You are on page 1of 81

Blasting Safely With Proper Techniques

ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
Hazards Associated With Blasting To overcome

ground vibration
air blast fly rock premature detonations and misfires

these hazards, proper blasting pattern to be designed and followed


2

RESPONSIBILITY
The most important responsibility of the

blaster in charge is to prepare and fire safely.


They are to practice safety in transportation,

storage, handling, and the proper use of


explosives.

PREPARING BLAST DESIGN IMPORTANT

free faces

clean the bench floor and


direction of shot or blasting

TERMINOLOGY IN BENCH BLASTING The variables within blast design are:


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Free Face Hole Diameter Burden Spacing Face Height Hole Angle 7. Sub-drilling 8. Bottom Charge 9. Column Charge 10. Stemming 11. Powder Factor 12. Yield
5

TERMINOLOGY IN BENCH BLASTING Bench


The horizontal ledge in a quarry or mine face, or in a road , along which holes are drilled vertically.

Bench

TERMINOLOGY IN BENCH BLASTING Free Face


Exposed rock surface towards which the explosive charge can break out.

Free Face

DRILLING PATTERN A plan of holes laid out on a face or bench which are to be drilled for blasting. Or Adjustment of Burden and spacing to drill holes.

DRILLING PATTERN Blasthole Diameter: (d)


Bit dia. = 3 Inch

3-Inch

Hole dia. =

3 Inch

BURDEN AND SPACING Burden: B distance from drill hole to free face
Bit dia. = 3 Inch As per thumb rule Burden =

10

BURDEN AND SPACING Burden: B distance from drill hole to free face
Bit dia. = 3 Inch As per thumb rule Burden = 3 Meter

11

BURDEN AND SPACING Burden: B distance from drill hole to free face
Bit dia. = 3 Inch As per thumb rule Burden = 3 Meter Or Burden = 40 x d d = hole dia. (mm) Burden = 1/3 x H H = Bench Height
12

BURDEN AND SPACING Spacing: S distance between adjacent holes


Spacing (s)

Spacing = 1.25 x

13

BURDEN AND SPACING Spacing: S distance between adjacent holes


Spacing (s)

Spacing = 1.25 x B Where B =

14

BURDEN AND SPACING Spacing: S distance between adjacent holes


Spacing (s)

Spacing = 1.25 x B Where B = Burden in m

15

BURDEN AND SPACING


Bit dia. = 3 Inch

As per thumb rule Burden = 3 Meter Spacing = 4 Meter

16

TERMINOLOGY IN BENCH BLASTING Bench Height (K)


Vertical distance in meters between the top and floor of the bench and should be at least twice the burden.

2B

economical bench height for limestone quarry is 15 meter


17

TERMINOLOGY IN BENCH BLASTING Hole angle ()


Inclined blast holes are very effective in eliminating toe (which is a hump of solid rock between the free face and the bench floor)

= 0 to 30 (from vertical plane) economical hole angle for limestone quarry is


15

18

TERMINOLOGY IN BENCH BLASTING Sub-drilling (U)


distance which the holes drilled beneath the quarry floor

U = 8 to 12 d or U = 0.3B economical subdrilling for limestone quarry is 0.5 meter


19

TERMINOLOGY IN BENCH BLASTING Sub-drilling (U)


distance which the holes drilled beneath the quarry floor

20

TERMINOLOGY IN BENCH BLASTING Blast hole length (H)


Blast hole length is bench height and sub-drilling

K+U

Therefore in this case H = 15 + 0.5 15.5 meter

21

TERMINOLOGY IN BENCH BLASTING Bottom Charge (hb) hb = 0.3 to 0.5 B + U


To loosen & break the rock in the constricted bottom part of the hole, high density explosive is used

hb = 1.3 x B economical bottom charge length for limestone quarry is = 0.5x3+0.5 2.0 meter It means 4-cartridges
22

TERMINOLOGY IN BENCH BLASTING Stemming (T)


Stemming is non-explosive material that is placed in the blast hole between the top of the explosive and the collar of the hole. Stemming consists of sand, drill fines, or gravel.

T = 35 x d
economical stemming length for 15 meter bench height of limestone quarry is

2.5 meter
Increase in stemming length, decreases fly rock and noise but increases ground vibration level

23

TERMINOLOGY IN BENCH BLASTING Column Charge(hc) hc = H- hb-T


To break the rock above the bottom charge, a column charge is applied. As this part of the hole is less constricted , the charge concentration may be less

Therefore in this case column charge length is = 15.5-2-2.5 11 meter

24

TERMINOLOGY IN BENCH BLASTING Powder Factor (PF)


This is the ratio between the mass of explosives required to break a given quantity of rock and is normally expressed in kg/m or kg/ton

For limestone, sandstone and shale


PF = 0.3 to 0.4 kg/m

25

TERMINOLOGY IN BENCH BLASTING Yield (Y)


Yield is tonnage of blasted rock per kg of explosives
V=
burden x spacing x bench height x no. of holes

Vxp/Q

V = Volume of blasted bench p = limestone density (2.5 t/m) Q = Total explosives used (kg)

For limestone, Yield = 7 to 8 tons/kg

26

SURFACE BLASTING TERMINOLOGY

27

DRILLING PATTERNS
Three common patterns are: square rectangle staggered

28

DRILLING PATTERN
Blast holes can be drilled in either square pattern or staggered pattern. A staggered pattern produces a more uniform distribution of explosive effect

Optimum coverage is achieved in staggered pattern.


29

CONCLUSION
The following types of drilling patterns are practiced for production blasts:
Square : Preferred in case of initiation in Vpattern / Echelon pattern

Staggered or triangular: Row by initiation is adopted in these patterns

row

Rectangular : Suitable where it is necessary to increase spacing beyond 1.5B (in relatively soft formations)
30

BLASTING PATTERNS
Trunk Line Delay Pattern

This system has particular application where ground vibration problems put restrictions on the charge mass detonated per delay.
31

BLASTING PATTERNS
Chevron Patterns

A closed chevron pattern gives a high profile rock pile with a possible secondary blasting due to impacts between rocks projected from opposite directions

An open chevron patterns gives evenly spread rock piles particularly suitable for front-end loaders and may produce less toe problems.
32

BLASTING PATTERNS
Multiple Row Blasting

The spread of broken rock on the quarry floor can be achieved by multiple row blasting

multiple row blasting


33

BLASTING PATTERNS
V-Pattern

The heaping of broken rock on the quarry floor can be achieved by V-pattern blasting

V or Echelon Pattern
34

BLASTING PATTERNS
Delay Intervals

Delay interval provides free face to the next blasted hole or row It should vary between 6 ms to 19 ms per meter of burden For limestone quarries delay interval is 15 ms per meter of burden

At Tobar Quarry delay interval per row should be:

(50 ms)
35

BLASTING PATTERNS
Delay Intervals

Too short a delay causes the back rows


to be initiated before the burden on the

front holes has time to break away and


to move. This may cause fly rock from

rows at the back.


36

BLASTING PATTERNS
Delay Intervals

Too long a delay may also cause fly


rock, air blast and boulders, as the

protection from previously fired rows


disappears due to too great a rock

movement between detonations


37

DELAY INTERVAL BENEFIT

Too short a delays between rows may lead to problem of fly rock from the back row
38

DELAY INTERVAL BENEFIT

Perfect delays between rows

39

DOs AND DON'Ts


When Transporting Explosives DO see that any vehicle used to transport explosives is approved and in proper working condition equipped with a tight wooden or non-sparking metal floor with sides and ends high enough to prevent the Explosives from falling off

40

DOs AND DON'Ts


When Transporting Explosives

DO Wiring should be fully insulated so as to prevent short-circuiting


at least two fire extinguishers should be carried The vehicle should be plainly marked so as to give adequate warning to the public of the nature of the cargo
41

DOs AND DON'Ts


When Transporting Explosives

DO
load and unload Explosives carefully, never throw Explosives from the vehicle see that no Explosives, including detonating fuse, are transported along with blasting caps and detonators
42

DOs AND DON'Ts


When Transporting Explosives DON'T

permit metal, except approved metal truck


bodies, to contact cases of explosives Metal, flammable, or corrosive substances should not be transported with explosives
43

DOs AND DON'Ts


When Transporting Explosives

DON'T DON'T drive trucks containing explosives through cities, towns or villages, or park them near such places as restaurants, garages and filling stations, unless it cannot be avoided
DON'T allow smoking or unauthorized or unnecessary persons in the vehicle
44

DOs AND DON'Ts


When storing Explosives DO store explosives in accordance with laws and regulations

store explosives only in a magazine which is clean, dry, well ventilated, reasonably cool, properly located, substantially constructed, bullet and fire resistance and securely locked
45

DOs AND DON'Ts


When storing Explosives DONT store blasting caps or electric blasting caps in the same box, container or magazine with other explosives

DONT store explosives, fuse, or fuse lighters in a wet or damp place, or near place, or near oil, gasoline, cleaning solution or solvents, or near radiators, steam pipes, exhaust pipes, stoves, or other sources of heat
46

DOs AND DON'Ts


When storing Explosives

DONT store any sparking metal, or sparking metal tools in an explosives magazine
DONT smoke or have matches, or have any source of fire or flame in or near explosives magazine

DONT allow leaves, grass, bush, or debris to accumulate within 25 feet of an explosives magazine
47

DOs AND DON'Ts


When using Explosives

DONT use sparking metal tools to open kegs or


wooden cases of explosives. Metallic slitters may

be used for opening fiberboard cases, provided


that metallic slitter does not come in contact with the metallic fasteners of the case
48

DOs AND DON'Ts


When using Explosives DONT smoke or have matches, or any source of fire or flame, within 100 feet of an area in which explosives are being handed or used DONT place explosives where they may be exposed to flame, excessive heat, sparks or impact.

49

DOs AND DON'Ts


When using Explosives

DONT carry explosives in the pockets of your clothing or elsewhere on other person DONT insert anything but fuse in the open end of blasting caps
DONT strike, tamper with or attempt to remove or investigate the contents of blasting caps, or try to pull the wires out of an electric blasting cap
50

DOs AND DON'Ts


When using Explosives DONT allow children or unauthorized or unnecessary persons to be present where explosives being handled or used.

DONT handle, use or be near explosives during the approach or progress of any electrical storm. All persons should retire to a place of safety.

51

DOs AND DON'Ts


When using Explosives DONT attempt to reclaim or to use fuse, blasting caps, electric blasting caps, or any explosives that have been water soaked, even if they have dried out DONT use explosives or accessories, equipment that are obviously deteriorated or damaged.

52

DOs AND DON'Ts


When using Explosives

DO
replace or close the cover of explosives cases or packages after using

53

DOs AND DON'Ts


Before and After Firing DONT return to the area of any blast until the smoke and fumes from the blast have been dissipated DONT attempt to investigate a misfire too soon. Follow recognized rules and regulations or wait at least 30 minutes
54

DOs AND DON'Ts


Before and After Firing DONT fire a blast without a positive signal from the one in charge who has made certain that all surplus explosives are in a safe place, all persons and vehicles are at a safe distance or under sufficient cover and that adequate warning has been given
55

DOs AND DON'Ts


Before and After Firing

DONT drill, bore, or pick out a charge of


explosives that has misfired. Misfires should be

handled only by or under the direction of a


competent and experienced person

56

LOADING BORE HOLES


Check bore holes for depth, obstructions, and water. Load primers- Lower the primers into the holes by using the detonating cord or tubing. Load and tamp stemming materials. Damp sand, crushed rock, and drill cuttings are all good for stemming. When tamping holes make sure to not hit directly on cap.
57

DETECTING AND HANDLING MISFIRES Burning explosives- If you see a steady rise of smoke you probably have a misfired hole. Poor fragmentation- If overburden does not move like it should this could be a misfire. If you used safety fuse keep the area clear for 30 minutes. Detonating cord- If you find detonating cord that goes into the ground, the hole has misfired.

58

DETECTING AND HANDLING MISFIRES any remaining portions of a charged blast hole (i.e. cutoff or bootleg) which is suspected to contain explosives any situation where a safety fuse has been used and the number of "shots" counted is less than the number of blast holes fired any remaining blast hole or portion of a blast hole which contains damaged signal tube, detonating cord, or safety fuse
59

DETECTING AND HANDLING MISFIRES The first priority in dealing with a misfire is to

guarantee the safety of personnel and to make


the location secure. Persons not directly involved

in treating the misfire may be required to leave


the blast area until remedial action is taken. The

directions of the shot firer or Quarry Supervisor


must be followed at all times.
60

DISCOVERING AND REPORTING MISFIRES The shot firer must inspect the blast area prior to giving the all-clear signal. When a misfire is found during the postblast inspection by the shot firer, the blasterin-charge should examine the site, advise guards to remain in place, and attempt to re-fire the explosive.

61

DISCOVERING AND REPORTING MISFIRES

If the misfire is not successfully re-fired and/or it appears unlikely that it will refire, the all-clear signal should be given and the area around the misfire should

be barricaded for later disposition.

62

DISCOVERING AND REPORTING MISFIRES If any worker discovers a misfire during excavation, digging operations shall cease immediately in the area and a supervisor shall be notified. The supervisor shall notify the person responsible for having the blasting contractor or shot firer deal with proper disposal of the misfire.
63

DISCOVERING AND REPORTING MISFIRES The blasting in-charge shall examine the location to determine whether it is safe to work in the area.

If additional misfires are found in a blast site, the misfire area and a five-meter radius shall be barricaded until the shot firer has dealt with the misfires.

64

DISCOVERING AND REPORTING MISFIRES The blasting in-charge shall examine the location to determine whether it is safe to work in the area.

If additional misfires are found in a blast site, the misfire area and a five-meter radius shall be barricaded until the shot firer has dealt with the misfires.

65

DEELING WITH MISFIRES Only workers qualified and experienced in working with explosives shall attempt to deal with misfired explosives. A shot firer may re-fire a misfire if detonating devices are undamaged. Once the misfires are re-fired, the shot firer shall re-inspect the area to ensure proper detonation.
66

DEELING WITH MISFIRES If a misfire occurs the first thing that you

have to determine is whether or not you can


use the existing caps and primers. If so re-

connect the line and fire, making sure that


the burden hasnt been reduced enough to

cause excessive fly rock.


67

DEELING WITH MISFIRES In areas where the explosives are exposed, such as in a spoil pile, the shot firer shall carefully remove them from the blast area for disposal by an appropriate means. The shot firer must take special precautions when dealing with equipment used to uncover or extract explosives in a blast hole.

68

DEELING WITH MISFIRES If you decide that you cannot re-fire the existing caps and primer cord, you may remove the stemming material from the blast hole with an air compressor. Move the blow tube up and down until all stemming material is gone. If using bulk ANFO, this will not work. Put new primer in and shoot.
69

DEELING WITH MISFIRES One such precaution is the use of nonconducting plastic or rubber hoses when using water to wash out stemming or watersoluble explosives. Workers should stay upwind of any blasting operations since fall-out may contain chemicals that could irritate eyes, nose, skin, or throat.
70

MINIMUM DISTANCE FOR BLASTING

300 feet is the absolute minimum distance from blasting zone


71

Golden Rules of Safety


Never carry detonators or explosives in pockets of trousers, shorts or shirts Never smoke when working with explosives Never work with explosives if there is a possibility of a thunderstorm Never leave explosives unguarded or unsupervised Never use deteriorated initiators or explosives
72

PUBLIC SAFETY
All blasting should be conducted between

sunrise and sunset


73

Questions

74

END OF SHOW
75

Classification of Explosives

Explosives may be divided into two general classes, depending on the rate at which they react. These are (a) low explosives and (b) high explosives.

76

LOW EXPLOSIVES In low explosives, the explosion takes the form of rapid combustion (deflagration) in which the mixture burns as it becomes exposed to the flame. In the explosives industry an arbitrary figure of 1600 to 1800 meters per second is usually the velocity dividing line between deflagration and detonation. Most low explosives are a mixture of two substances, an Oxidizer and a fuel.
77

HIGH EXPLOSIVES HE reacts in a far more rapid process known as detonation. A material is said to be

detonating if the VOD is greater than 1800 meters per second. The explosive is suddenly converted into gas at high temperature and pressure. The result is a sudden shock impulse on the immediate surroundings, the violence of which depends on the speed of the VOD.
78

HIGH EXPLOSIVES High Explosives are subdivided into two groups (a) Primary Explosives and (b) Secondary Explosives

79

HIGH EXPLOSIVES Primary Explosives or initiating explosives

Primary Explosives or initiating explosives are extremely sensitive and are used in small amounts to initiate secondary explosives, e.g. Mercury, Fulminate, Lead Azide, Diazo.
They have the property of being able to go from burning the deflagration to detonation in a matter of milliseconds.
80

HIGH EXPLOSIVES Secondary Explosives

Secondary Explosives, because of their


relative insensitivity require a larger energy

input to be initiated and are safer to handle


than primary explosives.

81