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Global Maritime Distress and Safety System ( GMDSS )

Global Maritime Distress and Safety System ( GMDSS )

Background of the GMDSS


"Amendments 1988 to the 1974 SOLAS Convention concerning Radiocommunication for the Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS), Chapter IV Radiocommunications Part B-Undertaking by Contracting Governments Regulation 5 states: "Each

Contracting Government undertakes to make available, as it deems practical and necessary either individual or in cooperation with other Contracting Governments, appropriate shore-based facilities for space and terrestrial radiocommunication services.

GMDSS Functions

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Alerting SAR Coordination Communication On Scene Communication Locating Dissemination MSI Onboard Communication General Communication

Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (Basic Concept)

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GMDSS Area

GMDSS in Indonesia

NAVTEX Service in Indonesia


Navigational Warning Co-ordinator DISHIDROS TNI AL SAR Co-ordinator NATIONAL SAR AGENCY DEPT. COMMUNICATIONS Meteorological Co-ordinator BMG DEPT. COMMUNICATIONS

NAVTEX Co-ordinator

JAYAPURA

DG SEACOM DEPT. COMMUNICATIONS COASTAL RADIO STATION NAVTEX TX

AMBON
MAKASSAR JAKARTA D

B
E

518 kHz

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Coverage area of NAVTEX in Indonesia

Peralatan Stasiun Radio Pantai

Perangkat Radio Transmitter/Receiver : 1. VHF yang dilengkapi dengan DSC 2. MF yang dilengkapi dengan DSC 3. HF yang dilengkapi dengan DSC dan NBDP yang dapat bekerja selama 24 jam terus menerus Antenna System dengan penangkal petir Power Plant dengan Back Up System

Peralatan Stasiun Radio Kapal


Perangkat Radio terrestrial VHF, MF/HF (dengan DSC dan NBDP) atau Satelit Inmarsat A/B/C. NAVTEX Receiver atau EGC Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon (EPIRB) SART Transponder Antena System Power Plant dengan Back Up System

Perangkat SRO Kapal Minimum


Area A1
-VHF dengan DSC -NAVTEX -EPIRB -SART

Area A2
-VHF dengan DSC -MF dengan DSC -NAVTEX -EPIRB

-VHF Portable

-SART
-VHF Portable

Perangkat SRO Kapal Minimum


Area A3 (INMARSAT) -VHF dengan DSC -MF dengan DSC - INMARSAT -NAVTEX Area A3 (HF) atau A4 -VHF dengan DSC -MF/HF dengan DSC dan NBDP -NAVTEX

-EPIRB
-SART -VHF Portable

-EPIRB
-SART -VHF Portable

Perangkat Kapal

Digital Selective Calling (DSC)


DSC TELEX Transceiver

Mic / LSPK

Cospass-sarsat EPIRB

L-Band EPIRB

Coverage L-band EPIRB

Jenis EPIRB
Feature ELT / PLT (121.5 MHz) no EPIRB (406 MHz) yes EPIRB (1.6 GHz, InmarsatE) yes DSC-EPIRB*** VehicleIdentifikation is received and processed by ... transmission of the nature of distress coverage yes

COSPAS / SARSAT, planes and SAR-forces no

COSPAS / SARSAT (LEO satellites) possible, not used

Inmarsat, (geostationary satellites) possible with RCU, strongly recommended 97% of the earth, up to 80 lattitude (excluding polecaps) within 3-10 min **

costal radio stations

possible

the whole world

the whole world

sea-area A1, only in the vincinity of the coast immediately, no delay

period until valid reception

up to two hours

up to two hours

** = Inmarsat calls for a delay of 2-8 minutes after activation. Processing the signals within the LES takes about less than a minute. *** = For the time beeing, there are no DSC-EPIRBs available on the word market.

Technical data of different EPIRBs


Feature ELT / PLT (121.5 MHz) thru SAT and/or SARvehicules Doppler-shift because of SATmovement, or VHF-direction finder 121,5 MHz (sometimes 243 MHz) EPIRB (406 MHz) thru SAT EPIRB (1.6 GHz, INMARSAT-E) yes, own position determination GPS or navigation system of the vessel DSC-EPIRB positiontransmission, measurement Type of positionprocessing possible, own position determination navigation system of the vessel or GPS

Doppler-shift because of SATmovement

frequencies

406.025 MHz

667 channels (300 Hz spacing) at 1,645 GHz

VHF CH 70 (156.525 MHz)

Operating guidance for masters of ships in distress or urgency situations


Is vessel sinking or to be abandoned? YES NO

Is immediate help needed?


YES Transmit distress call

NO

A potential problem exist? YES Notify RCC

Transmit distress call

Embark in survival craft with VHF, EPIRB and/or SART if possible

NO Response received? NO Response received? YES

YES

Switch on EPIRB and SART immediately

Communicate with RCC and SRUs

Communicate with RCC and SRUs

Radio Distress Communications DSC kHz Radio telepone NBDP kHz

Frequency/Channel Ch 70 or 2187,5 or 4207,5 or 6312 or 8414,5 or 12577 or 16804,5 Ch 16 or 2182 or 4125 or 6215 or 8291 or 12290 or 16420 kHz 2174,5 or 4177,5 or 6268 or 8376,5 or 12520 or 16695

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Operating guidance for masters of ships observing another vessels apparently in danger
Try communicate. Response received ? NO YES Inform the other ship about your concern and try to obtain further information. Are you satisfied ? NO Try to obtain the maximum of information about the other vessel (name, C/S type, position, course, speed) and inform the RCC Sometimes the master of a vessel in distress does not immediately contact the RCC YES After verifying that assistance is not required, proceed on passage

Radio Distress Comm.

Frequency/Channel Ch 70 or 2187,5 or 4207,5 or 6312 or 8414,5 or 12577 or Ch 16 or 2182 or 4125 or 6215 or 8291 or 12290 or 16420 kHz 2174,5 or 4177,5 or 6268 or 8376,5 or 12520 or 16695 kHz

Try to keep track of the reported vessel (radar, visual and com) unless otherwise directed by RCC

DSC 16804,5 kHz Radio telepone NBDP

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ACTIONS UPON RECEPTION ON VHF DISTRESS ALERT


NO
Distress traffic in progress

DSC Distress alert is received

Listen on VHF 16 for 5 mins

The alert acknowledged by CRS/RCC

NO
The DSC distress call continuing

NO

YES
Reset System Vessel able to assist

YES

YES
Acknowledge the alert by radio telephony to the ship in distress by VHF 16

YES

Enter details in log

NO
Inform CRS/RCC

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ACTIONS UPON RECEPTION ON MF DISTRESS ALERT


The alert acknowledged by CRS/RCC

NO
Distress traffic in progress

NO
The DSC distress call continuing

NO

DSC Distress alert is received

Listen on 2182 kHz for 5 mins

YES
Reset System Vessel able to assist

YES

YES
Acknowledge the alert by radio telephony to the ship in distress by 2182 kHz

YES NO
Enter details in log

Inform CRS/RCC

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ACTIONS UPON RECEPTION ON MF DISTRESS ALERT


Listen on assosiated R/T or NBDP channels for 5 mins

NO
DSC distress ack or relay by CRS/RCC Distress comm in progress on assosiated R/T ch ?

NO
Transmit distress relay on HF to CRS and inform RCC

NO

DSC Distress alert is received

YES
HF DSC R/T and NBDP ( kHz) DSC 4207,5 6312 8414,5 12577 16804,5 R/T 4125 6215 8291 12290 16420 NBDP 4177,5 6268 8376,5 12520 16695

YES

YES

Vessel able to assist Reset System

YES NO

Contact RCC via efficient medium to offer assistance

Enter details in log

Inform CRS/RCC

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ACTION BY THE FIRST RCC


Alert /call received by RCC
YES
Is the incident in its own SRR ? Is there any other RCC in a better position to assist ? Where practicable communicate with the ship in distress

Advise ships in the vicinity by broadcast

Co-ordinate assistance to the ship in distress

NO

NO

YES

NO
Is the incident in another SRR ?

Is the NO other RCC prepared to accept responsibility for the incident ?

YES

YES

Transfer co-ordination responsibilities to the other RCC

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GMDSS by INMARSAT Satellite

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GLOBAL POSITION SYSTEM


GPS satellites circle the earth twice a day in a very precise orbit and transmit signal information to earth. GPS receivers take this information and use triangulation to calculate the user's exact location. Essentially, the GPS receiver compares the time a signal was transmitted by a satellite with the time it was received. The time difference tells the GPS receiver how far away the satellite is. Now, with distance measurements from a few more satellites, the receiver can determine the user's position and display it on the unit's electronic map

DIFFRENTIAL GPS
GPS Satellites

MF band
Data corrections

DGPS Base Stations

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What is an EPIRB ? Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon This page is intended to explain what an EPIRB is and to work out the advantages or disadvantages of the different EPIRB-systems: 121,5-MHz-ELT, 406-MHz-EPIRB and Inmarsat-E-EPIRBs. The Abbreviation EPIRB is not protected. A comprehensive comparison of different EPIRB types by technical and functional parameters can be found here. The world market is divided into three different systems with three different modulation schemes and three different approaches on how to detect the incident. The three systems are mostly distinguished by their frequencies: Homing beacons on 121,5 MHz COSPAS/SARSAT beacons on 406 MHz Inmarsat beacons in L-band (1,6 GHz) When activated, an EPIRB transmits a distress call which is picked up or relayed by satellites and transmitted via land earth stations to rescue services. There are basically three types of EPIRBs with distinct, important differences, which should be considered when choosing an EPIRB. This page is provided and maintained by navtec Click here to get in contact with us

Thank you for your attention

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