Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 14

Chapter 2 mini-lecture: Motion along a Straight Line

Topics: Displacement Velocity Acceleration Key Idea: Motion is described in terms of a coordinate system that defines position x

Kinematics
The subject of describing motion is called kinematics Starting with Chapter 5 well explore the causes of motion. This subject is called dynamics

PHSX 213, Chapter 2 mini-lecture

Terminology
This chapter presents important terminology that well use all semester Physics uses words from everyday English in precise technical ways Ill refer to these technical terms as physics-speak Its important to be able to use these terms in their technical sense
PHSX 213, Chapter 2 mini-lecture 3

Coordinate axis
In this chapter the motion will be limited to a straight line (like I-70) Call the position x (units of meters) Define an origin and a direction that is positive relative to the origin

PHSX 213, Chapter 2 mini-lecture

Stationary object
An object is sitting still 2 m to the left of the origin Then x=-2 m is the position in our coordinate system The graph of position vs. time is just a horizontal line
PHSX 213, Chapter 2 mini-lecture 5

Displacement
Its more interesting when an object changes position Assume an object starts at position x1 and at a later time is at position x2 The displacement is the change in position, x
|x| is called the magnitude

x>0, if the object moves to the right x<0, if the object moves to the left
PHSX 213, Chapter 2 mini-lecture 6

Distance traveled
Displacement can differ from distance travelled Initial and final position is all that matters for displacement, not what happens in between x path

PHSX 213, Chapter 2 mini-lecture

Average velocity
Displacement divided by the time interval is the average velocity t is always taken to be positive The direction of the average velocity is determined by the direction of the displacement

PHSX 213, Chapter 2 mini-lecture

Instantaneous velocity
The magnitude of the instantaneous velocity is the speed.

Given the position as a function of time, x(t), take the derivative to get v(t)
PHSX 213, Chapter 2 mini-lecture 9

Example

x(t ) 5t 3
2

v(t ) 10 t

PHSX 213, Chapter 2 mini-lecture

10

Acceleration
Acceleration is the rate of change of the velocity The sign of the acceleration comes from the sign of v a>0 does not necessarily mean your speed is increasing (see checkpoint 3 in the chapter)

PHSX 213, Chapter 2 mini-lecture

11

Constant acceleration
Important special case Ex: an object falling under gravity near the Earths surface

v(t ) a dt at const

PHSX 213, Chapter 2 mini-lecture

12

Position for constant acceleration


x(t ) v(t )dt (v0 at )dt v0t 1 at 2 const 2

Other equations can be derived from these two. 2 Ex: eliminate t and get v 2 v0 2a( x x0 )
PHSX 213, Chapter 2 mini-lecture 13

Constant a graphs

PHSX 213, Chapter 2 mini-lecture

14