Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 25

Objectives

Discuss final project deliverables Control


Terminology Types of controllers
Differences

Controls in the real world


Problems Response time vs. stability

FINAL PROJECT DELIVERABLES AND GRADING


DELIVERABLES 1) PROJECT REPORT: - Project statement (introduction) 2 pages Explain what are you designing/analyzing and why is that important On the second page clearly identify (bullet list) project outcomes - Building description (geometry) 1-3 pages Schematics that focus on your system(s) Identify all assumptions and simplifications you introduced - Methodology 1-3 pages Describe methodology (equations, schematics, ) Provide a list of assumptions used in your methodology - Results 3-5 pages Formatted results with comments Tables, Charts, Diagrams, Analysis and Results discussion - Conclusion 0.5-1 page Summary of most important results

2) PRESENTATION: - 5 minutes (exactly) Power point presentation (4-6 slides)

GRADING CRITERIA:
1) Analysis approach: - Methodology - Accuracy analysis - Result analysis 2) Deliverables: - Final report - Presentations 60% 20% 20% 20% 40% 30% 10%

Sequence of operation for the control system design


CC
OA
mixing Adiabatic humidifier

HC

SA

RA
Define the sequence of operation for: WINTER operation and: - case when humidity is not controlled - case when humidity is precisely controlled
Solution on the whiteboard

Economizer
Fresh air volume flow rate control
enthalpy Fresh (outdoor) air
100%

% fresh air

TOA (hOA)

damper

Minimum for ventilation

mixing

Recirc. air

T & RH sensors

Economizer cooling regime


Example of SEQUENCE OF OERATIONS:
If TOA < Tset-point open the fresh air damper the maximum position

Then, if Tindoor air < Tset-point start closing the cooling coil valve
If cooling coil valve is closed and T indoor air < Tset-point start closing the damper till you get T indoor air = T set-point Other variations are possible

Basic purpose of HVAC control


Daily, weekly, and seasonal swings make HVAC control challenging

Highly unsteady-state environment


Provide balance of reasonable comfort at minimum cost and energy

Two distinct actions:


1) Switching/Enabling: Manage availability of plant according to schedule using timers.

2) Regulation: Match plant capacity to demand

Terminology
Sensor
Measures quantity of interest

Controller
Interprets sensor data

Controlled device
Changes based on controller output
Figure 2-13

outdoor

Direct
Closed Loop or Feedback

Indirect
Open Loop or Feedforward

Set Point
Desired sensor value

Control Point
Current sensor value

Error or Offset
Difference between control point and set point

Two-Position Control Systems


Used in small, relatively simple systems Controlled device is on or off
It is a switch, not a valve

Good for devices that change slowly

Anticipator can be used to shorten response time Control differential is also called deadband

Residential system - thermostat


~50 years old
DDC thermostat
- Daily and weekly programming

Modulating Control Systems


Example: Heat exchanger control
Modulating (Analog) control

Cooling coil

air

water

(set point temperature)

Modulating Control Systems


Used in larger systems Output can be anywhere in operating range Three main types
Proportional PI PID
fluid Electric (pneumatic) motor Position (x)

Volume flow rate Vfluid = f(x) - linear or exponential function

The PIDconstants control algorithm


time e(t) difference between set point and measured value Position (x) Proportional Integral Differential

For our example of heating coil:


d (Tset point Tmeasured) K x K (Tset point Tmeasured) (Tset point Tmeasured)d K Td Ti d
Proportional (how much) Position of the valve Integral (for how long) Differential (how fast)

Proportional Controllers
x A K (Tset point Tm easured)
x is controller output A is controller output with no error (often A=0) Kis proportional gain constant e = Tset point Tm easured is error (offset)

Unstable system

Stable system

Issues with P Controllers


Always have an offset But, require less tuning than other controllers Very appropriate for things that change slowly
i.e. building internal temperature

Proportional + Integral (PI)


x A K (Tset point Tm easured) K (Tset point Tm easured)d Ti

K/Ti is integral gain

If controller is tuned properly, offset is reduced to zero

Figure 2-18a

Issues with PI Controllers


Scheduling issues Require more tuning than for P But, no offset

Proportional + Integral + Derivative (PID)


Improvement over PI because of faster response and less deviation from offset
Increases rate of error correction as errors get larger

But
HVAC controlled devices are too slow responding Requires setting three different gains

Ref: Kreider and Rabl.Figure 12.5

The control in HVAC system only PI


x K (Tset point Tm easured) K (Tset point Tm easured)d Ti
Integral

Proportional
value Set point

Proportional affect the slope

Set point

Integral affect the shape after the first bump

The Real World


50% of US buildings have control problems
90% tuning and optimization 10% faults

25% energy savings from correcting control problems Commissioning is critically important