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Respiratory System

Group IV NS 102 - BAF

HUMAN RESPIRATION
BREATHING the transport of oxygen from the clean air to the tissue cells and the transport of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction. This is the only process of delivering oxygen to where it is needed in the human body and removing carbon dioxide waste Follows typical aerobic respiration

PATHWAY OF AIR
nasal cavities (or oral cavity) pharynx larynx trachea bronchi bronchioles alveoli (site of gas exchange)

NASAL CAVITY
Exposed to air through nostrils Lined with ciliated (hairs) mucous membrane Filters, warms,and moistens the air

PHARYNX
Where the oral and nasal cavity meet part of the throat situated immediately inferior to (below) the mouth and nasal cavity, and superior to the esophagus and larynx Epiglottis prevents food from entering the trachea also important in vocalization

LARYNX
Between the Pharynx and Trachea is the larynx or voice box. where pitch and volume are manipulated. involved in breathing, sound production, and protecting the trachea against food aspiration. (epiglottis)

TRACHEA
WINDPIPE Conducts air between the pharynx and bronchi. Kept open by partial rings of cartilage. Line with a ciliated mucous membrane.

LUNGS
essential respiration organ Human body have two lungs, with the left being divided into two lobes and the right into three lobes. principal function is to transport oxygen from the atmosphere into the bloodstream, and to release carbon dioxide from the bloodstream into the atmosphere.

BRONCHI
Bronchus(singular form) A passage of airway in the respiratory tract that conducts air into the lungs Trachea splits into two (2) bronchi No gas exchange takes place in this part of the lungs.

BRONCHIOLES
branches of the bronchi lined mucous membrane but lack cartilage first passageways by which the air passes through the nose or mouth to the air sacs of the lungs in which branches no longer contain cartilage or glands in their submucosa

ALVEOLI
Thin, moist, and surrounded by capillaries This is where gas exchange takes place between the outside and the blood Final branching of the respiratory tree and act as the primary gas exchange units of the lung

OTHER TERMS

Nasal Breathing

OTHER TERMS

Inspiration

OTHER TERMS

Expiration

OTHER TERMS

Hyperventilation

OTHER TERMS

Apnea

John Paul D. Lagtapon NS102

Respiration Process
1. How does Respiration Takes Place?

2. What is the importance of Respiration to our body?

What is Respiration?
Is the transport of oxygen from the clean air to the tissue cells and the transport of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction. This is only part of the processes of delivering oxygen to where it is needed in the human body and removing carbon dioxide waste.

Air-breathing of humans, respiration of oxygen includes four stages:


Ventilation from the ambient air into the alveoli of the lung. Pulmonary gas exchange from the alveoli into the pulmonary capillaries. Gas transport from the pulmonary capillaries through the circulation to the peripheral capillaries in the organs. Peripheral gas exchange from the tissue capillaries into the cells and mitochondria.

Ventilation from the ambient air into the alveoli of the lung.

Nasal breathing of respiration process refers to the state of inhaling and exhaling through the nose.
Each day we breathe about 20,000 times. Inhaled air is approximately 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, about 0.04% carbon dioxide and 1% other gases. Exhaled air is approximately 78% nitrogen, 16% oxygen, 4% carbon dioxide plus the other gase.

Pulmonary gas exchange from the alveoli into the pulmonary capillaries.

Pulmonary gas exchange from the alveoli into the pulmonary capillaries.

Gas transport from the pulmonary capillaries through the circulation to the peripheral capillaries in the organs.

Peripheral gas exchange from the tissue capillaries into the cells and mitochondria.

Facts about Breathing


Breathing has very little to do with oxygen. Air has 21% oxygen and the body only needs 5%. Its all about Carbon Dioxide! The more you breathe (hyperventilation) the hungrier you will be and the more acidic the body will become. The nose has a 4 stage filtration system. By breathing into the mouth you go straight to stage 4. This easily results in sore throats, tonsillitis, and even ear infections. Its healthier using nasal breathing. If the lungs were open flat they would cover the size of a tennis court! Sighing or yawning is a sign that you are not getting enough oxygen. When you breathe, you typically use one of two patterns
(1) Abdominal or deep breathing (2) Chest or shallow breathing

Children naturally use abdominal or deep breathing while most adults use Chest or shallow breathing. Maybe we need to pay more attention to the kids? Breathing exercises have been found to be effective in reducing generalized anxiety disorders, depression, irritability, muscle tension, headaches, poor concentration , fatigue, irritable bowel and other digestive disorders.

Abdominal of Deep Breathing

Humans respire with their lungs Main job of the respiratory system --- to get oxygen into the body and get waste gases out of the body. Function of the respiratory system --- to transport gases to and from the circulatory system.

Consist of structures that help conduct air in the lungs where the gas exchange takes place Divided into the upper and lower airways.

Upper airway Consists of nose, pharynx, epiglottis and larynx

Protects the lower airway from foreign material


Warms, filters and humidify the inspired air

Lower airway
Consists of trachea, left and right mainstem bronchi, segmental bronchi, and terminal bronchioles

conduct air through the many branches of the respiratory tree to the alveolar level

1. Air will enter in the upper airway (inhalation). Foreign particles from the air will be filtered by mucous and cilia. 2. Filtered and moist air will pass through the pharynx. The epiglottis will open in order for the air to pass through the larynx.

3. Air will pass through the trachea which are lined with mucous-secreting cells for further filtration of air. 4. Air reaches the lungs and will go to the bronchioles and alveoli for the process of gas exchange. 5. Removal of carbon dioxide through the process of exhalation.

Gas exchange
- facilitates oxygenation of the blood with a concomitant removal of carbon dioxide and other gaseous metabolic wastes from the circulation
- whole mechanism of gas exchange is carried by the pressure difference

The blood flows from the heart to the lungs then to the body cells. The alveoli take in the water and the carbon dioxide while the body cells take in the oxygen from the alveoli. This gas exchange is possible as the walls of alveoli and as well as the capillaries are very thin and such the gases can diffuse easily.

Mechanism of breathing I. Inhalation an active process as it involves muscle contraction. This is initiated by the diaphragm and supported by external intercostal muscle. Contracting intercostals pull the ribcage up and out causing the elastic lungs to stretch (air inside expand) II. Exhalation a passive process as lungs recoil elastically reducing their volume. This is initiated by the abdominal and the internal intercostal muscles. The elastic recoil of the lungs pulls up the adhering diaphragm.

In inhalation, the air in the lungs is at a lower pressure than the air outside. Air flows from higher to lower pressure so air flows into the lungs from outside. In exhalation, the air in the lungs is at a higher pressure than the air outside. Air flows from higher to lower pressure so the air flows out of the lungs

For Your Information


The average breathing of newborns is 30 to 60 breaths per minute while in adults, it is only 12 to 20 breaths per minute. Anoxia is a total depletion of the level of oxygen. Hypoxia is a decrease of oxygen to sustain human life. Brain cells are destroyed after four to six minutes of having no oxygen.

Vocalization

- process which enables humans to speak and also to make sound - when the air passes through the pharynx and larynx, it makes the vocal cords in larynx to vibrate which helps in production of sound and speech in humans
Coughing and sneezing - irritation occurs when any foreign particle enters the nasal passages - these irritants are forced out of the respiratory tract through cough or sneeze

RESPIRATORY DISORDERS

Disorders of the Respiratory System

Anthrax
Caused by spores of the bacterium

Asthma attack
May result from exposure to an allergen, cold temperature, exercise, or emotion

Atelectasis
A collapse of part or all of a lung, caused by a tumor in the thoracic cavity, pneumonia, or injury

Disorders of the Respiratory System (continued)


Bronchitis
An infection of the bronchi

Carbon monoxide poisoning


Occurs from breathing carbon monoxide

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease


A group of chronic respiratory disorders including asthma, chronic bronchitis, and pulmonary emphysema

Disorders of the Respiratory System (continued)


Cold
A respiratory infection

Cystic fibrosis
A genetic disorder of the exocrine glands

Emphysema
The alveoli lose elasticity and become dilated and do not exchange gases well

Disorders of the Respiratory System (continued)


Hantavirus
A respiratory condition spread by breathing in materials contaminated by urine or saliva of infected rodents such as deer mice and chipmunks

Hay fever
A respiratory inflammation caused by allergens such as plants, dust, and food

Lung cancer
Directly linked to smoking and smoke products

Disorders of the Respiratory System (continued)


Pleural effusion
A condition in which air or fluid enters the pleural cavity

Pleurisy
An inflammation of the membranes that line the lungs

Pneumonia
An inflammation of the lungs, in which a buildup of excessive moisture impairs breathing

Disorders of the Respiratory System (continued)


Pneumoconiosis
An inflammation in the lungs caused by inhaled irritants

Respiratory acidosis
A buildup of carbon dioxide in the blood, causing a lowered blood pH

Respiratory alkalosis
A deficiency of carbon dioxide in the blood

Disorders of the Respiratory System (continued)


Respiratory distress syndrome

A condition that occurs when the alveoli do not inflate properly

Sinusitis
An inflammation of one or more of the paranasal sinuses

Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)


A respiratory disorder of newborns

Disorders of the Respiratory System (continued)


Tuberculosis
Caused by bacteria that are difficult to destroy, and it can be transmitted through the air

Upper respiratory infection


Caused by a virus or bacteria in the nose, pharynx, or larynx

Issues and Innovations


Tobacco issues

Environmental health risks


Sick building syndrome Asbestos Berylliosis Black lung disease

Secondhand smoke Smokeless tobacco Heart disease and cancer