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Organizational Behavior

Why are we studying Organizational Behavior ??

Defining OB
A field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups and structure have on behavior within organizations, for the purpose of applying such knowledge toward improving an organization's effectiveness.

Organizational behavior is an applied behavioural science that is built upon contributions from a number of behavioral disciplines. The predominant areas are psychology, sociology, social psychology, anthropology, and political science.

Contributing Disciplines to the OB Field

Psychology The science that seeks to measure, explain, and sometimes change the behavior of humans and other animals.
Learning / Motivating Personality / Emotions Perception / Training Leadership effectiveness Job satisfaction Individual decision making Performance appraisal Attitude Measurement Employee selection Work design / Work stress

Sociology The study of people in relation to their fellow human beings.

Group dynamics Work teams Communication Power / Conflict Intergroup behavior

Organization change Organizational culture

Social Psychology An area within psychology that blends concepts from psychology and sociology and that focuses on the influence of people on one another. Behavioral change Attitude change Communication Group processes Group decision making

Anthropology The study of societies to learn about human beings and their activities. (A study of humanity its evolution and types of groups)

Comparative values Comparative attitudes Cross-cultural analysis Organizational culture Organizational environment

Political Science The study of the behavior of individuals and groups within a political environment.

Conflict / Power

A consciously coordinated social unit, composed of two or more people, that functions on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or set of goals.

Management Functions
A process that includes defining goals, establishing strategy, and developing plans to coordinate activities.

Determining what tasks are to be done, who is to do them, how the tasks are to be grouped, who reports to whom, and where decisions are to be made.

A function that includes motivating employees, directing others, selecting the most effective communication channels, and resolving conflicts.

Monitoring activities to ensure they are being accomplished as planned and correcting any significant deviations.

Management Skills
Technical skills
The ability to apply specialized knowledge or expertise.

Human skills
The ability to work with, understand, and motivate other people, both individually and in groups.

Conceptual Skills
The mental ability to analyze and diagnose complex situations.

Effective & Successful Managerial Activities

1. Traditional management
Decision making, planning, and controlling

2. Communication
Exchanging routine information and processing paperwork

3. Human resource management

Motivating, disciplining, managing conflict, staffing, and training

4. Networking
Socializing, politicking, and interacting with others

Global & Cultural Diversity

Perspectives of Organizational Cultural & Global Diversities

Distance and Country borders are disappearing.

Eg: Honda is a Japanese company but builds its Accord in Ohio, USA. Eg: Ford has its headquarters in Detriot, USA but also has manufacturing plants in Mexico. Eg: Coca-cola, Nissan, IBM, Motorola, Gillette, CitiBank, Ericsson, Pillsbury, Cadbury are some of the common name now across countries.

Ground Rule to be an effective Manager: Understand people diversity Respect what they believe in Modify organizational practices to accommodate globally diverse cultures.

Why do you think many Indians find it easier to work with companies like Walmart, Verizon or Sprint than companies like Yokogawa & Fujitsu.

Many business decisions are discussed and finalized during the party out time after working hours by Japanese which is not so common in Asian countries and USA.
According to American Standard Time, meeting some at 5.00pm means 5.00pm exactly and not a minutes ahead of this. However, as per Indian Standard Time a 5.00pm meeting occasionally begins by.?? Americans are fairly blunt and direct in their communication while Japanese and Indians are more polite.

Challenges and Opportunities for OB

Responding to Globalization Increased foreign assignments Working with people from different cultures Overseeing movement of jobs to countries with low-cost labor Managing Workforce Diversity Embracing diversity Changing U.S. demographics Implications for managers Recognizing and responding to differences

Challenges and Opportunities for OB (contd)

Improving Quality and Productivity Quality management (QM) Process reengineering Responding to the Labor Shortage Changing work force demographics Fewer skilled laborers Early retirements and older workers Improving Customer Service Increased expectation of service quality Customer-responsive cultures

Challenges and Opportunity for OB (contd)

Improving People Skills Empowering People

Stimulating Innovation and Change

Coping with Temporariness Working in Networked Organizations

Helping Employees Balance Work/Life Conflicts

Improving Ethical Behavior

Reading Assignment
Cultural Differences @ Wal-mart

Group Assignment
Classical Conditioning Theory Operant Conditioning Theory Social Learning Theory

You need to summarize the key concepts of the theory.