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CIS 185 CCNP ROUTE Ch.

4 Manipulating Routing Updates


Rick Graziani Cabrillo College graziani@cabrillo.edu Last Updated: Fall 2011

Materials
Book: Implementing Cisco IP Routing (ROUTE) Foundation Learning Guide: Foundation learning for the ROUTE 642-902 Exam By Diane Teare Book ISBN-10: 1-58705-882-0 ISBN-13: 978-1-58705-882-0 eBook ISBN-10: 0-13-255033-4 ISBN-13: 978-0-13-255033-8

Network Performance Issues


Common network performance issues include the following: Excessive routing updates: Decrease network performance CPU utilization spikes The size of the routing update The frequency of the updates The presence of any route maps or filters: Incorrectly configured route maps or filters can cause too much or the wrong data to be sent. The number of routing protocols running in the same AS: Processing the updates. Routes may also be redistributed between protocols, which can add to the number of updates that a specific protocol must process.

Controlling routing updates involves a variety of solutions, including the: Design changes: Limiting the number of routing protocols used Choice of routing protocol Network design (areas, stub networks, etc.) Using passive interfaces Route filtering using: Access lists Route maps Distribute lists Prefix lists

Route Redistribution

Routing protocols were not designed to interoperate with one another using different: Metrics Reactions to topology changes Timers Processes Routers using different routing protocols can exchange routing information. Route redistribution is the capability of boundary routers connecting different routing domains to exchange and advertise routing information between those routing domains.

Route Redistribution

One-way route redistribution - one protocol receives the routes from another) Two-way route redistribution - both protocols receive routes from each other. Boundary routers: Routers that perform redistribution Borders two or more ASs or routing domains. Note: The term boundary router is also sometimes used to describe a router running a classful routing protocol (like RIP) that has interfaces in more than one classful network.
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Redistribution is always performed outbound The router doing redistribution does not change its routing table. Router A (boundary router) participates in both: OSPF EIGRP Two-way redistribution does not affect the routing table on Router A However: Router C will learn about redistributed EIGRP networks (via OSPF) Router B will learn about redistributed OSPF networks (via EIGRP) Only networks in Router As routing table can be redistributed.

Route Redistribution

Why configure redistribution? Company mergers and different IGPs are used Company has different divisions with the network under separate control for business or political reasons Company has connections between business partners To allow multivendor interoperability (OSPF on non-Cisco, EIGRP on Cisco, for instance)

Configuring Redistribution

My best path to 192.100.10.0 is this way.

R2 and R3 are running both OSPF and EIGRP

192.168.10.0

R3 R1 OSPF

Routing Loop!
EIGRP
My best path to 192.100.10.0 is this way. R2

Incompatible routing information Each routing protocol uses different metrics.

EIGRP uses slowest BW and cumulative Delay OSPF use cumulative BW


Metrics cannot be translated exactly into a different protocol

Path selection may not be optimal.


Potential Routing loops Depending on how redistribution is used, routers can send routing information received from one AS back into the AS. (Route Feedback) Inconsistent convergence times: Different routing protocols converge at different rates.
These potential trouble spots can be avoided with careful planning and implementation.

Selecting the Best Route in a Redistribution Environment


Cisco routers use the following two parameters to select the best path: Administrative distance: Trustworthiness of the routing source Modifying the administrative distance to influence the routeselection process is discussed later When using route redistribution, you might occasionally need to modify a protocols administrative distance so that it is preferred and to prevent routing loops. (later) Routing metric: Best path

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Concepts of Redistribution

Multiple Routing Processes


Cisco routers support up to 30 dynamic routing processes on a single router. Most routing protocols allow an administrator to configure multiple processes of the same routing algorithm RIP and BGP are notable exceptions.
RTA#show running-config router ospf 24 network 10.2.0.0 0.0.255.255 area 0 Not usually ! recommended router ospf 46 network 192.168.2.0 0.0.0.255 area 2 ! router eigrp 53 network 172.16.0.0 network 172.17.0.0 Not usually ! recommended router eigrp 141 network 10.0.0.0 network 192.168.3.0

Route Redistribution

Route redistribution - The process of exchanging routing information between routing protocols. EIGRP routing domain learns about networks in OSPF routing domain. OSPF routing domain learns about networks in EIGRP routing domain. Done by a boundary router which participates in both routing protocols.

Redistribution Concepts and Processes


I run both EIGRP and OSPF.

Router(config-router)# redistribute from-protocol [process-id] Note: Other parameters may be required and will be discussed.

The redistribution command (take routes from) Configured on the boundary router. Participates in both routing protocols. Independent of any one protocol Various complexities depending on the routing protocols and the options.

Redistributing from OSPF into EIGRP

Our Topology
OSPF 1

EIGRP 1

Boundary router R2-E-O is running:


EIGRP for 172.30.0.0 subnets and 172.31.0.0 network OSPF for 172.16.0.0 subnets and 172.17.0.0 network 192.168.1.0 or 10.0.0.0 not currently included in either routing protocol (more on this later)

Redistribution into EIGRP

redistribute protocol [process-id | as-number] [metric bw delay reliability load mtu ] [match {internal | nssa-external | external 1 | external 2}] [tag tagvalue] [route-map name]

The syntax differs slightly depending on the routing protocol into which routes will be redistributed.

Redistribution into EIGRP

redistribute protocol [process-id | as-number] [metric bw delay reliability load mtu ] [match {internal | nssa-external | external 1 | external 2}] [tag tagvalue] [route-map name]
protocol - The source of routing information. Includes RIP, OSPF, EIGRP, IS-IS, BGP, connected, and static. process-id, as-number - If redistributing a routing protocol that uses a process-id or ASN on the router global config command, use this parameter to refer to that process or ASN value. metric - A keyword after which follows the four metric components (bandwidth, delay, reliability, link load), plus the MTU associated with the route. match - If redistributing from OSPF, this keyword lets you match internal OSPF routes, external (by type), and NSSA external routes, essentially filtering which routes are redistributed. tag - Assigns a unitless integer value to the route, which can be later matched by other routers using a route-map. route-map - Apply the logic in the referenced route-map to filter routes, set metrics, and set route tags.

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Redistribution into EIGRP


Current configurations
R1-E router eigrp 1 network 172.30.0.0 network 172.31.0.0 auto-summary R2-E-O router eigrp 1 network 172.30.0.0 auto-summary router ospf 1 network 172.16.0.0 0.0.0.3 area 0 R4-O router ospf 1 network 172.16.0.0 0.0.255.255 area 0 network 172.17.0.0 0.0.255.255 area 0 R3-O router ospf 1 network 172.16.0.0 0.0.255.255 area 0

Redistribution into EIGRP

What networks do I know about and how did I learn about them?

What do you expect to see? Directly Connected and any EIGRP networks NO OSPF networks
R1-E# show ip route C 172.31.0.0/16 is 172.30.0.0/16 is C 172.30.2.0/24 C 172.30.3.0/24 C 172.30.0.0/30 D 172.30.0.0/16 C 172.30.1.0/24 C 172.30.4.0/24 R1-E# directly connected, Loopback31 variably subnetted, 6 subnets, 3 masks is directly connected, FastEthernet0/1 is directly connected, Loopback0 is directly connected, Serial0/0 is a summary, 00:02:41, Null0 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0 is directly connected, Loopback1

Redistribution into EIGRP


What do you expect to see? EIGRP and OSPF networks
What networks do I know about R2-E-O# show ip route and how did I learn O 172.17.0.0/16 [110/846] via 172.16.0.1, 00:02:32, Serial0/1 about 172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 4 subnets, 2 masks them?
O C O O D 172.16.0.4/30 [110/845] via 172.16.0.1, 00:02:32, Serial0/1 172.16.0.0/30 is directly connected, Serial0/1 172.16.1.0/24 [110/782] via 172.16.0.1, 00:02:32, Serial0/1 172.16.2.0/24 [110/846] via 172.16.0.1, 00:02:32, Serial0/1 172.31.0.0/16 [90/20640000] via 172.30.0.1, 00:03:46, Serial0/0 172.30.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 5 subnets, 2 masks D 172.30.2.0/24 [90/20514560] via 172.30.0.1, 01:22:36, Serial0/0 D 172.30.3.0/24 [90/20640000] via 172.30.0.1, 01:22:36, Serial0/0 C 172.30.0.0/30 is directly connected, Serial0/0 D 172.30.1.0/24 [90/20514560] via 172.30.0.1, 01:22:36, Serial0/0 D 172.30.4.0/24 [90/20640000] via 172.30.0.1, 01:22:36, Serial0/0 10.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets C 10.0.0.0 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/1 C 192.168.1.0/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0 R2-E-O#

Redistribution into EIGRP


What do you expect to see? Only OSPF networks NO EIGRP networks
R3-O# show ip route O What networks do I know about and how did I learn about them?

172.17.0.0/16 [110/65] via 172.16.0.6, 00:09:06, Serial0/2 172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 4 subnets, 2 masks C 172.16.0.4/30 is directly connected, Serial0/2 C 172.16.0.0/30 is directly connected, Serial0/1 C 172.16.1.0/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0 O 172.16.2.0/24 [110/65] via 172.16.0.6, 00:09:06, Serial0/2 R3-O#

Redistribution into EIGRP


What do you expect to see? Only OSPF networks NO EIGRP networks
R4-O# show ip route C 172.17.0.0/16 is 172.16.0.0/16 is C 172.16.0.4/30 O 172.16.0.0/30 O 172.16.1.0/24 C 172.16.2.0/24 R4-0# What networks do I know about and how did I learn about them?

directly connected, FastEthernet0/1 variably subnetted, 4 subnets, 2 masks is directly connected, Serial0/0 [110/128] via 172.16.0.5, 00:09:52, Serial0/0 [110/65] via 172.16.0.5, 00:09:52, Serial0/0 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0

Redistribution into EIGRP

Hey! I dont see any of the networks in the OSPF domain! What happened?

No change for R1-E! No OSPF networks Lets see what happened (or didnt happen)
R2-E-O(config)# router eigrp 1 R2-E-O(config-router)# redistribute ospf 1

I will redistribute my OSPF learned networks (and OSPF network command networks) into EIGRP, telling my EIGRP neighbors about these networks

R1-E# show ip route


C 172.31.0.0/16 is 172.30.0.0/16 is C 172.30.2.0/24 C 172.30.3.0/24 C 172.30.0.0/30 D 172.30.0.0/16 C 172.30.1.0/24 C 172.30.4.0/24 R1-E# directly connected, Loopback31 variably subnetted, 6 subnets, 3 masks is directly connected, FastEthernet0/1 is directly connected, Loopback0 is directly connected, Serial0/0 is a summary, 00:02:41, Null0 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0 is directly connected, Loopback1

Redistribution into EIGRP


Should R2s routing table change? No
R2-E-O# show ip route O 172.17.0.0/16 [110/846] via 172.16.0.1, 00:02:32, Serial0/1 172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 4 subnets, 2 masks O 172.16.0.4/30 [110/845] via 172.16.0.1, 00:02:32, Serial0/1 C 172.16.0.0/30 is directly connected, Serial0/1 O 172.16.1.0/24 [110/782] via 172.16.0.1, 00:02:32, Serial0/1 O 172.16.2.0/24 [110/846] via 172.16.0.1, 00:02:32, Serial0/1 D 172.31.0.0/16 [90/20640000] via 172.30.0.1, 00:03:46, Serial0/0 172.30.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 5 subnets, 2 masks D 172.30.2.0/24 [90/20514560] via 172.30.0.1, 01:22:36, Serial0/0 D 172.30.3.0/24 [90/20640000] via 172.30.0.1, 01:22:36, Serial0/0 C 172.30.0.0/30 is directly connected, Serial0/0 D 172.30.1.0/24 [90/20514560] via 172.30.0.1, 01:22:36, Serial0/0 D 172.30.4.0/24 [90/20640000] via 172.30.0.1, 01:22:36, Serial0/0 10.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets C 10.0.0.0 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/1 C 192.168.1.0/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0 R2-E-O#

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Redistribution into EIGRP

R2-E-O(config)# router eigrp 1 R2-E-O(config-router)# redistribute ospf 1


R2-E-O# show ip eigrp top IP-EIGRP Topology Table for AS(1)/ID(192.168.1.1) P 172.30.2.0/24, 1 successors, FD is 20514560 via 172.30.0.1 (20514560/28160), Serial0/0 P 172.30.3.0/24, 1 successors, FD is 20640000 via 172.30.0.1 (20640000/128256), Serial0/0 P 172.30.0.0/30, 1 successors, FD is 20512000 via Connected, Serial0/0 P 172.31.0.0/16, 1 successors, FD is 20640000 via 172.30.0.1 (20640000/128256), Serial0/0 P 172.30.1.0/24, 1 successors, FD is 20514560 via 172.30.0.1 (20514560/28160), Serial0/0 P 172.30.4.0/24, 1 successors, FD is 20640000 via 172.30.0.1 (20640000/128256), Serial0/0

For now notice that there are no OSPF networks in R2s topology table.

They are still in the routing table because R2 also runs OSPF, but this is an EIGRP command.

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Redistribution into EIGRP

BW/DLY

BW

redistribute protocol [process-id | as-number] [metric bw delay reliability load mtu ] default-metric bw delay reliability load mtu

When redistributing into EIGRP from another routing protocol you must convert the other routing protocols metric (OSPFs cost, bandwidth) into EIGRPs metric (BW, DLY, Reliability and Load). This metric, referred to as the seed or default metric, is defined during redistribution configuration. Three methods: Metric parameter with redistribute command
Sets the default for all redistribute commands

Default-metric command
Sets the default for all redistribute commands

Route-map
Sets different metrics for routes learned from a single source

Redistribution into EIGRP

10000 100 255 1

OSPF 1
EIGRP 2

EIGRP 1
50000 500 255 1

router eigrp 1 network 172.20.0.0 redistribute ospf 1 redistribute eigrp 2 default-metric 10000 100 255 1 1500 redistribute rip metric 50000 500 255 1 1500

RIP

default-metric command is used where the metric parameter is not being applied in the redistribute command. metric parameter takes precedence over the default-metric command Note: The metric will give all redistributed networks the same starting metric.
This is known as the seed metric

Redistribution into EIGRP

1000 33 255 1

R2-E-O(config)# router eigrp 1 R2-E-O(config-router)# redistribute ospf 1 R2-E-O(config-router)# default-metric 1000 33 255 1 1500

OR

BW DLY

RLY Load MTU

R2-E-O(config)# router eigrp 1 BW DLY RLY Load MTU R2-E-O(config-router)# redistribute ospf 1 metric 1000 33 255 1 1500

Note: MTU is NOT one of the EIGRP metrics (never has been, never will be) MTU is included because it is tracked through the path to find the smallest MTU.

Redistribution into EIGRP

R2-E-O# show ip eigrp top IP-EIGRP Topology Table for AS(1)/ID(192.168.1.1) P 172.16.0.4/30, 1 successors, FD is 2568448 via Redistributed (2568448/0) P 172.16.0.0/30, 1 successors, FD is 2568448 via Redistributed (2568448/0) P 172.16.1.0/24, 1 successors, FD is 2568448 via Redistributed (2568448/0) P 172.17.0.0/16, 1 successors, FD is 2568448 via Redistributed (2568448/0) P 172.16.2.0/24, 1 successors, FD is 2568448 via Redistributed (2568448/0)

EIGRP topology table lists the outgoing interface as "via redistributed"

All the redistributed routes have the same feasible distance (FD) calculation (2568448), because all use the same component metrics per the configured default-metric command

New Entries
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Redistribution into EIGRP

R2-E-O# show ip eigrp top 172.16.0.0/30 IP-EIGRP (AS 1): Topology entry for 172.16.0.0/30 State is Passive, Query origin flag is 1, 1 Successor(s), FD is 2568448 Routing Descriptor Blocks: 0.0.0.0, from Redistributed, Send flag is 0x0 Composite metric is (2568448/0), Route is External Vector metric: Minimum bandwidth is 1000 Kbit Total delay is 330 microseconds From default-metric command Reliability is 255/255 Load is 1/255 "(this system)", meaning that the router Minimum MTU is 1500 on which the command was issued (R2 Hop count is 0 in this case) redistributed the route. External data: Originating router is 192.168.1.1 (this system) AS number of route is 1 External protocol is OSPF, external metric is 0 Administrator tag is 0 (0x00000000)

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Redistribution into EIGRP

Great! Now I see all the networks in the OSPF domain but as EIGRP routes.

R1-E# show ip route


D EX 172.17.0.0/16 [170/3080448] via 172.30.0.2, 00:01:50, Serial0/0 172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 4 subnets, 2 masks D EX 172.16.0.4/30 [170/3080448] via 172.30.0.2, 00:01:50, Serial0/0 D EX 172.16.0.0/30 [170/3080448] via 172.30.0.2, 00:01:50, Serial0/0 D EX 172.16.1.0/24 [170/3080448] via 172.30.0.2, 00:01:50, Serial0/0 D EX 172.16.2.0/24 [170/3080448] via 172.30.0.2, 00:01:50, Serial0/0 C 172.31.0.0/16 is directly connected, Loopback31 EX: External Route (redistributed) 172.30.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 6 subnets, 3 masks 170: Administrative distance (90 for EIGRP internal C 172.30.2.0/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/1 routes) C 172.30.3.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback0 C 172.30.0.0/30 is directly connected, Serial0/0 R1-E has the same metric (3080448) for all external D 172.30.0.0/16 is a summary, 00:12:08, Null0 EIGRP networks (from the OSPF domain) C 172.30.1.0/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0 C 172.30.4.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback1

Redistribution into EIGRP

R2-E-O# show ip eigrp top P 172.16.0.0/30, 1 successors, FD is 2568448 via Redistributed (2568448/0)

R2 redistributed into EIGRP the routes learned via OSPF and its own directly connected network 172.16.0.0/30. But not 192.168.1.0/24 and 10.0.0.0/8 This is because 172.16.0.0/30 is an OSPF enabled interface (network statement) Redistribute command, redistributes the following: All routes in the routing table learned by that routing protocol All connected routes of interfaces on which that routing protocol is enabled Otherwise must be redistributed another way (connected or static) coming

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Redistribution into EIGRP

What about the 10.0.0.0/24 network? How can I redistribute it into EIGRP?

R2-E-O(config)# router ospf 1 R2-E-O(config-router)# network 10.0.0.0 0.0.0.255 area 0

R2-E-O# show ip route 10.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets C 10.0.0.0 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/1

No change to routing table

Two ways to redistribute 10.0.0.0/24 network.


Redistribute Connected Add OSPF network command
Also propagates 10.0.0.0/24 throughout OSPF domain

Redistribution into EIGRP

The 10.0.0.0 network is now included as one of my EIGRP routes.

R1-E# show ip route D EX 10.0.0.0 [170/3080448] via 172.30.0.2, 00:01:33, Serial0/0

R4-0# show ip route O 10.0.0.0 [110/129] via 172.16.0.5, 00:04:02, Serial0/0

10.0.0.0 is now redistributed into the EIGRP domain with the rest of the OSPF networks.

Redistribution into EIGRP

What about the 192.168.1.0 network? How can I redistribute it into EIGRP?

R2-E-O(config)# router eigrp 1 R2-E-O(config-router)# redistribute connected metric 1000 33 255 1 1500

R1-E# show ip route


10.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets D EX R1-E# 10.0.0.0 [170/3080448] via 172.30.0.2, 00:01:57, Serial0/0 D EX 192.168.1.0/24 [170/3080448] via 172.30.0.2, 00:01:57, Serial0/0

192.168.1.0/24 is redistributed into EIGRP as a connected network.


metric option is not required for this command (default 0, but beyond the scope of this pres.)

192.168.1.0/24 is redistributed into the EIGRP domain using the default metric but it is NOT propagated throughout OSPF domain

Redistribution into EIGRP

R2: Currently router eigrp 1 network 172.30.0.0

auto-summary
redistribute ospf 1 default-metric 1000 33 255 1 1500 redistribute connected 1000 33 255 1 1500 !

Where we left off


network 10.0.0.0 0.0.0.255 area 0 network 172.16.0.0 0.0.0.3 area 0

router ospf 1

Redistributing from EIGRP into OSPF

Redistribution into OSPF

BW/DLY

BW

redistribute protocol [process-id | as-number] [metric {metric-value | transparent}] [metric-type typevalue] [match {internal | external 1 | external 2 | nssa-external}] [tag tag-value] [route-map map-tag] [subnets] Several similarities and differences to redistributing into EIGRP. In this case we must convert the EIGRP metric to the Cisco OSPF metric of Bandwidth.

Redistribution into OSPF

redistribute protocol [process-id | as-number] [metric {metric-value | transparent}] [metric-type type-value] [match {internal | external 1 | external 2 | nssaexternal}] [tag tag-value] [route-map map-tag] [subnets]
Metric - Defines the cost metric assigned to the route in the Type 5 (or Type 7 if NSSA) LSA. metric transparent when taking from another OSPF process, pass through the metric with the route. metric-type {1 | 2} - Defines the external metric type of 1 (E1 routes) or 2 (E2 routes). Match - If redistributing from OSPF, this keyword lets you match internal OSPF routes, external (by type), and NSSA external routes, essentially filtering which routes are redistributed. Tag - Assigns a unitless integer value to the route, which can be later matched by other routers using a route-map. route-map - Apply the logic in the referenced route-map to filter routes, set metrics, and set route tags. Subnets - Redistribute subnets of classful networks. Without this parameter, only routes for classful networks are redistributed. (This behavior is particular to the OSPF redistribute command.)

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Redistribution into OSPF

BW/DLY

BW=20

BW=20

redistribute protocol [process-id | as-number] [metric {metric-value | transparent}] [metric-type type-value] [match {internal | external 1 | external 2 | nssaexternal}] [tag tag-value] [route-map map-tag] [subnets]

Defaults when redistributing into OSPF: When redistributing networks from all other sources the default metric is 20. External metric type 2 (metric does not change throughout OSPF routing domain) Only redistributes routes of classful (Class A, B, and C) networks, and not for subnets

Redistribution into OSPF

R2: Currently router eigrp 1 network 172.30.0.0

auto-summary
redistribute ospf 1 default-metric 1000 33 255 1 1500 redistribute connected 1000 33 255 1 1500 !

Where we left off


network 10.0.0.0 0.0.0.255 area 0 network 172.16.0.0 0.0.0.3 area 0

router ospf 1

Redistribution into OSPF


What do you expect to see? EIGRP and OSPF networks
What networks do I know about R2-E-O# show ip route and how did I learn about O 172.17.0.0/16 [110/846] via 172.16.0.1, 00:02:32, Serial0/1 them?
172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 4 subnets, 2 masks O 172.16.0.4/30 [110/845] via 172.16.0.1, 00:02:32, Serial0/1 C 172.16.0.0/30 is directly connected, Serial0/1 O 172.16.1.0/24 [110/782] via 172.16.0.1, 00:02:32, Serial0/1 O 172.16.2.0/24 [110/846] via 172.16.0.1, 00:02:32, Serial0/1 D 172.31.0.0/16 [90/20640000] via 172.30.0.1, 00:03:46, Serial0/0 172.30.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 5 subnets, 2 masks D 172.30.2.0/24 [90/20514560] via 172.30.0.1, 01:22:36, Serial0/0 D 172.30.3.0/24 [90/20640000] via 172.30.0.1, 01:22:36, Serial0/0 C 172.30.0.0/30 is directly connected, Serial0/0 D 172.30.1.0/24 [90/20514560] via 172.30.0.1, 01:22:36, Serial0/0 D 172.30.4.0/24 [90/20640000] via 172.30.0.1, 01:22:36, Serial0/0 10.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets C 10.0.0.0 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/1 C 192.168.1.0/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0 R2-E-O#

Redistribution into OSPF

R2-E-O# show ip ospf data OSPF Router with ID (192.168.1.1) (Process ID 1) Router Link States (Area 0) Link ID 172.16.1.1 172.30.0.6 192.168.1.1 R2-E-O# ADV Router 172.16.1.1 172.30.0.6 192.168.1.1 Age 85 2000 1117 Seq# 0x80000005 0x80000006 0x80000003 Checksum 0x006220 0x006BB4 0x009742 Link count 5 4 3

No External Type 5 LSAs No EIGRP networks being redistributed into OSPF


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Redistribution into OSPF

R2-E-O(config)# router ospf 1 R2-E-O(config-router)# redistribute eigrp 1 % Only classful networks will be redistributed R2-E-O(config-router)# R2-E-O# show ip ospf data <Router Link States omitted> Type-5 AS External Link States Link ID 172.31.0.0 R2-E-O# ADV Router 192.168.1.1 Age 9 Seq# Checksum Tag 0x80000001 0x0094D4 0

By default, only classful networks will be redistributed from EIGRP into OSPF. Subnets will not be redistributed Supernets will also be redistributed (such as 173.0.0.0/8)

Redistribution into OSPF


Remember, routes are only Redistributed if they are in the Routing table R2-E-O# show ip route O O C O O D D D C D D C C 172.17.0.0/16 [110/846] via 172.16.0.1, 00:03:56, Serial0/1 172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 4 subnets, 2 masks 172.16.0.4/30 [110/845] via 172.16.0.1, 00:03:56, Serial0/1 172.16.0.0/30 is directly connected, Serial0/1 172.16.1.0/24 [110/782] via 172.16.0.1, 00:03:56, Serial0/1 172.16.2.0/24 [110/846] via 172.16.0.1, 00:03:56, Serial0/1 172.31.0.0/16 [90/20640000] via 172.30.0.1, 00:18:29, Serial0/0 172.30.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 5 subnets, 2 masks 172.30.2.0/24 [90/20514560] via 172.30.0.1, 01:37:19, Serial0/0 172.30.3.0/24 [90/20640000] via 172.30.0.1, 01:37:19, Serial0/0 172.30.0.0/30 is directly connected, Serial0/0 172.30.1.0/24 [90/20514560] via 172.30.0.1, 01:37:19, Serial0/0 172.30.4.0/24 [90/20640000] via 172.30.0.1, 01:37:19, Serial0/0 10.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets 10.0.0.0 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/1 192.168.1.0/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0

47

Redistribution into OSPF


R3-O# show ip route
O C C C O I only see the class B 172.31.0.0/16 network in the EIGRP domain. 172.17.0.0/16 [110/65] via 172.16.0.6, 00:01:16, Serial0/2 172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 4 subnets, 2 masks 172.16.0.4/30 is directly connected, Serial0/2 172.16.0.0/30 is directly connected, Serial0/1 172.16.1.0/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0 172.16.2.0/24 [110/65] via 172.16.0.6, 00:01:16, Serial0/2 10.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets O R3-O# 10.0.0.0 [110/65] via 172.16.0.2, 00:01:17, Serial0/1

O E2 172.31.0.0/16 [110/20] via 172.16.0.2, 00:01:16, Serial0/1

Only the class B network 172.31.0.0/16 is redistributed into OSPF

Redistribution into OSPF

R3-O# show ip ospf data <Router Link States omitted> Type-5 AS External Link States Link ID 172.31.0.0 R3-O# ADV Router 192.168.1.1 Age 88 Seq# Checksum Tag 0x80000001 0x0094D4 0

External Type 5 LSA

49

Redistribution into OSPF


I will add the subnets option.

R2-E-O(config)# router ospf 1

R2-E-O(config-router)# redistribute eigrp 1 subnets No warning message Only classful networks will be redistributed

Subnets Subnets are now included in the redistribution.

Redistribution into OSPF

R2-E-O# show ip ospf data Type-5 AS External Link States Link ID 172.30.0.0 172.30.1.0 172.30.2.0 172.30.3.0 172.30.4.0 172.31.0.0 R2-E-O# ADV Router 192.168.1.1 192.168.1.1 192.168.1.1 192.168.1.1 192.168.1.1 192.168.1.1 Age 79 79 79 79 79 220 Seq# 0x80000001 0x80000001 0x80000001 0x80000001 0x80000001 0x80000001 Checksum 0x008EDE 0x0095D3 0x008ADD 0x007FE7 0x0074F1 0x0094D4 Tag 0 0 0 0 0 0

R2 now includes Type 5 LSAs for subnets


51

Redistribution into OSPF E2


R3-O#show ip route O C C C O

BW=20

Now I see all networks and subnets 172.17.0.0/16 [110/65] via 172.16.0.6, 00:13:41, Serial0/2 from the EIGRP 172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 4 subnets, 2 masks domain.
172.16.0.4/30 is directly connected, Serial0/2

External OSPF routes are E2 with a default cost of 20.

172.16.0.0/30 is directly connected, Serial0/1 metric-type E2 - The cost of a type 2 route

is always the external cost, is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0 172.16.1.0/24 irrespective of the interior cost to reach that route.
172.16.2.0/24 [110/65] via 172.16.0.6, 00:13:41, Serial0/2 172.30.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 5 subnets, 2 masks

O E2 172.31.0.0/16 [110/20] via 172.16.0.2, 00:13:41, Serial0/1 O E2 172.30.2.0/24 [110/20] via 172.16.0.2, 00:00:12, Serial0/1

O E2
O E2 O E2 O E2 O

172.30.3.0/24 [110/20] via 172.16.0.2, 00:00:12, Serial0/1


172.30.0.0/30 [110/20] via 172.16.0.2, 00:00:12, Serial0/1 172.30.1.0/24 [110/20] via 172.16.0.2, 00:00:14, Serial0/1 172.30.4.0/24 [110/20] via 172.16.0.2, 00:00:14, Serial0/1 10.0.0.0 [110/65] via 172.16.0.2, 00:00:14, Serial0/1

10.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets

Redistribution into OSPF


R4-0# show ip route
C C O

BW=20

BW=20

172.17.0.0/16 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/1 172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 4 subnets, 2 masks 172.16.0.4/30 is directly connected, Serial0/0

External OSPF routes are E2 with a default cost of 20.

metric-type 2 - via 172.16.0.5, 2 route is Serial0/0 172.16.0.0/30 [110/128]The cost of a type 00:04:02, always the
172.16.2.0/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0 172.30.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 5 subnets, 2 masks

O
C

external cost, irrespective of the interior cost to reach that route. 172.16.1.0/24 [110/65] via 172.16.0.5, 00:04:02, Serial0/0

O E2 172.31.0.0/16 [110/20] via 172.16.0.5, 00:04:02, Serial0/0 O E2 O E2 O E2 O E2 O E2 172.30.2.0/24 [110/20] via 172.16.0.5, 00:01:46, Serial0/0 172.30.3.0/24 [110/20] via 172.16.0.5, 00:01:46, Serial0/0 172.30.0.0/30 [110/20] via 172.16.0.5, 00:01:46, Serial0/0 172.30.1.0/24 [110/20] via 172.16.0.5, 00:01:46, Serial0/0 172.30.4.0/24 [110/20] via 172.16.0.5, 00:01:46, Serial0/0 10.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets

Redistribution into OSPF

R4-0# show ip ospf data Type-5 AS External Link States Link ID 172.30.0.0 172.30.1.0 172.30.2.0 172.30.3.0 172.30.4.0 172.31.0.0 R4-0# ADV Router 192.168.1.1 192.168.1.1 192.168.1.1 192.168.1.1 192.168.1.1 192.168.1.1 Age 113 113 113 113 113 254 Seq# 0x80000001 0x80000001 0x80000001 0x80000001 0x80000001 0x80000001 Checksum 0x008EDE 0x0095D3 0x008ADD 0x007FE7 0x0074F1 0x0094D4 Tag 0 0 0 0 0 0

R4 now includes Type 5 LSAs for subnets


54

Redistribution into OSPF

R2-E-O(config)#router ospf 1 R2-E-O(config-router)#redistribute connected ? metric Metric for redistributed routes metric-type OSPF/IS-IS exterior metric type for redistributed routes route-map Route map reference subnets Consider subnets for redistribution into OSPF tag Set tag for routes redistributed into OSPF <cr> R2-E-O(config)#router ospf 1 R2-E-O(config-router)#redistribute connected

% Only classful networks will be redistributed


R2-E-O(config-router)#redistribute connected

subnets

Lets redistribute the 192.168.1.0/24 network into OSPF as a connected network. This is okay because 192.168.1.0/24 is a Class C network. If it was a subnet then

Redistribution into OSPF

R4-0# show ip route <other output omitted> E2 192.168.1.0/24 [110/20] via 172.16.0.5, 00:03:08, Serial0/0 R4-0# show ip ospf data Type-5 AS External Link States Link ID <omitted> 192.168.1.0 R4-0# ADV Router 192.168.1.1 Age 193 Seq# Checksum Tag

0x80000001 0x0012B8 0

Summary so far
R2 summary: router eigrp 1 network 172.30.0.0 auto-summary redistribute ospf 1

1000 33 255 1

BW=20

BW=20

OSPF learned networks are distributed into the EIGRP domain Use the metrics for BW DLY RLY Load

default-metric 1000 33 255 1 1500 ! router ospf 1

redistribute connected metric 1000 33 255 1 1500


Distribute any directly connected networks and use these metrics for BW DLY RLY Load

network 10.0.0.0 0.0.0.255 area 0

So far

network 172.16.0.0 0.0.0.3 area 0 redistribute eigrp 1 subnets redistribute connected


EIGRP learned networks are distributed into the OSPF domain, default metric of 20 Distribute any directly connected networks and use default metric of 20

Redistribution into OSPF E2

R3-O#show ip route O C C C O O E2 O O O O E2 E2 E2 E2 172.17.0.0/16 [110/65] via 172.16.0.6, 00:13:41, Serial0/2 172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 4 subnets, 2 masks 172.16.0.4/30 is directly connected, Serial0/2 172.16.0.0/30 is directly connected, Serial0/1 172.16.1.0/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0 172.16.2.0/24 [110/65] via 172.16.0.6, 00:13:41, Serial0/2 172.31.0.0/16 [110/20] via 172.16.0.2, 00:13:41, Serial0/1 172.30.0.0/24 is subnetted, 4 subnets External OSPF routes are E2 with a 172.30.2.0 [110/20] via 172.16.0.2, 00:11:25, Serial0/1 default cost of 20. 172.30.3.0 [110/20] via 172.16.0.2, 00:11:25, Serial0/1 172.30.1.0 [110/20] via 172.16.0.2, 00:11:25, Serial0/1 metric-type 2 - The cost of a type 2 172.30.4.0 [110/20] via 172.16.0.2, 00:11:25, Serial0/1 route is always the external cost, 10.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets irrespective of the interior cost to reach 10.0.0.0 [110/65] via 172.16.0.2, 00:13:43, Serial0/1 that route. 192.168.1.0/24 [110/20] via 172.16.0.2, 00:07:30, Serial0/1

O O E2

58

Redistribution into OSPF E2

R4-0#show ip route C C O O C O E2 O O O O E2 E2 E2 E2 172.17.0.0/16 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/1 172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 4 subnets, 2 masks 172.16.0.4/30 is directly connected, Serial0/0 172.16.0.0/30 [110/128] via 172.16.0.5, 00:14:05, Serial0/0 172.16.1.0/24 [110/65] via 172.16.0.5, 00:14:05, Serial0/0 172.16.2.0/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0 172.31.0.0/16 [110/20] via 172.16.0.5, 00:14:05, Serial0/0 172.30.0.0/24 is subnetted, 4 subnets External OSPF routes are E2 172.30.2.0 [110/20] via 172.16.0.5, 00:11:49, Serial0/0 default cost of 20 172.30.3.0 [110/20] via 172.16.0.5, 00:11:49, Serial0/0 172.30.1.0 [110/20] via 172.16.0.5, 00:11:49, Serial0/0 172.30.4.0 [110/20] via 172.16.0.5, 00:11:49, Serial0/0 10.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets 10.0.0.0 [110/129] via 172.16.0.5, 00:14:07, Serial0/0 192.168.1.0/24 [110/20] via 172.16.0.5, 00:07:54, Serial0/0

with a

O O E2

59

Redistribution into OSPF modifying the metric


R2-E-O(config)#router ospf 1 R2-E-O(config-router)#redistribute eigrp 1 subnets metric 100 R2-E-O(config-router)#redistribute connected R4-0#show ip route <external route> O E2 172.31.0.0/16 [110/100] via 172.30.0.0/24 is subnetted, O E2 172.30.2.0 [110/100] via O E2 172.30.3.0 [110/100] via O E2 172.30.1.0 [110/100] via O E2 172.30.4.0 [110/100] via O E2 192.168.1.0/24 [110/20] via 172.16.0.5, 4 subnets 172.16.0.5, 172.16.0.5, 172.16.0.5, 172.16.0.5, 172.16.0.5, 00:00:04, Serial0/0 00:00:05, 00:00:05, 00:00:05, 00:00:05, 00:12:36, Serial0/0 Serial0/0 Serial0/0 Serial0/0 Serial0/0

192.168.1.0/24 still has a cost of 20. Why? It was redistributed with the redistribute connected command without the metric 100 parameter. <redistribute connected metric 100>

60

Redistribution into OSPF E1

R2-E-O(config)# router ospf 1 R2-E-O(config-router)# redistribute eigrp 1 subnets metric-type 1 R2-E-O# show run router ospf 1 parameter is still included! log-adjacency-changes redistribute connected redistribute eigrp 1 metric 100 metric-type 1 subnets network 10.0.0.0 0.0.0.255 area 0 network 172.16.0.0 0.0.0.3 area 0

Notice that the previous metric 100

metric-type {1 | 2} - Defines the external metric type of 1 (E1 routes) or 2 (E2 routes). metric-type 1 - A type 1 cost is the addition of the external cost and the internal cost used to reach that route. metric-type 2 - The cost of a type 2 route is always the external cost, irrespective of the interior cost to reach that route.

61

Redistribution into OSPF

R3-O#show ip route O E1 172.31.0.0/16 [110/164] via 172.16.0.2, 00:00:23, Serial0/1 172.30.0.0/24 is subnetted, 4 subnets O E1 172.30.2.0 [110/164] via 172.16.0.2, 00:00:24, Serial0/1 O E1 172.30.3.0 [110/164] via 172.16.0.2, 00:00:24, Serial0/1 O E1 172.30.1.0 [110/164] via 172.16.0.2, 00:00:24, Serial0/1 O E1 172.30.4.0 [110/164] via 172.16.0.2, 00:00:24, Serial0/1 10.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets O 10.0.0.0 [110/65] via 172.16.0.2, 00:21:45, Serial0/1 O E2 192.168.1.0/24 [110/20] via 172.16.0.2, 00:15:32, Serial0/1

E1 routes, seed metric of 100 plus internal cost. 192.168.1.0/24 still has a cost of 20. It was redistributed with the redistribute connected command without the metric-type 1 parameter, E2 is the default. <redistribute connected metric 100 metric-type 1>

62

More Redistribution Examples

63

Same Protocol Stack

You can only redistribute routes from routing protocols that support the same protocol stack. IPv4 to IPv4 IPv6 to IPv6

64

RIPv2 and OSPF Example

Routing tables prior to redistribution

65

The passive-interface command is configured for interface serial 0/0/2 to prevent RIPv2 from sending route advertisements out that interface. OSPF is configured on interface serial 0/0/2.

66

The goal of redistribution in this network is for all routers to recognize all routes within the company. RIPv2 is redistributed into the OSPF process, and the metric is set using the redistribute command (help prevent routing loops - later). A metric value of 300 is selected because it is a worse metric than any belonging to a native OSPF route. Routes from OSPF process 1 are redistributed into the RIPv2 process with a metric of 5. A value of 5 is chosen because it is higher than any metric in the RIP network.

67

10.0.0.8/30

O E2

10.0.0.0/30

There is complete reachability; however, Routers A and C now have many more routes to keep track of than before. They also will be affected by any topology changes in the other routing domain.

68

For RIPv2 on Router A, the summarization command is configured on the interface connecting to Router B, interface S0/0/0. Interface S0/0/0 advertises the summary address instead of the individual subnets. 10.0.0.0 255.252.0.0 summarizes the four subnets on Router A (including the 10.0.0.0/30 subnet).

69

For OSPF, summarization must be configured on an area border router (ABR) or an ASBR. Router C summarization command is configured under the OSPF process on Router C. 10.8.0.0 255.252.0.0 summarizes the four subnets on Router C.

70

Redistribution Techniques and Issues

71

Seed Metric
Largest metric is 500

501

OSPF1
501

RIP

router ospf 1 network 172.20.0.0 redistribute rip default-metric 501 or redistribute rip metric 501

When redistributing information, the seed metric should be set to a value larger than the largest metric within the receiving autonomous system (aka the largest native metric). This will help prevent suboptimal routing and routing loops.

The default seed metric value for routes that are redistributed into each IP routing protocol. A metric of infinity tells the router that the route is unreachable and, therefore, should not be advertised. When redistributing routes into RIP, IGRP, and EIGRP, you must specify a seed metric, or the redistributed routes will not be advertised. For OSPF, the redistributed routes have a default type 2 (E2) metric of 20, (except for redistributed BGP routes, which have a default type 2 metric of 1)
73

One-Point Redistribution

One-point redistribution has only one router redistributing between two routing protocols. A one-way redistribution issue that could occur

74

R2 and R3 are both running OSPF and EIGRP Only R2 is redistributing between OSPF en EIGRP R1 has an External Route 10.0.0.0 that it is redistributing into its AS. R1 is propagating this route to both R2 and R3.

10.0.0.0 via R1 has AD 170 (EX EIGRP) 10.0.0.0 via R2 has AD 110 (OSPF) So, I will choose (include in my routing table) the path via R2 (OSPF)

R3 receives routing update information for the external route 10.0.0.0. directly from: R1 via EIGRP (AD = 170) R2 via OSPF (AD = 110) Because the AD of OSPF (110) is lower than AD of external EIGRP routes (170), R3 selects the OSPF route. Suboptimal routing Instead of sending packets directly from router R3 to router R1, router R3 prefers the path via router R2, resulting in suboptimal routing. Solution: R2 should redistribute EIGRP route into OSPF with an AD of 115. We will see how to do this later.

75

Multipoint redistribution

Multipoint redistribution has two separate routers running both routing protocols. Two possibilities exist: Multipoint one-way redistribution Multipoint two-way redistribution Likely to introduce potential routing loops

76

10.0.0.0 via R1 has AD 170 (EX EIGRP) 10.0.0.0 via R3 has AD 110 (OSPF) A one-way multipoint So, I will choose (include in my routing table) the path via R3 redistribution issue. (OSPF)

10.0.0.0 via R1 has AD 170 (EX EIGRP) 10.0.0.0 via R2 has AD 110 (OSPF) So, I will choose (include in my routing table) the path via R2 (OSPF)

R1 (EIGRP) is announcing routes, including the external route, to R2 and R3. R2 and R3 are both running two routing protocols (EIGRP and OSPF) and redistributing EIGRP into OSPF.

Therefore, R2 and R3 receive routing update information for the external route 10.0.0.0: via EIGRP from router R1 and via OSPF (R2 from R3, and R3 from R2). The AD of OSPF (110) is lower than AD of external EIGRP (170): So R2 selects the OSPF route instead of sending packets directly to R1 R2 prefers the path via router R3 Routing Loop!

77

10.0.0.0 via R1 has AD 170 (EX EIGRP) 10.0.0.0 via R3 has AD 110 (OSPF) So, I will choose (include in my routing table) the path via R3 (OSPF)

10.0.0.0 via R1 has AD 170 (EX EIGRP) 10.0.0.0 via R2 has AD 110 (OSPF) So, I will choose (include in my routing table) the path via R2 (OSPF)

To prevent routing loops in multipoint redistribution scenario the following recommendations should be considered: Tag routes in redistribution points and filter based on these tags when redistributing (later) Modify the Administrative Distance of redistributed routes (later) Use default routes to avoid having to do two-way redistribution
78

A multi-way multipoint redistribution issue

The best path between R1 and R4 is via R3 But during redistribution from routing protocol B to routing protocol A, the metric is lost Domain A doesnt know about metrics in Domain B R1 will send packets toward router R4 via router R2 (its best path outside its domain) Resulting in suboptimal routing.
79

Modifying Administrative Distance

80

AD

The administrative distance affects only the choice of path for identical IP routes. In other words, routes that have identical prefix and mask. Routes with a distance of 255 are not installed in the routing table.

81

Router(config-router)# distance administrative-distance [address wildcard-mask [ipstandard- list] [ip-extended-list]]

This command can be used for all protocols. There are additional options for each routing protocol.

82

distance eigrp 80 130 Sets the administrative distance for internal EIGRP routes to 80 and for external EIGRP routes to 130. distance 90 192.168.7.0 0.0.0.255 Sets the administrative distance to 90 for all routes learned from routers on the Class C network 192.168.7.0 distance 120 172.16.1.3 0.0.0.0 Sets the administrative distance to 120 for all routes from the router with the address 172.16.1.3.

83

distance ospf external 100 inter-area 100 intra-area 100 Sets the administrative distance for external, inter-area, and intra-area OSPF routes to 100 (default values are 110). distance 90 10.0.0.0 0.0.0.255, distance 110 10.11.0.0 0.0.0.255, and distance 130 10.11.12.0 0.0.0.255 Sets the administrative distance to 90, 110, and 130 respectively, for all routes learned from routers with specific addresses Routes from a router with address 10.10.0.1 will have an AD of 90 Routes from a router with address 10.11.12.1 will have an AD of 130.

84

Example
R1 and R2
OSPF (AD 110) is by default considered more believable than RIPv2 (120) If R1 learns about network 10.3.3.0: via R2 (OSPF) Via R3 (RIPv2) The OSPF route is used because OSPF has a lower administrative distance than RIPv2, even though the path via OSPF might be the longer (worse) path.
AD = 110

Preferred

AD = 120

10.3.3.0/24
85

Example
R1 and R2
Note: RIPv2 routes redistributed into OSPF have an OSPF seed metric of 10,000 (higher than any other OSPF route). This does not prevent our previous problem Makes these routes less preferred than native OSPF routes Protects against route feedback. Prevents R1 from choosing R2 for OSPF routes it learns from internal OSPF routers. The redistribute command also sets the metric type to 1 (external type 1) so that the route metrics continue to accrue. The routers also redistribute subnet information.
AD = 110

Metric = 10,000

Metric = 10,000

Metric =5

AD = 120

10.3.3.0/24
86

Example
R1 and R2
The OSPF routes redistributed into RIPv2 have a RIP seed metric of five hops to also protect against route feedback.
AD = 110

Metric = 10,000

Metric = 10,000

Metric =5

AD = 120

10.3.3.0/24
87

My best path to all RIP networks is via R1 because OSPF (110) is better than RIP (120).

R2, receives information about the RIPv2 domain routes (also called the native RIPv2 routes) from both OSPF and RIPv2. R2 prefers the OSPF routes because OSPF has a lower administrative distance Therefore, none of the RIPv2 routes appears in R2s routing table. All routes are via OSPF or directly connected.

88

Solution: Modifying the AD

You can change the administrative distance of the redistributed RIPv2 routes to ensure that the boundary routers select the native RIPv2 routes. The distance command on R1 and R2 changes the administrative distance of the OSPF routes to the networks that match access list 64 to 125 (from 110). Access list 64 is used to match all the native RIPv2 routes.

89

R1 and R2 are assign an AD of 125 to routes listed in access list 64 (routes learned from OSPF). R1 and R2 prefer the native RIPv2 routes (AD 120) over the redistributed OSPF routes (AD 125) in their routing tables. R1 will put the 10.200.200.34 network in its routing table as a RIP route (AD 120) instead of the OSPF (AD 125) route it learned via R2.

AD = 110

Metric = 10,000 AD = 125

Metric = 10,000 AD = 125

Metric =5

AD = 120

Preferred

90

My best path to all RIP networks is via R4 because RIP (120) is better than redistributed RIP (125).

However, some routing information is lost with this configuration. For example, depending on the actual bandwidths, the OSPF path might have been better for the 10.3.1.0 network; it might have made sense not to include 10.3.1.0 in the access list for R2.

91

Verifying Redistribution

The best way to verify redistribution operation is as follows: Know your network topology, particularly where redundant routes exist. Study the routing tables on a variety of routers in the internetwork using the show ip route Perform a trace using the traceroute on some of the routes that go across the autonomous systems to verify that the shortest path is being used for routing.
92

More on OSPF and External Routes

Determining the Next-hop for Type 2 External Routes - Intra-area

172.30.26.0/23

Metric = 20

Metric = 20

LSA 5 Best path

Review later slides for explanation

94

Determining the Next-hop for Type 2 External Routes - Interarea


R5# show ip route
O E2

172.30.26.0/23

LSA 4: I am ABR R4, I can reach ASBR R1 and my cost to the ASBR is 64.
Metric = 20

LSA 4: I am ABR R3, I can reach ASBR R1 and my cost to the ASBR is 1.

Best path

172.30.26.0/23 [110/20] via 172.16.35.3, 05:48:42, Serial0/0

Review later slides for explanation

95

Comparing E1 and E2

EIGRP

ASBR1

OSPF E2 metric=10

E2 metric=20
ASBR2

The benefits of the different external route types apply mostly to when multiple ASBRs advertise the same subnet. Two ASBRs, ASBR1 and ASBR2, between OSPF and another routing domain. Goal is to always send traffic through ASBR1. Configuration: Use E2 routes Set the metric for ASBR1's redistributed routes to a lower metric than ASBR2. Routers ignore the internal metrics when calculating the E2 metrics, so every router will choose ASBR1 as the better ASBR.
96

Comparing E1 and E2

EIGRP

ASBR1

OSPF
E1

E1
ASBR2

Goal is to: Balance the traffic Make each router pick the closest ASBR Configuration: Use E1 routes Routers closer to each ASBR choosing best routes based on the lower OSPF costs.

97

Comparing E1 and E2

EIGRP

ASBR1

OSPF
E1

E2
ASBR2

Note: OSPF routers will always prefers E1 routes over E2 routes for the same networks.

98

FYI: More on OSPF and External Routes

Redistribution into OSPF


EIGRP
Area 0

OSPF

Area 1

New Topology
100

Redistribution into OSPF

redistribute protocol [process-id | as-number] [metric {metric-value | transparent}] [metric-type type-value] [match {internal | external 1 | external 2 | nssaexternal}] [tag tag-value] [route-map map-tag] [subnets]
Default if no metric configuration exists Cost 1 for routes learned from BGP Cost 20 for all other route sources default-metric cost OSPF subcommand Setting the default for all redistribute commands metric cost parameters on the redistribute command Setting the metric for one route source Metric transparent parameters on the redistribute command When taking routes from another OSPF process, using the metrics used by that route source Use the route-map parameter on the redistribute command Setting different metrics for routes learned from a single source

101

Redistribution into OSPF

Router that performs redistribution becomes ASBR (Autonomous System Border Router). Injects external routes into OSPF creating a Type 5 LSA for each network/subnet . Type 5 LSA includes: LSID: the subnet number Mask: The subnet mask Advertising router: The RID of the ASBR injecting the route Metric: The metric as set by the ASBR External Metric Type: The external metric type, either 1 or 2
102

Redistribution into OSPF

LSA 5

ASBR floods Type 5 LSAs throughout area. If ABR is: Normal (non-stubby) areas: Flood Type 5 LSAs into area Stub and Totally Stubby areas: No Type 5 LSAs flooded Default route injected by ABR
103

Redistributing External Type 2 Routes

Redistribution into OSPF

LSA 5
172.30.26.0/23 Metric = 20

Metric = 20

E2 routes metric is simply the metric in the Type 5 LSA. Default = 20 metric parameter
R4 has two routes to 172.30.26.0/23: Via R1 Via R8 To avoid loops, OSPF routers use two tiebreaker systems to allow a router to choose a best external route. Router in question resides in the same area as the ASBR (intra-area) Router in question resides in a different area (interarea) than the ASBR

105

Determining the Next-hop for Type 2 External Routes - Intra-area

172.30.26.0/23

Metric = 20

Metric = 20

LSA 5

Router has multiple routes for same E2 destination network: Selects the best route based on the lowest cost to reach any ASBR(s) that advertised the lowest E2 metric. R4: Both routes use metric 20 in this case, so the routes tie. Tiebreaker: 1. Find the advertising ASBR(s) as listed in the Type 5 LSA(s) 2. Using the intra-area LSDB topology calculate the best route to reach the ASBR(s). (This is the route that will be entered into the routing table.) 3. This determines the outgoing interface and next hop based address to to reach the ASBR 4. The route's metric is unchanged in the routing table as listed in theType 5 LSA

106

Determining the Next-hop for Type 2 External Routes - Intra-area

172.30.26.0/23

Metric = 20

Metric = 20

LSA 5 Best path

1. R4 looks in the Type 5 LSA, and sees RID 1.1.1.1 (R1) is the advertising ASBR. 2. R4 then looks at its area 0 LSDB entries, including the Type 1 LSA for RID 1.1.1.1, and calculates all possible area 0 routes to reach 1.1.1.1. 3. R4's best route to reach RID 1.1.1.1 happens to be through its S0/0/0 interface, to next-hop RD1 (172.16.14.1), so R4's route to 172.16.26.0/23 uses these details. 4. The route lists metric 20, as listed in the Type 5 LSA.
107

Determining the Next-hop for Type 2 External Routes - Interarea

172.30.26.0/23

LSA 5
Metric = 20

Metric = 20

When router is in a different area same issues remain. Different tiebreaker to reach ASBR. Calculation requires more information that previous Intra-area example. To calculate their best route to reach the ASBR, a router in another area: Adds the cost to reach an ABR between the areas Plus that ABR's cost to reach the ASBR
108

Determining the Next-hop for Type 2 External Routes - Interarea

172.30.26.0/23

64 1 64 64 Best path

R5 has two possible routes to reach ASBR: Via R3 Via R4 Although the metric is 20, R5 will use the cost to the ABR PLUS the ABRs cost to the ASBR to determine the best path. Via R3: 64 + 1 = 65 Via R4: 64 + 64 = 128 R5 chooses the route via R3 because it is a better path (65). The routers process for doing this is: 1. Calculate the cost to reach the ABR, based on the area's topology database 2. Add the cost from the ABR to the ASBR, as listed in a Type 4 LSA Lets talk about that Type 4 LSA!

109

Determining the Next-hop for Type 2 External Routes - Interarea

172.30.26.0/23

LSA 4: I am ABR R4, I can reach ASBR R1 and my cost to the ASBR is 64.

LSA 4: I am ABR R3, I can reach ASBR R1 and my cost to the ASBR is 1.

LSA 4

The following slides provide additional information on LSA 4s if you are interested... Otherwise The End

110

Determining the Next-hop for Type 2 External Routes - Interarea

172.30.26.0/23

LSA 4: I am ABR R4, I can reach ASBR R1 and my cost to the ASBR is 64.

LSA 4: I am ABR R3, I can reach ASBR R1 and my cost to the ASBR is 1.

LSA 4

Type 4 Summary ASBR LSA: RID of the ASBR RID of the ABR that created and flooded the LSA 4 ABR's cost to reach the ASBR ABRs create Type 4 LSAs after receiving an external Type 5 LSA from an ASBR. ABR forwards a Type 5 LSA into an area ABR looks at the RID of the ASBR that created the Type 5 LSA.. ABR creates a Type 4 LSA listing that ASBR, and the cost to reach that ASBR, flooding that LSA into the neighboring areas.

111

Determining the Next-hop for Type 2 External Routes - Interarea

172.30.26.0/23

LSA 4: I am ABR R4, I can reach ASBR R1 and my cost to the ASBR is 64.

LSA 4: I am ABR R3, I can reach ASBR R1 and my cost to the ASBR is 1.

LSA 4
Best path

ABR R3 creates and floods Type 4 Summary ASBR LSA into area 1. ASBR 1.1.1.1 (R1), ABR 3.3.3.3 (R3), and cost 1 (R3's cost to reach ASBR). ABR R4 creates and floods Type 4 Summary ASBR LSA into area 1. ASBR 1.1.1.1 (R1), ABR 4.4.4.4 (R4), and lists cost 64 (R4's cost to reach ASBR). When R5 finds two routes for subnet 172.30.26.0/23, and finds both have a metric of 20 Break the tie. For each route: Add intra-area cost to reach the ABR PLUS the ABR's cost to reach the ASBR (as listed in the Type 4 LSA). R5 determines best route is through R3 has the lower cost (65).

112

Determining the Next-hop for Type 2 External Routes - Interarea


R5# show ip route
O E2

172.30.26.0/23

LSA 4: I am ABR R4, I can reach ASBR R1 and my cost to the ASBR is 64.

LSA 4: I am ABR R3, I can reach ASBR R1 and my cost to the ASBR is 1.

Best path

172.30.26.0/23 [110/20] via 172.16.35.3, 05:48:42, Serial0/0

113

CIS 185 CCNP ROUTE Ch. 4 Manipulating Routing Updates


Rick Graziani Cabrillo College graziani@cabrillo.edu