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Discuss final project deliverables Control

Terminology Types of controllers

Controls in the real world

Problems Response time vs. stability


DELIVERABLES 1) PROJECT REPORT: - Project statement (introduction) 2 pages Explain what are you designing/analyzing and why is that important On the second page clearly identify (bullet list) project outcomes - Building description (geometry) 1-3 pages Schematics that focus on your system(s) Identify all assumptions and simplifications you introduced - Methodology 1-3 pages Describe methodology (equations, schematics, ) Provide a list of assumptions used in your methodology - Results 3-5 pages Formatted results with comments Tables, Charts, Diagrams, Analysis and Results discussion - Conclusion 0.5-1 page Summary of most important results

2) PRESENTATION: - 5 minutes (exactly) Power point presentation (4-6 slides)

1) Analysis approach: - Methodology - Accuracy analysis - Result analysis 2) Deliverables: - Final report - Presentations 60% 20% 20% 20% 40% 30% 10%

Sequence of operation for the control system design

mixing Adiabatic humidifier



Define the sequence of operation for: WINTER operation and: - case when humidity is not controlled - case when humidity is precisely controlled
Solution on the whiteboard

Fresh air volume flow rate control
enthalpy Fresh (outdoor) air

% fresh air



Minimum for ventilation


Recirc. air

T & RH sensors

Economizer cooling regime

If TOA < Tset-point open the fresh air damper the maximum position

Then, if Tindoor air < Tset-point start closing the cooling coil valve
If cooling coil valve is closed and T indoor air < Tset-point start closing the damper till you get T indoor air = T set-point Other variations are possible

Basic purpose of HVAC control

Daily, weekly, and seasonal swings make HVAC control challenging

Highly unsteady-state environment

Provide balance of reasonable comfort at minimum cost and energy

Two distinct actions:

1) Switching/Enabling: Manage availability of plant according to schedule using timers.

2) Regulation: Match plant capacity to demand

Measures quantity of interest

Interprets sensor data

Controlled device
Changes based on controller output
Figure 2-13


Closed Loop or Feedback

Open Loop or Feedforward

Set Point
Desired sensor value

Control Point
Current sensor value

Error or Offset
Difference between control point and set point

Two-Position Control Systems

Used in small, relatively simple systems Controlled device is on or off
It is a switch, not a valve

Good for devices that change slowly

Anticipator can be used to shorten response time Control differential is also called deadband

Residential system - thermostat

~50 years old
DDC thermostat
- Daily and weekly programming

Modulating Control Systems

Example: Heat exchanger control
Modulating (Analog) control

Cooling coil



(set point temperature)

Modulating Control Systems

Used in larger systems Output can be anywhere in operating range Three main types
Proportional PI PID
fluid Electric (pneumatic) motor Position (x)

Volume flow rate Vfluid = f(x) - linear or exponential function

The PIDconstants control algorithm

time e(t) difference between set point and measured value Position (x) Proportional Integral Differential

For our example of heating coil:

d (Tset point Tmeasured) K x K (Tset point Tmeasured) (Tset point Tmeasured)d K Td Ti d
Proportional (how much) Position of the valve Integral (for how long) Differential (how fast)

Proportional Controllers
x A K (Tset point Tm easured)
x is controller output A is controller output with no error (often A=0) Kis proportional gain constant e = Tset point Tm easured is error (offset)

Unstable system

Stable system

Issues with P Controllers

Always have an offset But, require less tuning than other controllers Very appropriate for things that change slowly
i.e. building internal temperature

Proportional + Integral (PI)

x A K (Tset point Tm easured) K (Tset point Tm easured)d Ti

K/Ti is integral gain

If controller is tuned properly, offset is reduced to zero

Figure 2-18a

Issues with PI Controllers

Scheduling issues Require more tuning than for P But, no offset

Proportional + Integral + Derivative (PID)

Improvement over PI because of faster response and less deviation from offset
Increases rate of error correction as errors get larger

HVAC controlled devices are too slow responding Requires setting three different gains

Ref: Kreider and Rabl.Figure 12.5

The control in HVAC system only PI

x K (Tset point Tm easured) K (Tset point Tm easured)d Ti

value Set point

Proportional affect the slope

Set point

Integral affect the shape after the first bump

The Real World

50% of US buildings have control problems
90% tuning and optimization 10% faults

25% energy savings from correcting control problems Commissioning is critically important