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TOTAL PRODUCTIVE MAINTENANCE (TPM)

Prepared by : Murugan M.Ganesh

Introduction

Total productive maintenance (TPM) originated in Japan in 1971 as a method for improved machine availability through better utilization of maintenance and production resources. TPM is a maintenance process developed for improving productivity by making processes more reliable and less wasteful.TPM is an extension of TQM(Total Quality Management)

Why TPM ?

TPM was introduced to achieve the following objectives. The important ones are listed below.
Avoid

wastage in a quickly changing economic environment. Producing goods without reducing product quality. Reduce cost. Produce a low batch quantity at the earliest possible time. Goods send to the customers must be non defective.

What is TPM?

Strategy of TPM is to change the attitude from I use, You maintain to I use, I maintain. Think about how to Increase production and reduced cost by reducing or eliminating loss, and this is the TPM.

Objectives of TPM

To improve equipment effectiveness


TPM

examines the effectiveness of facilities by identifying and examining all loses. Example: Downtime loses, Speed loses, and defect loses.

To achieve autonomous Maintenance


TPM

allows the people who operate equipment to take responsibility of the maintenance tasks. places a heavy emphasis on appropriate and continuous training to all operating and

To train all staff in relevant maintenance skills


TPM

Objectives of TPM

To plan maintenance
TPM

has a systematic approach to all maintenance activities. aims to move towards zero maintenance through Maintenance Prevention.

To achieve early equipment management


TPM

The Evolution of Maintenance


First Generation Fix it when it broke Second Generation Plant availability Increase equipment life Lower cost Third Generation Higher plant availability Higher Reliability Increase safety Better Quality Production No damage to the Environment Increase Equipment life Greater cost effectiveness

Types of maintenance

Breakdown maintenance
It

means that people waits until equipment fails and repair it. Such a thing could be used when the equipment failure does not significantly affect the operation or production or generate any significant loss other than repair cost

Types of maintenance

Preventive Maintenance
Preventive

Maintenance is periodic maintenance that retains the condition of equipment and prevents failure through the prevention of deterioration, periodic inspection, and equipment condition diagnosis. PM includes cleaning, inspection, lubrication and tightening.

Preventive Maintenance is further divided into Periodic Maintenance and Predictive Maintenance.
Periodic

Maintenance is time-based. Predictive Maintenance is condition-based.

Types of maintenance

Corrective Maintenance
Corrective

Maintenance improves equipment and its components so that preventive maintenance can be performed reliably. Equipment with a design weakness is redesigned with corrective maintenance to improve reliability or maintainability.

Types of maintenance

Maintenance Prevention
Maintenance

Prevention deals with improving the design of new equipment. Current machine data (information leading to failure prevention, easier maintenance, prevention of defects, safety, and ease of manufacturing) are studied and designs are incorporated in new equipment.

Pillars of TPM

Pillars of TPM

PILLAR 1 - Autonomous Maintenance


A collaborative team activity involving production, maintenance, and engineering Maintaining Basic conditions on shop floor & in Machines. All over participation through TPM Circles. Example: 5 S, JISHU HOZEN ( Autonomous maintenance ), etc., An approach that

Develops operating and maintenance skills Strengthens communication and cooperation

Steps in JISHU HOZEN :

Conduct initial cleaning/inspection Eliminate sources of contamination Establish provisional standards Develop general inspection training Conduct general inspections Improve workplace management and control Participate in advanced improvement activities

Steps in JISHU HOZEN:

Pillars of TPM

PILLAR 2 - Focused Improvement

Improvement on every ones activity. Improvement is to eliminate Production losses and cost reduction. Improvement in Reliability, Maintainability, and cost.

Pillars of TPM

PILLAR 3 - Planned Maintenance Logical analysis Real causes for real counter measures. Focus on Prevention. It is aimed to have trouble free machines and equipments producing defect free products for total customer satisfaction. Example: Preventive Maintenance, Breakdown Maintenance, etc., Six steps in Planned maintenance : Equipment evaluation and recoding present status. Restore deterioration and improve weakness. Building up information management system. Prepare time based information system, select equipment, parts and members and map out plan. Prepare predictive maintenance system by introducing equipment diagnostic techniques. Evaluation of planned maintenance.

Pillars of TPM

PILLAR 4 - Quality Maintenance

Developing perfect machine for perfect Quality. Eliminating In Process defects and custom complaints.

Policy :

Defect free conditions and control of equipments. QM activities to support quality assurance. Focus of prevention of defects at source Focus on POKA-YOKE. ( fool proof system ) In-line detection and segregation of defects. Effective implementation of operator quality assurance.

Pillars of TPM

PILLAR 5 - Education & Training


Skills development for uniformity of work practices on machines. Skills for Zero defects, Zero breakdowns & Zero accidents. Multi Skilled employees in all departments

Steps in Educating and training activities :


Setting policies and priorities and checking present status of education and training. Establish of training system for operation and maintenance skill up gradation. Training the employees for upgrading the operation and maintenance skills. Preparation of training calendar. Kick-off of the system for training. Evaluation of activities and study of future approach. A clear understanding of the criteria for judging normal and abnormal conditions

Pillars of TPM

Four Levels of Skills

Level 1: Lack both theoretical and practical ability (needs to be taught) Level 2: Knows theory but not in practice Level 3: Has mastered practice but not theory
Level 4: Mastered both practice and theory

Pillars of TPM

PILLAR 6 - Development Management


Developing machines for high equipment effectiveness. Quick process for developing new products. Example: KAIZEN

Kaizen Policy :

Practice concepts of zero losses in every sphere of activity. relentless pursuit to achieve cost reduction targets in all resources. Relentless pursuit to improve over all plant equipment effectiveness. Extensive use of PM analysis as a tool for eliminating losses. Focus of easy handling of operators.

Pillars of TPM

PILLAR 7 - Safety, Health & Environment


Zero

accidents and Zero hazards at works. Zero Pollution at Plant and Environment.

Pillars of TPM

PILLAR 8 - Office TPM

Office TPM must be followed to improve productivity, efficiency in the administrative functions and identify and eliminate losses. This includes analyzing processes and procedures towards increased office automation

Plans & Guidelines:


Providing awareness about office TPM to all support departments Helping them to identify P, Q, C, D, S, M in each function in relation to plant performance Identify the scope for improvement in each function Collect relevant data Help them to solve problems in their circles Make up an activity board where progress is monitored on both sides - results and actions along with Kaizens. Fan out to cover all employees and circles in all functions.

Pillars of TPM

P Q C D S M in Office TPM : P - Production output lost due to Material, Manpower productivity, Production output lost due to want of tools. Q - Mistakes in preparation of cheques, bills, invoices, payroll, Customer returns/warranty attributable to BOPs, Rejection/rework in BOP's/job work, Office area rework. C - Buying cost/unit produced, Cost of logistics inbound/outbound, Cost of carrying inventory, Cost of communication, Demurrage costs. D - Logistics losses (Delay in loading/unloading)

Delay in delivery due to any of the support functions Delay in payments to suppliers Delay in information

S - Safety in material handling/stores/logistics, Safety of soft and hard data.

Steps in introduction of TPM in a organization


Stage Preparation Stage Step (Nakajimas 12 Steps) Step 1:Announce top managements decision to introduce TPM

Step 2:Introductory education campaign Step 3:TPM Promotion


Step 4:Establish basic TPM policies and goals Step 5: Preparation and Formulation of a master plan Preliminary Implementation Stage TPM Implementation Stage Step 6:TPM kick-off Step 7:Develop an equipment management program

Step 8:Develop a planned maintenance program Step 9:Develop a autonomous maintenance program
Step 10:Increase skills of production and

Implementation of TPM

Steps in introduction of TPM in a organization

Step 1: Announce top managements decision to introduce TPM


State

TPM objectives in a company newsletter Place articles on TPM in the company newspaper

Steps in introduction of TPM in a organization

Step 2: Introductory education campaign


Seminars

for managers Slide presentations for all employees

Steps in introduction of TPM in a organization

Step 3:TPM Promotion


Special

committees at every level to promote

TPM Establish an organizational structure Newsletters Articles Videos Posters

Steps in introduction of TPM in a organization

Step 4: Establish basic TPM policies and goals


Analyze

existing conditions Set goals Goals that are Result oriented, Specific, Measurable, Attainable and Realistic Predict TPM policies and goals should be very much clear to everyone involved in TPM implementation results.

Steps in introduction of TPM in a organization

Step 5: Preparation and Formulation of a master plan


A master plan lays out your goals, what you will do to achieve them and when you will achieve them Detailed plans for each pillar have to be prepared This activity can be carried out by a consultant, plant personnel, or both. Consultant involvement typically begins with a plant visit to observe production operations, learn about the equipment (type, function, condition, problems and losses etc.), study maintenance operations (structure, size and tasks etc.), gauge orderliness and cleanliness in the plant, and talk to employees to determine their motivation and attitude

Program Development Master Plan

Steps in introduction of TPM in a organization

Step 6: TPM kick-off


The

main kick-off to TPM should take the form of a formal presentation (feasible study Report)with all the employees attending This opportunity can be used to gain the full support of the employees Invite external customers, affiliated and subcontracting companies

Steps in introduction of TPM in a organization

Step 7: Develop an equipment management program

The tools of total quality management and continuous improvement are applied to the management and improvement of equipment Form project teams Select model equipment - Identify equipment problems - Analyze equipment problems - Develop solutions and proposals for improvement Typical membership of a team - Five to seven operators - A maintenance person - A technical expert Tools - Pareto - Cause & effect - Root cause - Methods analysis

Steps in introduction of TPM in a organization

Step 8: Develop a planned maintenance program


Set

up plans and schedules to carry out work on equipment before it breaks down, in order to extend the life of the equipment Include periodic and predictive maintenance Include management of spare parts and tools

Steps in introduction of TPM in a organization

Step 9: Develop a autonomous maintenance program


A

handing-over of maintenance tasks from specialized maintenance personnel to production operators Tasks to hand over - Cleaning - Lubricating - Inspecting - Set-up and adjustment

A Chart for Autonomous Maintenance

Steps in introduction of TPM in a organization

Step 10: Increase skills of production and maintenance personnel


The

training sessions must be planned shortly after the kick-off presentation 2 major components - soft skills training - technical training Train leaders together Have leaders share information with group members

Training Skill Development Matrix

Steps in introduction of TPM in a organization

Step 11: Develop early equipment management program The principle of designing for maintenance prevention can be applied to new products, and to new and existing machines New products must be designed so that they can be easily produced on new or existing machines New machines must be designed for easier operations, changeover and maintenance Existing machines: - analyze historical records for - trends of types of failures - frequency of component failures - root causes of failures - determine how to eliminate the problem and reduce

Steps in introduction of TPM in a organization

Step 12: Perfect TPM implementation and raise TPM levels

Evaluate for the PM Award: The Japanese Institute for Productive Maintenance runs the annual PM Excellence Award. They provide a checklist for companies applying for the award Set higher goals

6 Big Loses
Six Big Loss Category Breakdown s Loss Category Examples Comment

Down Time Loss

Tooling Failures Unplanned Maintenance General Breakdowns Equipment Failure

There is flexibility on where to set the threshold between a Breakdown (Down Time Loss) and a Small Stop (Speed Loss). This loss is often addressed through setup time reduction programs.

Setup and Adjustment s

Down Time Loss

Setup/Changeove r Material Shortages Operator Shortages Major

6 Big Loses
Six Big Loss Category Small Stops Loss Category Examples Comment

Speed Loss

Obstructed Product Flow Component Jams Misfeeds Sensor Blocked Delivery Blocked Cleaning/Checkin g Rough Running Under Nameplate Capacity Under Design Capacity Equipment Wear Operator

Typically only includes stops that are under five minutes and that do not require maintenance personnel. Anything that keeps the process from running at its theoretical maximum speed (a.k.a. Ideal Run Rate or

Reduced Speed

Speed Loss

6 Big Loses
Six Big Loss Category Startup Rejects Loss Category Examples Comment

Quality Loss

Scrap Rework In-Process Damage In-Process Expiration Incorrect Assembly Scrap Rework In-Process Damage In-Process Expiration Incorrect

Rejects during warm-up, startup or other early production. May be due to improper setup, warm-up period, etc. Rejects during steady-state production.

Production Rejects

Quality Loss

Overall equipment effectiveness (OEE)


OEE measures effectiveness based on scheduled hours

Overall equipment effectiveness (OEE)


Availability Calculation: Availability = Available Time / Scheduled Time


Example: A given Work Center is scheduled to run for an 8 hour (480 minute) shift. The normal shift includes a scheduled 30 minute break when the Work Center is expected to be down. The Work Center experiences 60 minutes of unscheduled downtime. Scheduled Time = 480 min 30 min break = 450 Min Available Time = 450 min Scheduled 60 min Unscheduled Downtime = 390 Min Availability = 390 Avail Min / 450 Scheduled Min = 87%

Overall equipment effectiveness (OEE)


Performance Calculation: Performance = (Parts Produced * Ideal Cycle Time) / Available Time

Example: A given Work Center is scheduled to run for an 8 hour (480 minute) shift with a 30 minute scheduled break. Available Time = 450 Min Sched 60 Min Unsched Downtime = 390 Minutes The Standard Rate for the part being produced is 40 Units/Hour or 1.5 Minutes/Unit The Work Center produces 242 Total Units during the shift. Note: The basis is Total Units, not Good Units. The Performance metric does not penalize for Quality. Time to Produce Parts = 242 Units * 1.5 Minutes/Unit = 363 Minutes Performance = 363 Minutes / 390 Minutes = 93.0%

Overall equipment effectiveness (OEE)


Quality Calculation: Quality = Good Units / Units Started Example: A given Work Center produces 230 Good Units during a shift. 242 Units were started in order to produce the 230 Good Units. Quality = 230 Good Units / 242 Units Started = 95.0%

OEE = Availability x Performance x Quality

Total effective equipment performance

TEEP measures effectiveness against calendar hours, i.e.: 24 hours per day, 365 days per year.

Calculation: TEEP = Loading x OEE


Example:
A

given Work Center experiences... OEE of 34.0% Work Center Loading is 71.4% TEEP = 71.4% Loading x 34.0% OEE = 24.3% Stated another way, TEEP adds a fourth metric 'Loading', Therefore TEEP = Loading x Availability x Performance x Quality

Total effective equipment performance

TEEP measures effectiveness against calendar hours, i.e.: 24 hours per day, 365 days per year.

Loading Loading = Scheduled Time / Calendar Time


Example: A

given Work Center is scheduled to run 5 Days per Week, 24 Hours per Day. For a given week, the Total Calendar Time is 7 Days at 24 Hours. Loading = (5 days x 24 hours) / (7 days x 24 hours) = 71.4%

Direct benefits of TPM

Increase productivity and OPE ( Overall Plant Efficiency ) by 1.5 or 2 times. Rectify customer complaints. Reduce the manufacturing cost by 30%. Satisfy the customers needs by 100 % ( Delivering the right quantity at the right time, in the required quality. ) Reduce accidents. Follow pollution control measures.

Indirect benefits of TPM

Higher confidence level among the employees. Keep the work place clean, neat and attractive. Favorable change in the attitude of the operators. Achieve goals by working as team. Horizontal deployment of a new concept in all areas of the organization. Share knowledge and experience. The workers get a feeling of owning the

Difficulties Faced in TPM Implementation


Sufficient resources like people, money, time, etc. and assistance are not provided. TPM is not a quick fix approach, it involve cultural change to the ways to do the things. Incomplete understanding of the methodology and philosophy by middle management. Many people treat it just another program of the month without paying any focus and also doubt about its effectiveness. Workers show strong resistance to any change Many people considered TPM activities as additional work or threat.

The Cost of Implementing TPM

Maintenance programs in place. Age of the equipment. Pace to be taken. Some plants have excellent programs in place and have kept the equipment in very good shape, so the cost for implementing TPM in these plants will be lower than for those who have a bad program or none in place. Old equipment sometimes will face the high cost of parts if attainable. If a fast paced implementation is required, the cost per year will be higher.

Thanks
Prepared By

M.Ganesh Murugan