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# Passive Filters

## Dr. Holbert April 21, 2008

Lect22

EEE 202

Introduction
We shall explore networks used to filter signals, for example, in audio applications
Today: passive filters: RLC components only, but gain < 1 Next time: active filters: op-amps with RC elements, and gain > 1

Lect22

EEE 202

Filter Networks
Filters pass, reject, and attenuate signals at various frequencies Common types of filters:
Low-pass: deliver low frequencies and eliminate high frequencies High-pass: send on high frequencies and reject low frequencies Band-pass: pass some particular range of frequencies, discard other frequencies outside that band Band-rejection: stop a range of frequencies and pass all other frequencies (e.g., a special case is a notch filter)
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## Bode Plots of Common Filters

Gain

Low Pass
Frequency

Gain

High Pass
Frequency

Band Pass
Gain Gain Frequency

Band Reject

Frequency

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EEE 202

Passive Filters
Passive filters use R, L, C elements to achieve the desired filter The half-power frequency is the same as the break frequency (or corner frequency) and is located at the frequency where the magnitude is 1/2 of its maximum value The resonance frequency, 0, is also referred to as the center frequency We will need active filters to achieve a gain greater than unity
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High Pass
+

Low Pass
+

VS

R C

Low Pass

VS

R L

High Pass

## GR = R / (R + 1/sC) GC = (1/sC) / (R + 1/sC)

Lect22 EEE 202

HR = R / (R + sL) HL = sL / (R + sL)
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## Second-Order Filter Circuits

Band Pass R VS
+

Z = R + 1/sC + sL
C Band Reject L

Low Pass

High Pass

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EEE 202

## Higher Order Filters

We can use our knowledge of circuits, transfer functions and Bode plots to determine how to create higher order filters For example, lets outline the design of a third-order low-pass filter

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EEE 202

## Frequency & Time Domain Connections

First order circuit break frequency: break = 1/ Second order circuit characteristic equation
s2 + 2 0 s + 02 [ = 1/(2Q) ] (j)2 + 2(j) + 1 [ = 1/ 0 ] s2 + BW s + 02 s2 + R/L s + 1/(LC) [series RLC] Q value also determines damping and pole types Q < ( > 1) overdamped, real & unequal roots Q = ( = 1) critically damped, real & equal roots Q > ( < 1) underdamped, complex conjugate pair
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## Time Domain Filter Response

It is straightforward to note the frequency domain behavior of the filter networks, but what is the response of these circuits in the time domain? For example, how does a second-order band-pass filter respond to a step input?

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Types of Filters
Butterworth flat response in the passband and acceptable roll-off Chebyshev steeper roll-off but exhibits passband ripple (making it unsuitable for audio systems) Bessel yields a constant propagation delay Elliptical much more complicated
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Class Examples
Compare the frequency responses of fourth-order Butterworth and Chebyshev low-pass filters [use Excel to compute and produce Bode magnitude plots]
Butterworth:

## (s + 1.8478 s + 1)(s + 0.7654 s + 1)

Chebyshev:

(2.488 s + 1.127 s + 1)(1.08 s + 0.187 s + 1) Drill Problem P10-1 202 Lect22 EEE 12