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Analytic Geometry

The Basics
Rectangular Coordinate System Cartesian Coordinate System
y x1 : abscissa y1 : ordinate P (x1 , y1) P (6 , 5)

Fundamental Concepts
1. The distance formula

P1(x1 , y1) P1(x1 , y1 , z1) x

P2(x2 , y2 , z2)

P2(x2 , y2)

12 =

1 2

+ 1 2

12 =

1 2

+ 1 2

+ 1 2

Fundamental Concepts
2. The distance between two parallel lines + + 2 = 0 y L1 d x P(x1 , y1) + + 1 = 0
1 2

3. The distance between a point and a line

y L2 L2 + + = 0 L x

2 +2

1+1+ 2 +2

Fundamental Concepts
4. Division of a line segment

y P1(x1 , y1)

Pm(xm , ym)
x P2(x2 , y2)

= 2 + = 2 +

2 12 2 12

(1 2) (1 2)

Fundamental Concepts
5. The midpoint formula 6. Inclination and slope of a line

y P1(x1 , y1) L2 2

L1 1

Pm(xm , ym)
x P2(x2 , y2)

= =

1 (1 2 1 (1 2

+ 2) + 2)

The inclination of a line is the angle measured counter clock wise from the positive x axis to the line. The slope of the line with inclination is given by the equation = . Where m is the slope of the line.

Fundamental Concepts
7. The slope of the line given any two points 8. Relationship between slopes of parallel lines

y P1(x1 , y1) m x P2(x2 , y2)

L1

m1
1 2

L2 m2 x

1 2 1 2

If L1 // L2 , then 1 = 2 Hence, m1 = m2

Fundamental Concepts
9. Relationship between slopes of perpendicular lines 10. Angle between two lines L2 L1 m1 y

L2
y

L1
m1

1
m2

2 x m2

1 2 = tan 1 + 90 = 1 2 = 1 1

= tan1(1) + tan1 ( 2)

Problems
Problem 1. What is the distance between the points A and B defined by A(cosA , -sinA) and B(sinA , cosA) ?

Answer: d = sqrt(2)
Problem 2. Determine the coordinates of the point which is 3/5 of the way from the point ( 2 , -5) to the point ( - 3 , 5). Answer: (-1 , 1) Problem 3. Find the inclination of the line passing through ( -5 , 3 ) and ( 10 , 7). Answer: = 14.93

Problems
Problem 4. The midpoint of the line segment between P1(x1 , y1) and P2( -2 , 4) is P(2 , -1). Find the coordinates of P1.

Answer: (6 , -6)
Problem 5. The segment from ( -1 , 4 ) to ( 2 , -2) is extended three times its own length. What is the terminal point? Answer: (11 , -20) Problem 6. A point P ( x , 2) is equidistant from the points ( -2 , 9 ) and ( 4 , -7 ). What is the value of x? Answer: = 14.93

Problems
Problem 7. A point moves so that its distance from the point ( 2 , -1 ) is equal to its distance from the x axis. What is the equation of the locus?

Answer: 2 4 + 2 + 5