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# Chapter 2 mini-lecture: Motion along a Straight Line

Topics: Displacement Velocity Acceleration Key Idea: Motion is described in terms of a coordinate system that defines position x

Kinematics
The subject of describing motion is called kinematics Starting with Chapter 5 well explore the causes of motion. This subject is called dynamics

## PHSX 213, Chapter 2 mini-lecture

Terminology
This chapter presents important terminology that well use all semester Physics uses words from everyday English in precise technical ways Ill refer to these technical terms as physics-speak Its important to be able to use these terms in their technical sense
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Coordinate axis
In this chapter the motion will be limited to a straight line (like I-70) Call the position x (units of meters) Define an origin and a direction that is positive relative to the origin

## PHSX 213, Chapter 2 mini-lecture

Stationary object
An object is sitting still 2 m to the left of the origin Then x=-2 m is the position in our coordinate system The graph of position vs. time is just a horizontal line
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Displacement
Its more interesting when an object changes position Assume an object starts at position x1 and at a later time is at position x2 The displacement is the change in position, x
|x| is called the magnitude

x>0, if the object moves to the right x<0, if the object moves to the left
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Distance traveled
Displacement can differ from distance travelled Initial and final position is all that matters for displacement, not what happens in between x path

## PHSX 213, Chapter 2 mini-lecture

Average velocity
Displacement divided by the time interval is the average velocity t is always taken to be positive The direction of the average velocity is determined by the direction of the displacement

## PHSX 213, Chapter 2 mini-lecture

Instantaneous velocity
The magnitude of the instantaneous velocity is the speed.

Given the position as a function of time, x(t), take the derivative to get v(t)
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Example

x(t ) 5t 3
2

v(t ) 10 t

## PHSX 213, Chapter 2 mini-lecture

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Acceleration
Acceleration is the rate of change of the velocity The sign of the acceleration comes from the sign of v a>0 does not necessarily mean your speed is increasing (see checkpoint 3 in the chapter)

## PHSX 213, Chapter 2 mini-lecture

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Constant acceleration
Important special case Ex: an object falling under gravity near the Earths surface

v(t ) a dt at const

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## Position for constant acceleration

x(t ) v(t )dt (v0 at )dt v0t 1 at 2 const 2

Other equations can be derived from these two. 2 Ex: eliminate t and get v 2 v0 2a( x x0 )
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Constant a graphs

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