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AB1001 - R/3 Overview & Architecture v1.

India SAP CoE, Slide 1

Topics Covered
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Defining R/3 Why R/3 ?


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SAP R/3 Architecture


Summary Annexure

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Topics
1 2

Defining R/3 Why R/3 ?


3

SAP R/3 Architecture


Summary Annexure

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India SAP CoE, Slide 3

R/3
R/3 means Real-time 3-tier Architecture R/3 software supports all of a companys business transactions and links them together using real-time integration. Real-time integration means that each change or update in one application causes the automatic change or update of the data in the other applications involved.

India SAP CoE, Slide 4

mySAP.com World
SAP has been traditionally involved in helping customers modernize their back-office operations by integrating business processes, mostly with its standard Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) software solution called SAP R/3. The evolving customer-centric Internet business world, with its HTTP and XML communication protocols and need to do business anywhere and at any time, has enabled business collaboration to take place. The traditional SAP R/3 ERP system is an online transaction processing system (OLTP). With the proliferation of mySAP.com, all these more or less separate products are repositioned from a functionality centric approach to a new, user role-based centric approach based on business scenarios.

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R/3
SAP

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R/3
R/3 also represents 3-tiered Client-Server Architecture.

The three Logical Layers of this R/3 Architecture are


The Presentation Layer : Collects user input and creates process request.

The Application Layer : Uses the Application logic of Program to collect and process the process request.
The Database Layer : Stores and Retrieves all Data.

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R/3
1. Presentation / GUI Layer : The presentation or GUI layer typically receives keyboard/mouse data from a user and sends that data in the form of process requests to the application layer for further processing. When layer receives output from the application layer it reformats the data and presents textual and graphical data to the users PC screen. 2. Application Layer : The application layer consists of R/3's core components. The majority of R/3 business logic processing occurs in the application server layer. This is where the work processes are managed by the dispatcher. 3. Database Layer : The database layer contains an engine whose sole mission is to store and retrieve data on behalf of the application layer. SAP R/3 uses the industry standard database access language SQL (pronounced SEE-QUEL - Structured Query Language) as an interface to access its supporting database

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R/3
Physical Distribution of R/3 s Logical Layers

Presentation Layer components

Application Layer components

Database Layer components

reside in:

reside in:

reside in:

Presentation servers: Presentation servers: Systems capable of Systems capable of providing a providing a graphical interface. graphical interface.

Application servers: Application servers: Specialized systems Specialized systems multiple CPUs and multiple CPUs and vast amounts of RAM. vast amounts of RAM.

Database servers: Database servers: Specialized systems Specialized systems with fast and large with fast and large hard drives. hard drives.

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R/3
By now you are aware of

What is R/3 ? What does R/3 mean ?

India SAP CoE, Slide 10

Topics
1 2

Defining R/3 Why R/3 ?


3

SAP R/3 Architecture


Summary Annexure

5
India SAP CoE, Slide 11

Why R/3 ?
The main purpose of an R/3 system is to provide a suite of tightly integrated, large-scale business applications. The standard set of applications delivered with each R/3 system are the following: PP (Production Planning) MM (Materials Management) SD (Sales and Distribution) FI (Financial Accounting) CO (Controlling) AM (Fixed Assets Management) PS (Project System) WF (Workflow) IS (Industry Solutions) HR (Human Resources) PM (Plant Maintenance) QM (Quality Management) These applications are called the functional areas, or application areas, or at times the functional modules of R/3. All of these terms are synonymous with each other.
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Why R/3 ?

In above scenario where information flow is required on immediate base only R/3 is viable option

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Why R/3 ?

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Why R/3 ?
By now you know What is R/3 ? What does R/3 mean ? Why & in what situation is R/3 required ?

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Topics
1 2

Defining R/3 Why R/3 ?


3

SAP R/3 Architecture


Summary Annexure

5
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SAP R/3 Architecture


We know that, SAP R/3 is software, in particular it is client-server software. This means that the groups/layers that make up a R/3 System are designed to run simultaneously across several separate computer systems. When a company installs SAPs software, each component (or layer in R/3s case) is stored, managed, and processed via the hardware of separate and specialized computer systems. Each layers is capable of calling upon the specialty of any of the other installed layers in order to complete a given task. Those components/layers that are requesting services are called clients, those components/layers that are providing services are called servers. Thus the term - client/server.

India SAP CoE, Slide 17

SAP R/3 Architecture


Physical Distribution of SAP R/3s Layered Client/Server Architecture
Presentation Layer components are installed across many PCs.

Three

The Application Layer components are installed across one or more high - end servers. The Database Layer components are installed on one high - end database server.

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SAP R/3 Architecture


It is important to note that each and every installed copy of SAP R/3 always interoperates as a logical three layered client/server system. In certain sub-optimal cases multiple logical layers may coexist on the same physical computer. Nevertheless, SAP R/3 always works as a three layered client/server system. From next slide youll see examples of how R/3s layers can be distributed across one or many computers. The arrangement of the logical layers across computers is referred to as a systems client/server configuration

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SAP R/3 Architecture


Centralistic: All SAP R/3 layers reside on the same physical computer. One important distinguishing characteristic between the various R/3 client/server configurations is Scalability. If a configuration is scaleable, adding additional computers to the system will increase the overall performance of the system. Centralistic client/server configurations are not scaleable at all. Consequently, this configuration is never used in a production environment. SAP has actually installed an entire SAP R/3 system on a notebook computer for use by SAPs sales representatives.

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SAP R/3 Architecture


Distributed presentation: The presentation layer is rolled out to desktop PCs. The application layer and the database layer are installed on the same computer. In terms of increased performance, the Distributed presentation configuration is no more scaleable than the centralistic configuration. This configuration is very mainframe-ish.

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SAP R/3 Architecture


Two-tier client/server: The presentation and application layers are installed on the same computer. The database layer is installed on a separate computer. Two-tier client/server configurations offer increased scalability. However, two-tier client/server configurations create other problems. The communication across the network between the front-end (presentation and application layers) and the backend (database layer) becomes a bottle-neck very quickly.

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SAP R/3 Architecture


Three-tier client/server: Presentation, application, and database layers run on separate computers. Currently, three-tier client/server offers the best solution for most businesses. It is highly scaleable, and offers better distribution of process requests received from the users. The computers in the application layer are often capable of satisfying the users process requests without accessing the database, which in turn boosts performance.

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SAP R/3 Architecture


Multi-tier, cooperative client/server: All layers run on separate computers. But what makes it different is that this configuration is scaleable on the backend (database layer) as well. This is becoming a very important technology as more and more organizations attempt to implement SAP R/3 globally. In such a case one central database is not feasible. New technologies such as SAPs Application Link Enabling (ALE), and Oracles Parallel Server are making multi-tier, cooperative client/server a growing reality

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SAP R/3 Architecture- Processes


PROCESSES are used to efficiently manage the software applications requests for the resources of the operating system. The process and the software application are very closely linked. Each process has memory and access to system resources. A process comprises: o An executable program that defines initial code and data o A memory address space where the processs code and data are stored o System resources o At least one thread to execute the code.

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Types of Work Processes


The type of a work process determines the kind of task for which it is responsible in the application server.
Background jobs

Requests from an active user to execute


dialog steps

Administers a lock table in the shared


memory area

Execute database update

Passes sequential datasets to a printer or to optical archiving

requests
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SAP R/3 Architecture - Thread


A THREAD is a single unit of execution. It is the actual component of a process that is executing at one time.

It runs in the address space of the process, using resources allocated to the process. Each thread is capable of completing a different task that its process requests.

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SAP R/3 Architecture - Kernel


Multi-threading operating systems, like Windows NT and UNIX are capable of executing more than one thread at a time. At the heart of an operating system is the KERNEL. It is the responsibility of the operating systems kernel to manage the time of the CPU. It must keep each of the processes that are attempting to accesses the CPU in harmony. It is capable of changing the priority the threads from each of the processes that are attempting to get processing time on the CPU.

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SAP R/3 Architecture - Dispatcher


In the center of the R/3 Basis Kernel is SAPs proprietary control agent, the SAP DISPATCHER. Together with the respective operating system, the dispatcher manages the resources used by the R/3 applications. It must Communicate with the operating systems kernel to manage the activities of its processes.

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SAP R/3 Architecture - Dispatcher


Throughout the R/3 System, you can be assured that where there are work processes there will be a dispatcher. The exact number of work processes is variable and depends on the specific configuration. The main purposes of the dispatcher is to dole out pending processing requests to the work processes. There are special work processes for: Interactive SAPGUI screen processing (the dialog (online) work process) Updating of the database (the update work process) Background processing (the background (batch) work process) Spooling (the spool work process) Management of locks (the enqueue work process) The dispatcher acts like a conductor, orchestrating the assignment of the correct resources to the processing requests that are received from the end-users.

The specific tasks of the dispatcher are: To maximize efficient distribution of process requests to work processes To monitor the use of the R/3 buffers To ensure process requests are sent back to presentation level when completed. Managing of communications activities.
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SAP R/3 Architecture - Dispatcher


First, user input is accepted by SAPGUI. SAPGUI converts the users input into process requests that the dispatcher can understand, and then sends the process requests to the dispatcher. After receiving the process request, the dispatcher places it into the request queues. As work processes become available, the dispatcher dispatches the queued process request to the appropriate work process. Work processes are specialized components of the SAP software that are designed to do very specific activities. For example if the dispatcher receives a process request to print a report, that process request will inevitability find its way to the work process that manages the print spool. When processing is complete, the result of a work process is returned, via the dispatcher, to the SAPGUI. The SAPGUI interprets the received data and generates the output screen for the user.
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SAP R/3 Architecture - Dispatcher

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SAP R/3 Architecture - Service


A service is a process or group of processes that perform a specific system function (i.e., service) and often provide an application programming interface (API) for other processes to call. Many services start at boot time and continue to run as long as the system is up

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SAP R/3 Architecture - Instance


A set of R/3 work processes that are started and stopped in unison as well as the associated supporting underpinnings such as an operating system, TCP/IP networking software and a supporting server hardware.

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SAP R/3 Architecture Central Instance


The single regular instance for each unique R/3 system whose profile includes the single enqueue and single message service for that unique R/3 system. The messaging service manages internal communication. A single Central Instance is grouped together with multiple regular Instances to form a System

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SAP R/3 Architecture Message Service


The message service is used by the application servers to exchange short, internal messages (for example, trigger an update, enqueue/dequeue, trigger a background job) Every application server reports to the message service with a unique name

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SAP R/3 Architecture Gateway Service


While short messages can be exchanged between an R/3 Systems application servers via the message server, larger quantities of data (application data) are transferred via the SAP gateway. The communications partner can be in the same system, a different R/3 or R/2 System, an external program

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SAP R/3 Architecture RFC


Remote Function Call (RFC) The RFC interface enables function calls between two SAP systems (R/3 or R/2), or between an SAP system and an external one. The RFC library functions support the C programming language and Visual Basic (on Windows platforms).

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SAP R/3 Architecture SAP System


SAP system is a single, logical, separate and independent copy of R/3. In other words, everything that uses the same database.

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SAP R/3 Architecture WAS 6.20


Used to implement both server-side and client-side Web applications. Web AS is a further development of the classic SAP Basis technology. A new process has been added to the SAP kernel, the Internet Communication Manager (ICM).

Enables you to process directly queries that were placed from the Internet/Intranet via a browser.

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SAP R/3 Architecture WAS 6.20 Three major components


Internet Communication Manager (ICM) - receives the HTTP requests from the Internet and returns the response. Internet Server Cache - is used to cache static and dynamic contents with Web applications. ICM Server Clipboard - is used for temporarily storing large data .

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SAP R/3 Architecture


By now you know What is R/3 ? What does R/3 mean ? Why & in what situation is R/3 required ? Detailed Architecture of SAP R/3 Architecture of Web Application Server (WAS).

India SAP CoE, Slide 42

Topics
1 2

Defining R/3 Why R/3 ?


3

SAP R/3 Architecture


Summary Annexure

5
India SAP CoE, Slide 43

Summary
SAP R/3 is SAP's integrated software solution for client/server and distributed open systems. SAP's R/3 is the world's most-used standard business software for client/server computing. R/3 meets the needs of a customer from the small grocer with 3 users to the multi-billion dollar companies. The software is highly customizable using SAP's proprietary programming language, ABAP/4. R/3 is scalable and highly suited for many types and sizes of organizations.

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Topics
1 2

Defining R/3 Why R/3 ?


3

SAP R/3 Architecture


Overview Annexure

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Annexure
SAP R/3 : Systems Applications & Product in Real-time 3-tier Architecture. Pronunciation: SAP (Ess Aay Pee).

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