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Greek Architecture

for B.arch students by Bindu Agarwal

Characterstics features
Ordinary people lived in mud brick houses.
Early roofs are flat and covered with terracotta tiles. Gypsum was used Cooking was done in copper vessles in big houses but

ordinary people used plain pottery- ware.

EARLY GREEKS

Paintings showed birds , animals, flowers, plants and people. They constructed temples, roads, bridges. Columns simple, tapering, disc- shaped Unfluted circular shaft, square abacus at top circular echinus, small mouldings. Two periods Hellenic & hellenistic period The Hellenistic period emerged, approximately, 323-30BC. Beginning after the conquests of Alexander the Great. In the Hellenic Age, the Greek society called themselves "Classic" Greeks. The Greeks' way of thinking changed, many great artists and philosophers emerged, and dramatic changes would take place.

Hellenic period
Column & trabeated style
Wooden hut of upright post ,supporting beam and

sloping rafters. Architraves- single block of stones or marbles No internal col. In temples. No arches,vaults, domes First use timber than in marble

MATERIAL
Carpentry in marble.
Walls of crused rubble to fine ashlar no mortar. Large sized stone. Marble stucco. Sq. & rect. Doorways No windows. Slooping roofs were covered with terracotta or marble

tiles. Antifixae ornament curved sides of col.

orders
Three ordes
Doric order Ionic order Corinthian order

Doric order

DORIC ORDER
The Doric order was one of the three

orders. It is known from the 7th century BC. Doric columns stood directly on the stylobate or crepidoma of a temple without a base; their vertical shafts were fluted with parallel concave grooves; flutes and arrises they were topped by a smooth capital that flared from the column to meet a square abacus at the intersection the horizontal beam ("entablature") that they carried at the top. Main features of the Doric order are the triglyphs and metopes. Early examples of the Doric order include the temples at Paestum, in southern Italy, a region called Magna Graecia, which was settled by Greek colonists and retained a strongly Hellenic culture.

GREEKS PARTHENON TEMPLE


Built of almost exclusively of marble. The Parthenon is the ii most important and characteristic monument of the ancient Greek civilization and still remains its international symbol. 3 steps 32m x71m T=70cm R= 50cm opishodomos PARTHENON

8 x 17 no. col.( count twice corne 1.90 m dia only corners 1.88 m dia 10.4m ht.

statue NAOS 10 x 5 col. 13m ht. statue 30x19m naos, facing east

pronaos

PARTHENON TEMPLE
Entablature

Pediment (13-30)
Acroteria (Floral decoration)

Typanium

Sculpture metope bronze 14 no. at front & back 32 no. north & south

IONIC ORDER
The Ionic style is thinner and more elegant.
Its capital is decorated with a scroll-like design (a

volute). This style was found in eastern Greece. The Ionic order originated in the mid-6th century BC in Ionia, the southwestern coastland and islands of Asia Minor settled by Ionian Greeks. Ionic columns normally stand on a base which separates the shaft of the column from the stylobate or platform. The capital of the Ionic column has characteristic paired scrolling volutes that are laid on the molded cap ("echinus") of the column.

The cap is usually enriched with egg-and-dart.


Ionic columns are eight and nine column-

diameters tall. The major feature of the Ionic order are the volutes of its capital. Ionic columns are most often fluted. The entablature resting on the columns has three parts.

Difference between doric & ionic order


EGG and tongue ornaments and honey suckle in

volutes Fillets & 24 flutes & no arrises Volutes from Rams horns capital Intercolumination is 4D Lion shape Rain water sprout Bead and Real ornament at top Leaf & Dart ornament Diameters and sizes

IONIC ORDER
THE TEMPLE OF ATHENA NIKE the earliest Ionic building to be built. The temple was completed during the unrest of the Peloponnesian war.
This was not the only

piece of sculpture which depicts a sign the Athenians want to conclude the long battle with Sparta, in the cellar of the temple is a statue of Athena as Nike Apterus, the goddess without wings.

CORITHIAN ORDER
The Corinthian order is also one of the

Classical orders of Greek and Roman architecture. A Corinthian capital may be seen as an enriched development of the Ionic capital. Unlike the Doric and Ionic column capitals, a Corinthian capital has no neck beneath it, just a ring-like astragal molding or a banding that forms the base of the capital, recalling the base of the legendary basket. The Corinthian column is almost always fluted. Even the flutes of a Corinthian column may be enriched, filleted, with rods nestled within the hollow flutes, or stop-fluted. In its proportions, the Corinthian column is similar to the Ionic column, though it may be made more slender, but it stands apart by its distinctive carved capital. The abacus upon the capital has concave sides to conform to the outscrolling corners of the capital. The oldest known example of a Corinthian column is in the Temple of Apollo Epicurius at Bassae in Arcadia.

CORITHIAN ORDER
THE ERECHTHEION was completed in 406 BC.
The hall of the caryatids

was situated above the grave of Cecrops, the first king of Athens.
The old Archaic statue

of the goddess was placed and lighted day and night by a very ingenious lamp which was invented by Callimachus who is traditionally credited for the invention of the Corinthic capitel.

ROMAN ARCHITECTURE
Early rome people called Etruscans.
Rich in material such as metal, copper, silver, tin Woman have equal importance as men People loved sports prefer grid iron system Soil available for manufactureing bricks and tiles

Early houses built with sun-dried bricks and wooden

roof covered with terracotta tiles. Excellent pottery. Bronze utensils Tombs & temples decorated with figures of lion and tigers. Paintings show scnces of banquets, music,dance,sports as well as hunting & fighting

MATERIAL
Roman architecture followed by Greeks columnar and

trabeated style and also adopted Etruscans arch and vault. Material lime-concrete Due to concrete use of vaults exceeds In 19th cent. Steel makes the possible to construct equal vaults. Lime plaster used outside the wall vaults and marble stucco

Marble was rarely used


White marble used avoided coloured marble. Marble mosaics are used for geometrical patterns. Roman architecture is the capacity to span over large

spaces The ribs were made of Roman bricks

Temp. wooden frame work


Filling with lime conc. Till sufficient th. Is obtained Greek bldg single stireyed and Roman bldg several

storeyed

Main features
Vaults Barrel vault over rectangular base Cross vault formed by intersection of two semicircular vaults of same span used over the same apartment Cupola- used over circular structure

ROMAN DORIC ORDER

ROMAN IONIC ORDER

ROMAN CORINTHIAN ORDER

Roman architects invented Roman concrete and used

it in buildings where it could stand on its own and support a great deal of weight. The first use of concrete by the Romans was in the town of Cosa sometime after 273 BC. Ancient Roman concrete was a mixture of lime mortar, sand with stone rubble, pozzolana, water, and stones, and stronger than previously-used concrete. The ancient builders placed these ingredients in wooden frames where it hardened and bonded to a facing of stones or (more frequently) bricks.

When the framework was removed, the new wall was

very strong with a rough surface of bricks or stones. This surface could be smoothed and faced with an attractive stucco or thin panels of marble or other coloured stones called revetment. Concrete construction proved to be more flexible and less costly than building solid stone buildings. The materials were readily available and not difficult to transport. The wooden frames could be used more than once, allowing builders to work quickly and efficiently.