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Basic electronics

Optical interfaces: Detect and control

Ohms law
Current = voltage / resistance I=V/R V=IxR Definitions Voltage = potential energy / unit charge, units = Volts Current = charge flow rate, units = Amps Resistance = friction, units = Ohms Example Voltage drop when current flows through resistor V1 - V2 = I R

V1 R V2 I

Schematics
Symbols represent circuit elements Lines are wires

Battery

Sample circuit

V Resistor

Ground

Ground voltage defined = 0

Parallel and series resistors


Series same current flows through all Parallel save voltage across all Parallel circuit I = V/R1 + V/R2 = V/Reff 1/Reff = 1/R1 + 1/R2 I V
+

Series circuit V = R1 I + R2 I = Reff I Reff = R1 + R2

V
+

R1

I
R2
Note: these points are connected together

R1

I1

R2

I2

Resistive voltage divider


Series resistor circuit Reduce input voltage to desired level Advantages:
simple and accurate complex circuit can use single voltage source

Disadvantage:
dissipates power easy to overload need Rload << R2 Resistive divider I = Vin/Reff = Vout/R2 Vout = Vin (R2 / (R1 + R2) )

Vin
+

I R1 R2 I

Vout
New schematic symbol: external connection

Variable voltage divider


Use potentiometer (= variable resistor) Most common: constant output resistance

Variable voltage divider Vout = Vin (Rout / (Rvar + Rout) ) New schematic symbol: potentiometer

I Vin Rvar Rout I

Vout

Capacitors
Charge = voltage x capacitance Q=CV Definitions Charge = integrated current flow , units = Coloumbs = Amp - seconds I = dQ/dt Capacitance = storage capacity, units = Farads Capacitor charging curve time constant = RC Example Capacitor charging circuit Vin Time constant = RC = t
Vout

I V R
+ New schematic symbol: capacitor

t = RC t

Vout Q
Capacitor charging circuit V = VR + VC = R dQ/dt + Q/C dQ/dt + Q/RC = V/R Q = C V (1 - exp(-t/RC)) Vout = Vin (1 - exp(-t/RC))

AC circuits
Replace battery with sine (cosine) wave source V = V0 cos(2 p f t) Definitions Frequency f = cosine wave frequency, units = Hertz Examples Resistor response: I = (V0/R) cos(2 p f t) Capacitor response: Q = CV0 cos(2 p f t)
I = - 2 p f CV0 sin(2 p f t) Current depends on frequency negative sine wave replaces cosine wave - 90 degree phase shift = lag

Resistive ac circuit
V0 cos(2 p f t) I= (V0/R) cos(2 p f t)

Capacitive ac circuit 90 degree phase lag


V0 cos(2 p f t)

I= - 2 p f CV0 sin(2 p f t)

New schematic symbol: AC voltage source

Simplified notation: ac-circuits


V = V0 cos(2 p f t) = V0 [exp(2 p j f t) + c.c.]/2 Drop c.c. part and factor of 1/2 V = V0 exp(2 p j f t) Revisit resistive and capacitive circuits Resistor response: I = (V0/R) exp(2 p j f t) = V / R = V/ ZR Capacitor response: I = 2 p j f CV0 exp(2 p j f t) = (2 p j f C) V = V/ ZC Definition: Impedance, Z = effective resistance, units Ohms Capacitor impedance ZC = 1 / (2 p j f C) Resistor impedance ZR = R Impedance makes it look like Ohms law applies to capacitive circuits also Capacitor response I = V / ZC

Explore capacitor circuits


Impedance ZC = 1/ (2 p j f C) Limit of low frequency f ~ 0
ZC --> infinity Capacitor is open circuit at low frequency

Limit of low frequency f ~ infinity


ZC --> 0 Capacitor is short circuit at low frequency Capacitive ac circuit
V0 cos(2 p f t) I = V/ZC

Revisit capacitor charging circuit


Replace C with impedance ZC Charging circuit looks like voltage divider Vout = Vin (ZC / (ZR + ZC) ) = Vin / (1 + 2 p j f R C ) Low-pass filter Crossover when f = 1 / 2 p R C = 1 / 2 p t , t is time constant lower frequencies Vout ~ Vin = pass band higher frequencies Vout ~ Vin / (2 p j f R C ) = attenuated
Capacitor charging circuit = Low-pass filter Vin = V0 cos(2 p f t) Low-pass filter response time constant = RC = t

I R C I

Vout
log(Vout)
knee f=1/2pt

logVin Single-pole rolloff 6 dB/octave = 10 dB/decade

log( f )

Inductors
Voltage = rate of voltage change x inductance V = L dI/dt Definitions Inductance L = resistance to current change, units = Henrys Impedance of inductor: ZL = (2 p j f L) Low frequency = short circuit High frequency = open circuit Inductors rarely used
Capacitor charging circuit = Low-pass filter Vin = V0 cos(2 p f t)

High-pass filter response

I R

Vout L
log(Vout)
f=R/2pjL

logVin

New schematic symbol: Inductor

log( f )

Capacitor filters circuits


Can make both low and high pass filters
Low-pass filter Vin = V0 cos(2 p f t) I R C I Vout High-pass filter Vin = V0 cos(2 p f t) I C R I Vout

Gain response
logVin

Gain response
logVin

log(Vout)

knee f=1/2pt

log(Vout)
f=1/2pt

log( f ) Phase response


phase
f=1/2pt

log( f ) phase

log( f ) Phase response


0 degrees

log( f )
-90 degrees

0 degrees -90 degrees

f=1/2pt

Summary of schematic symbols


+

Battery

Resistor

Potentiometer

AC voltage source

Capacitor

Potentiometer
2-inputs plus center tap

Inductor Ground External connection Diode

Non-connecting wires

+
Op amp

Color code
Resistor values determined by color Three main bands
1st = 1st digit 2nd = 2nd digit 3rd = # of trailing zeros

Color Number black brown red orange yellow green blue violet gray white 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Examples
red, brown, black 2 1 no zeros = 21 Ohms yellow, brown, green 4 1 5 = 4.1 Mohm purple, gray, orange 7 8 3 = 78 kOhms

Capacitors can have 3 numbers


use like three colors