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AC Meters

continued

Warm-ups

Outlines
dArsonval MM with Full Wave

Rectification. Electro-Dynamometer Movement Iron-vane meter movement. Loading effects of AC Voltmeters.

dArsonval MM with Full Wave Rectification.


Frequently, it is more desirable to use a full-wave rectifier in AC voltmeters because it shows higher sensitivity rating compared to wave rectifier. The most frequently used circuit for fullwave rectification is the bridge-type rectifier, as shown in next figure.

dArsonval MM with Full Wave Rectification.

dArsonval MM with Full Wave Rectification.

D1 Vin D3

D2 Rs

D4 Rm Ifs Vout

Figure 2: Full-Wave Bridge Rectifier used in an AC voltmeter

dArsonval MM with Full Wave Rectification.


Positive cycle
Current flows from Vin trough D2, trough the MM from positive to negative, then trough D3.

Negative cycle
Current flows from Vin trough D4, trough the MM from positive to negative, then trough D1.

dArsonval MM with Full Wave Rectification.


Even though the polarity of Vin changes in every cycle, the direction of current that flows through MM does not change. Since current flows through MM on both cycles, then the deflection of MM will be greater compared to wave rectification.

dArsonval MM with Full Wave Rectification.


Example 01. For the circuit below, if given that Vin = 10Vrms, Rs= 10k and Ifs = 1mA. Calculate: a) Vp b) Vave c) Sac d) Sdc
Vin D3 D4 Rm Ifs Vout

D1

D2 Rs

dArsonval MM with Full Wave Rectification.


Example 02: By using the same circuit, with Vin = 10Vrms, Rm=500 and Ifs = 1mA, calculate: a) Sdc b) Sac c) Rs
Vin D3 D4 Rm Ifs Vout

D1

D2 Rs

dArsonval MM with Full Wave Rectification.


Example 03 For the circuit below, given that Vin = 10Vrms, Rm=500, Ifs = 1mA, Rsh=500, average forward resistance of 50 and infinite reverse resistance of each diode, calculate the following: a) the multiplier, Rs b) the ac sensitivity, Sac c) the dc sensitivity Sdc. D2
D1 Rs Vin D3 D4 Rsh Rm Ifs

The ElectroDynamometer Movement


It is one of the most fundamental meters that is widely used today. It is a current sensitive device: similar to the DArsonval MM, which uses essentially the same principle of movement. Remember that the DArsonval movement is a DC device and can only measure DC current or AC current rectified to DC.

The ElectroDynamometer Movement

The ElectroDynamometer Movement

The ElectroDynamometer Movement


The Electrodynamometer movement has the same basic operating principle as the DArsonval meter movement, except that the permanent magnet is replaced by fixed coils. The moving coil and pointer, which are attached to the coil, are suspended between and connected in series with the two field coils.

The ElectroDynamometer Movement


The two field coils and moving coil are connected in series such that the same current flows through each coil. Current flow through the three coils in either direction causes a magnetic field to be produced between the field coils. The same current flow through the moving coil causes it to act as a magnet exerting a force against the spring.

The ElectroDynamometer Movement


If the current is reversed, the field polarity and the polarity of the moving coil reverse, and the force continues in the same direction. Due to this characteristic of the Electrodynamometer movement, it can be used in both AC and DC systems to measure current. Some voltmeters and ammeters use the electrodynamometer. However, its most important use is in the wattmeter.

The ElectroDynamometer Movement


The basic EDMM is capable of handling much more current than a dArsonval could handle. However, it has much less Sensitivity rating compared to dArsonval MM, which ranges about 20/V up to only 100/V.

The ElectroDynamometer Movement


Example 04 An EDMM that has a full scale deflection current rating of 10mA is to be used in a voltmeter circuit. Calculate the value of the multiplier for a 10-V range if Rm = 50.

The ElectroDynamometer Movement


Example 05 An EDMM with a full scale deflection rating of 10mA is to be used as a 1-mA ammeter. If the resistance of the moving coil is 40, what is the value of the shunt resistor, Rsh?

Loading Effects of AC Voltmeters


As already being discussed, the sensitivity of AC Voltmeters, using either wave or Full wave rectification, is always less than the sensitivity of the DC Voltmeters. Therefore, the loading effect of an AC Voltmeter is always greater than that of a DC Voltmeter.

Loading Effects of AC Voltmeters


Example 06
a) Determine the reading obtained with a DC voltmeter at RB when the switch is set at point A. Determine the reading at the same RB using wave and A Full wave rectifier AC meter 20Vrms AC respectively when the switch is set at point B. Given that Ifs = 100-mA and set at 10-V dc or rms range.

b)

RA B E = 20V RB

10k

5.5k

Conclusions

Summary

Q&A