tetapi jarang mengikutinya

6.

PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM

Metode Peristiwa Kritis (Critical Incident Method)

Pendekatan dengan metode ini memerlukan kejelian dari penilai dalam mengamati setiap perilaku orang yang dinilai. Penilai diharuskan untuk mencatat apa yang akan dilakukan oleh orang tersebut apabila pada suatu waktu terjadi suatu kejadian yang berbeda dengan yang biasa dia alami. Penilai melihat respon dari orang yang dinilai, apakah orang tersebut dapat tetap fokus dan mendukung sasaran yang telah ditetapkan atau bahkan malah menghambat pencapaian sasaran yang telah ditetapkan.
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PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM

Contoh Critical incidents worksheet


Instruksi: pada setiap kategori di bawah, catat peristiwa-peristiwa khusus perilaku karyawan yang sangat baik atau sangat jelek. Nama Karyawan: Departemen: .. Nama Penilai: . Periode penilaian: .. Tanggal Perilaku karyawan positif .. .. Tanggal Perilaku karyawan negatif .. ..

PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM

Assessment Center
Primary use for assessment center is to identify and select employees for high level positions. May also be used as part of a management system that focuses on employee development. Useful to predict employee potential for advancement.

PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM

Assessment centers adalah suatu bentuk penilaian karyawan yang distandarisasikan dimana tergantung pada tipe penilaian dan penilai. Bisa wawancara mendalam, test psikologi, diskusi kelompok, simulasi dsb.
Metode ini biasanya dilakukan dengan pembentukan tim penilai khusus. Tim penilai khusus ini bisa dari luar, dari dalam, maupun kombinasi dari luar dan dari dalam.

PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM

Management By Objective (MBO)


Setiap karyawan dan penilai secara bersama menetapkan tujuan-tujuan atau sasaransasaran pelaksanaan pekerjaan di waktu yang akan datang. Kemudian, dilakukan penilaian bersama.

PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM

Management By Objective (MBO) Steps

PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM

360-degree appraisals

Metode penilaian 3600 mengusung mekanisme dimana kinerja seorang karyawan dinilai berdasarkan umpan balik dari setiap orang yang memiliki hubungan kerja dengannya - atasan, rekan kerja, mitra, anak buah, pelanggan Atasan bertemu dengan anak buah mereka untuk membahas umpan balik yang mereka terima dari banyak pihak. Tentu saja, pihak-pihak yang dimintai masukan ini terbatas pada orang-orang yang diyakini mampu menggambarkan kinerja si karyawan Karyawan akan terbantu untuk menilai diri mereka sebagaimana orang-orang di sekitar mereka melihat mereka. Umpan balik itu bisa mengungkapkan areaarea dimana si karyawan sudah menunjukkan

PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM

360-degree appraisals

Yang menarik, informasi ini bisa mencakup sejumlah aspek yang tidak disadari baik oleh si karyawan sendiri maupun oleh atasan mereka Mereka akan merasa lebih nyaman dinilai dari berbagai sudut oleh berbagai pihak, dan bukan hanya oleh atasan langsung maupun tak langsung yang dianggap memiliki pengetahuan terbatas mengenai apa yang telah mereka lakukan. Di sisi lain, para manajer juga akan melihat metode ini sebagai metode yang lebih objektif dan akurat. Mereka bisa mendapatkan umpan balik yang tidak bias dari sumber-sumber anonim yang mengetahui kinerja anak buah mereka, dan dengan demikian mereka juga bisa terbebas dari tuduhan melakukan favoritisme

PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM

PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM

Which Approach is Best?

Research on this question is limited Each approach can then be assesed in relation to the following criteria Strategic related to the needs of business Developemental motivating subordinate to do well, providing feedback, and aiding in HR Planning and career development Evaluation promotion, discharge, layoff, pay, and transfer decisions and, therefore, the ability to make comparison across subordinates and departements

PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM

Economical cost in the development, implementation, and use Freedom from error hallo, leniency, and central tendency and extend of reliability and validity Interpersonal the extend to which superiors can gather useful and valid appraisal data that facilitate the appraisal interview Practicality the ease with which the system can be developed or implemented User acceptance the degree to which users accept the appraisal format as being reliable, valid, and useful

PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM

Rating Errors

Halo and Horn Halo Error is where a good evaluation on one dimension influences evaluation on all the others Horn error is where negative evaluation on one dimension influences evaluation on all the others Leniency error is the process to evaluating someone to easily Strictness error is the process of evaluating someone to harshly Central Tendency is the process of evaluating someone about average on all dimension Primacy and recency error Primacy error is the bias of giving the best information greater weight Recency of events error give more weight to the last information

PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM

Problems in Performance Appraisal


Lack of objectivity Halo error Leniency /strictness Central tendency Recent behavior bias Personal bias Manipulating the evaluation

PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM

Minimazing Bias
Each performance dimension addresses a single job activity rather than a group of activities Overall ratings are not used. Instead rating are made on a dimension-by- dimension basis and summed to determine the overall rating The rater can on a regular basis observe on-the-job behavior Term like average are not used on a rating scale, since different rater have various reaction to such a term The rater does not have to evaluate large group of employees Raters are trained to avoid errors Rater are trained to share a common frame of reference

PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM

THANK YOU

Metode

Kelebihan

Kekurangan

Gafic Rating scale

1. Praktis, tidak makan waktu,tidak mahal dalam penyusunan administrasinya. 2. Penilai hanya memerlukan sedikit latihan 3. Dapat diterapkan untuk jumlah karyawan yang besar

1. Standard tidak jelas (sulit menentukan kriteria yang relevan dengan pelaksanaan kerja, apalagi kalau formulir untuk banyak pekerjaan yang berbeda 2. Hallo error dapat terjadi

Alternation Rangking

1. Praktis, tapi masil lebih praktis Grafik Rating Scale 2. Terhindar dari central tendency Menghasilka kelompok sangat baik, sedang, dan kurang baik

Dapat diprotes yang dinilai jika faktanya baik semua

Forced distribution

Hasil evaluasi tergantung kecermatan menentukan titik batas antara kelompok Sulit merengking kinerja antar yang dinilai

Critical incident

1. Menegaskan yang berprestasi dengan yang tidak berprestasi 2. Mendorong evaluator menilai bawahan terus-menerus

Metode Narrative

Kelebihan Merumuskan informasi yang lengkap

Kekurangan 1. Sulit merengking kinerja antar yang dinilai 2. Bila tidak direncanakan sering tidak terarah

BARS

1. Adanya pertautan behavior memungkinkan evaluasi lebih teliti 2. Standard kinerja jelas 3. Umpan balik lebih fokus 4. Ranah evaluasi lengkap 5. Lebih valid dan reliable
Terarah pada sasaran

1. Sulit membuatnya 2. Perlu keahlian khusus

MBO

Menghasilkan banyak waktu

Metode

Kelebihan

Kekurangan

Bahavior

1. Efektif 2. Memberi bimbingan dan masukan spesifik 3. Validasi tinggi 4. Reliabilitas tinggi

Menghabiskan Banyak waktu

Hasil

1. 2. 3. 4.

Objective Indikator kinerja kuantitatif Diterima semua pihak Terkait sasaran kinerja

Penilaian difokuskan hanya pada kinerja yang dirumuskan saja

360 degree