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Training report on Robotics & Embedded Systems

Submitted by KIRAN RIYAR ECE,4th year, 09EJTEC046

Introduction to the company


KAIZEN ROBEONICS Research Pvt Ltd.

Kaizen is japanese term for improvement. Kaizen robeonics started in 2008,with the

dream of an entrepreneurial engineering graduate and electronics genious- Manoj Sharma. Kaizen aims at improving the activities and process thus eliminating waste.

Field Of Training

Study of components
Resistor

Specification
Current rating=20mA,Cut in voltage=2V

Relay is an electromagnetic device which work on magnetic field.

There are two types of voltage regulators 1. fixed voltage regulators(78xx,79xx) 2. variable voltage regulators(LM317) In fixed voltage regulators there is another classification 1. +ve voltage regulators 2. -ve voltage regulators +ve voltage regulator of series 78XX, 7805 gives fixed 5V dc voltage, if input is 20V, 7.5v.

Introduction to robotics & embedded systems


A robot can be defined as a

programmable, selfcontrolled device consisting of electronic, electrical, or mechanical units.

The embedded system is a combination of computer hardware, software additional electrical & mechanical parts

Line Follower Robot


Introduction
The line follower is a self operating robot that detects

and follows a line that is drawn on the floor. The path consists of a black line on a white surface (or vice versa).

Basic design & requirement


The robot is built using AT89C2051,L293D,IR

sensors,LM324,platform consisting a chassis(on hand made aluminium sheet chassis),two motor and controlling wheels. It has infrared sensors on the bottom for detecting black tracking tape.

Basic operation
Capture line position with optical sensor mounted at

front end of robot. For this the combination of IR LED and photo tarnsistor,is used. Steer robot to track the line with a suitable steering mechanism

Block Diagram Of A Line Follower Robot

Basic Robots Constituents


Sensors-

Device which produces useful output in response to changes in measurable quantity.

Exa.-

LDR, Photo Diode ,Infrared emitter sensor

Types of sensors
Sensors are classified broadly in two types: 1. On the basis of energy detected. 2. On the basis of signal detection method

1. on the basis of energy involvedSound ,light energy, fire sensor etc.


2.On the basis of signal detection method

There are 3 classifications1).Throw beam detection 2).Reflection type 3).Proximity type

THROUGH BEAM DETECTION


The through-beam method requires that the source

and detector are positioned opposite each other . When an object passes between the source and detectors, the beam is broken; signal shows the detection of an object. e.g.security system
TX
RX

REFLECTION TYPE
When an object breaks a

reflected beam, the object is detected. e.g. zerox machine x-ray machine

TX

RX FIXED SURFACE

PROXIMITY TYPE
When an object passes in
TX

RX
OBSTACLE

front of source and detector, light from the source is reflected from the objects surface back to the detector, and the object is detected.

SENSOR USING LED & LDR : LED & LDR sensor is one of the cheapest sensor used

in robotics.
LDR:-

The light dependent resistor (LDR) is a sensor whose resistance decreases when light impinges on it.

LED
A light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor device that emits narrow-spectrum light when electrically biased in the forward direction of the p-n junction.

IR LED:-

These are just like any other simple led they are differ in only the material used for emitting the light. The emitted light is in the Infrared range which is not visible by necked eyes. The symbol of IR LED is:

PHOTODIODE :-

Sensor Circuit

Sensor using LED & LDR

COMPARATOR IC LM324
The LM324 consist of

four independent, high gain operational amplifiers which were designed specifically to operate from a single power supply over a wide voltage range. The operational amplifier is used in open loop configuration.

Properties of

comparator: If V+ > Vthen Vo=Vcc (Digital High 1 output) If V+ < Vthen Vo=0 (Digital Low 0 output)

Pin Diagram Of LM324

Simple Led-Photo Diode Sensor

Sensor using LM324

Charactristic of sensor
Range
Nature of output signal Effect of environment Accuracy Efficiency Cost Application Precision

Application of sensors
a. Water sensor
b. Water level indicator c. Automatic street light control system d. Automatic plant irrigation system

TSOP1738
The TSOP 1738 is a member of IR receiver. The output of TSOP is active low and it gives +5V in off state

TIMER 555

Sensor using TSOP

MOTOR DRIVER IC L293D


Microcontroller can not

give sufficient current to drive the motor. Motor driver is a current enhancing device.

MOTOR OUTPUT SYSTEM


For moving a robot we use two dc motors.
Dc motors are most easy to control.One dc motor

require two signal for its operation.If we want to change its direction just change the polarity of supply. By using two motors we can move robot in any direction.This steering system is known as diffrential drive.

Robot movement
Left motor straight stop Right motor straight straight Robot movement straight left

reverse
straight straight reverse

straight
stop reverse reverse

Sharp left
right Sharp right reverse

Block Diagram Of AT89C2051


Figure 5.1

BIG DOG

THANK YOU

Collision avoidance robot


Active avoidance system
Passive avoidance system

SENSOR

CONTROL UNIT

ACTUATOR