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323 Morphology

The Structure of Words


5. Morphological Trees
(This page last updated 5 NO 06)

5.1 Compounding Lexical compounds are words that contain at least two stems (lexemes). Up to this point all the stems have simplex in that they contained only one stem. Various kinds of categorical stems may be combined into a compound lexical stem. E.g N+N: dog+house A+N: black+bear V+N: run+way N+A: fat+free N+V: house+sit A+A: blue+green N+N compounds are productive, but the others seem to be less productive. Lexical compounds are formed from two or more stem, but the stems are not word-forms. With very few exceptions, no inflectional affix can be added to each stem independently. Inflectional affixes are added to the compound stem, though this point may be hard to illustrate. It is the first stem that rarely carries an inflectional marker: E.g. toothache, *teethache footprint, *feetprint birdfood, *birdsfood greenhouse, *greenerhouse bluenose,*bluestnose runway, *ranway

5.1 Compounding
Incorporation is a process where an argument of the verb, usually the direct object, is adjoined to the verb, with varying results in languages which incorporate. It is common in N. American indigenous languages and in Chutkotko-Kamchatkan languages of Siberia, and possibly in other languages. Inflectional affixes may occur with the incorporated noun, but not in all of them. (See H p. 86.) H. proposes the term interfix for languages that insert a morpheme that appears to be a stem-extender ion compound words.

5.2 Hierarchical Structure HDR in Compounds 5.3 Hierarchical Structure and Head Dependent Relations
Like syntax, complex words can be represented in structures as well as tree structures. Consider, for example, doable. As we already know, it consists of a base a derivational suffix: [DO] [ABLE]. The former is a verb stem and the latter is a suffix. H says that the category of the combined unit is an adjective. How do we know this? Since DO is a verb stem, DOABLE cannot inherit the category A from DO. The only other source is from the suffix ABLE. All adjectives with the suffix ABLE that are derived from verbs suggests that the suffix ABLE carries the information that the derived stem is an adjective stem. The following tree contains the requisite information:

A-stem DOABLE

N-stem WORKER

N-stem MANHOOD

V-stem DO

A-suffix ABLE

V-stem WORK

N-suffix ER

N-stem MAN

N-suffix HOOD

5.3 Hierarchical Structure and Head Dependent Relations


The lexical entry for ABLE properly contains that information as well as the information what it must be adjoined to: ABLE [Ability] A, [-Root], [Suffix], [Vhost] ER [Agent, Instrument] N, [Suffix], [-Root], [V-host] /R/

HOOD [Group, Stat


N, [Suffix] [-Root], [Nhost]

/EBL/ /HD/ It must be adjoined to a verb stem. Note that derivational affixes are adjoined to bases, not to inflected word-forms. Derivational affixes may be adjoined to bases which are not stems: E.g. de-fer, re-fer, in-fer, con-fer, pre-fer. These examples show that derivational affixes are adjoined to bases. Whether the base is a stem is immaterial to the derivational process. The base FER and other similar bases must contain the information that it is not a lexical stem:

FER
V, [-Lexical] /HD/

BEL
V, [-Lexical] /HD/

TEND V, [-Lexical] /TND/

The prefix RE which is adjoined to the above two bases has the following entry: RE V, [Prefix], [V-host] /R/

5.3 Hierarchical Structure and Head Dependent Relations


Occasionally, the base may show a morphophonemic alternation: E.g. de-stroy, de-struc-t-ion; re-duce, re-duc-t-ion; sub-mit, submission.. The lexical entry for DUCE/DUC is less complex: DUC V, [+Root], [-Lexical]

/D{U}/ {U} = {/D{US}/##, #/K/}


STRUC V, [+Root] , [-Lexical] {/STR{OJ}/ {OJ} = {/OJ/ /DESTR___/##, #/K/ }

5.3 Hierarchical Structure and Head Dependent Relations


MIT V, [+Root] , [-Lexical] {/M {T}/ {T} = {// /___{J}/N/, #/T/} If a word-from contains two suffixes, there is an additional level. Consider undrinkable: E.g. un-drink-able.
A -st em

A-suffix UN

A-st em

V -st em DRINK

A-suffix ABLE

The suffix ABLE contains the feature V-host, indicating that it must be adjoined to a verb stem. The suffix UN contains the feature A-host, which means that it must be adjoined to an adjective stem. The prefix UN cannot be adjoined to a verb stem, block the construct *UN-DRINK. However, ABLE can be adjoined to DRINK forming the A-stem DRINK-ABLE. Since DRINK-ABLE is an A-stem, then UN can be adjoined to the verb stem produce the above tree structure.

5.3 Hierarchical Structure and Head Dependent Relations


There is a prefix UN which can be adjoined to a verb stem: E.g. unzip, unbutton, undo, unravel and so forth. This prefix has a reversative meaning. It is different prefix because of its function. The tree structure for unzipable is the following: A-st em

A -st em

A-suffix ABLE

A-suffix UN

V-st em ZIP

ABLE can also be adjoined to the verb stem ZIP producing the following structure: A -st em

A-suffix UN

A-st em

V -st em ZIP

A-suffix ABLE

5.3 Hierarchical Structure and Head Dependent Relations


The lexical entry for UNA, UNv, ABLE, DRINK and ZIP are given:

UN [+Negative] A, [-Root], [suffix], [A-host] /N/ DRINK V, [+ROOT], [+Lexical] /DRNK/

UN [+Reversative] A, [-Root], [suffix], [V-host] /N/ ZIP V, [+Root], [+Lexical] /ZP/

Note: the feature [+Root] indicates a morpheme to which derivational affixes may be adjoined. Its opposite, [-Root], indicates a morpheme to which derivational affixes may not be adjoined. The feature [-Root] defines affixes. We never got around to clitics. Clitics are [-Lexical]. They fall into at least two classes: operators and pronouns. They are often reduced phonologically and They are adjoined to phrases , pronouns , auxiliary verbs, and perhaps other non-lexical items: E.g. Cant <- can not; wont <- will not; Ill <- I will; hed <- he would. E.g. See ya (phonologically one word) <- see you, seeem <- see him or <- see them. E.g. His fathers house; the Queen of Englands hat.