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# IMATH 105 College Algebra with Applications

BK Sia sbkns2009@gmail.com

Topic 1
Algebra and Equations

L1

L1.1 Sets

## L1.2 Real Numbers and Their Properties

L1.3 Polynomials L1.4 Factoring Polynomials L1.5 Rational Expressions L1.6 Rational Exponents
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L1.1 Sets
Basic Definitions Operations on Sets

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Basic Definitions
Set as a collection of objects. The objects that belongs to set are called elements or members of the set. In algebra, the elements of a set are usually numbers. Sets are commonly written using set braces, { }. For example, set containing the elements 1,2,3,4 is written, {1,2,3,4}.
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L1.1

## Example 1 Listing the Elements of a Set

Write the elements belonging to:
(a) {x|x is a natural number between 8 and 12} {9, 10, 11}

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L1.1

## Example 2 Finding the Complement of a Set

Let U = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9}, A= {2, 4, 6, 8}, B = {3, 6, 9}
Find A, B, U, A contains the elements of U that are not in A: {1, 3, 5, 7, 9} B contains the elements of U that are not in B: {1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 8} U = = U
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L1.1

## Example 3 Finding the Intersection of Two Sets

Find (a) {15, 20, 25, 30} {12, 18, 24, 30}
{15, 20, 25, 30} {12, 18, 24, 30} = {30} The element 30 is the only one belonging to both sets.

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L1.1

## Example 3 Finding the Intersection of Two Sets (cont.)

Find
(b) {3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18} {6, 12, 18, 24} {3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18} {6, 12, 18, 24} = {6, 12, 18} The elements 6, 12, and 18 belong to both sets.

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L1.1

## Example 4 Finding the Union of Two Sets

Find (a) {1, 3, 5, 7, 9} U {3, 6, 9, 12} List the elements of the first set, then include the elements from the second set that are not already listed.
{1, 3, 5, 7, 9} U {3, 6, 9, 12} = {1, 3, 5, 6, 7, 9, 12}

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L1.1

## Example 4 Finding the Union of Two Sets

Find (b) {9, 10, 11, 12} U {10, 12, 14, 16}
{9, 10, 11, 12} U {10, 12, 14, 16} = {9, 10, 11, 12, 14, 16}

(cont.)

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## L1.2 Real Numbers and Their Properties

Sets of Numbers and the Number Line Exponents Order of Operations Properties of Real Numbers Order on the Number Line Absolute Value

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Basic Arithmetic
Real Numbers In algebra, we work with the set of real numbers, which we can model using a number line.

Real numbers describe real-world quantities such as amounts, distances, age, temperature, and so on. A real number can be an integer, a fraction, or a decimal. They can also be either rational or irrational.
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## L1.2 Basic Terms

Natural number (1, 2 ..)

## Whole Number (0,1, 2 ..)

Integer (..-2, -1, 0, 1, 2 ..) Rational Number (A number that can be expressed as the ratio of two integers, p/q, where p and q are integers and q 0). Rational number, when written in decimal form, is either a terminating decimal, such as 0.5 or 0.128 or in which some block of digits eventually repeats forever, such as, 1.3333 or 4.7234234.
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## L1.2 Basic Terms

Irrational Numbers (A number that cannot be expressed as the ratio of two integers). Irrational number cannot be expressed as a quotient of integers. Irrational number are decimals that neither terminate nor repeat.

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## L1.2 Basic Terms (Cont)

Rational Numbers
A number that can be expressed as the ratio of two integers. Examples of rational numbers:

The fraction is the ratio of 1 to 2. Since three can be expressed as three over one, or the ratio of 3 to one, it is also a rational number. The number "0.57" is also a rational number, as it can be written as a fraction.
Irrational Numbers
A number that cannot be expressed as the ratio of two integers. Example:
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Real

## Numbers Rational numbers

Integers numbers Whole numbers Natural numbers

Irrational numbers

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L1.2 Example 1

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L1.2 Example 1

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L1.2 Example 1

## Identifying Elements of Subsets of the Real Numbers (cont.)

List the elements of S that belong to each set. (e) irrational numbers

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L1.2 Example 2

## Evaluating Exponential Expressions

Evaluate each expression and identify the base and the exponent. (a) Base: 10 Exponent: 3

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L1.2 Example 2

## Evaluating Exponential Expressions (cont.)

Evaluate each expression and identify the base and the exponent. (c) Base: 3 (d) Base: 5 (e) Base: 10 Exponent: 2
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Exponent: 4 Exponent: 2

## Basic Arithmetic (Cont)

The most common forms of number manipulation are 4 basic arithmetic operations of: Additional, Subtraction, Multiplication, Division, + x Example: 2 + 2 = 4 22=0 2x2=4 22=1

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## Basic Arithmetic (Cont)

When different operations occur in the same mathematical expression: Multiply and divide before addition and subtracting. Use brackets to change the order: The operation inside the brackets should be performed before those outside. ( ) x +L1-24

of Operations

Evaluate

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Evaluate

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## L1.2 Example 3(c) Using Order

of Operations (cont.)

Evaluate

Multiply

Simplify

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Evaluate

Multiply

Simplify
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## of Operations (page 11)

Evaluate c = 6.

using a = 4, b = 3, and

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## Order of Operations (cont.)

using a = 4, b = 3, and

Evaluate c = 6.

Substitute

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## (12 + 2x) + 18 = (2x + 12) + 18

= 2x + (12 + 18) = 2x + 30

Commutative property
Associative property

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## Using the Commutative and Associative Properties to Simplify Expressions (cont.)

Simplify

Associative property

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## Using the Commutative and Associative Properties to Simplify Expressions (cont.)

Simplify

Commutative property

Associative property
Commutative property

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(a)

(b)

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(c)

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## Rewrite using the distributive property and simplify.

(d)

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L1.2 Example 7 Evaluating Absolute Values (page 15) Evaluate each expression:

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

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## L1.2 Example 8 Measuring Blood Pressure Difference

Find Pd for a patient with a systolic pressure, P, of 146.

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Expressions

## Let m = 13 and n = 9. Evaluate each expression.

(a)

(b)
-

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Exercise
1.

2 10 6 (20) 6 7 2 2

2.

2 (10 6) 2(4) 4 2 2
6 9 4 3 15 7 8

3.

4.

6 [9 (4 3)] 6 (9 1) 6 8 14
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L1.3 Polynomials
Rules for Exponents Polynomials Addition and Subtraction Multiplication Division

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Polynomials
A polynomial is a mathematical expression involving a sum of powers in one or more variables multiplied by coefficients. A polynomial in one variable (i.e., a univariate polynomial) with constant coefficients is given by

a n x ... a 2 x a1 x a 0
n 2

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Polynomials (Cont)
Sum of two polynomials: adding together the coefficients
sharing the same powers of variables:

## (a2 x 2 a1 x a0 ) (b1 x b0 ) a2 x 2 (a1 b1 ) x (a0 b0 )

Product of two polynomials: multiplying term by term and
combining the results:

## (a 2 x 2 a1 x a0 )(b1 x b0 ) a 2 x 2 (b1 x b0 ) a1 x(b1 x b0 ) a0 (b1 x b0 ) a 2 b1 x 3 (a 2 b0 a1b1 ) x 2 (a1b0 a0 b1 ) x a0 b0

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Polynomials (Cont)
The special names given to polynomials of low orders

Polynomial order 2 3 4

Polynomial name

Example
2x2 + 3x + 7 3x3 + 4x2 + 5x + 7 3x4 + 4x3 + 5x2 + 6x + 7

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Factoring Polynomials
Common Factors take out a common factor

ab ac a(b c)
4 x 5 12 x 4 8 x 3 4 x 3 ( x 2 3x 2)

## a = common factor 4x3 = common factor

Grouping split the polynomial in two pieces and take out common factors in each of them 5 x 3 10 x 2 3 x 6

5 x 2 ( x 2) 3( x 2) (5 x 2 3)( x 2)
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## Factoring Polynomials (Cont)

Difference of Squares
( A B)( A B) A2 B 2

( x 5)( x 5) x 2 25

Perfect Squares ( A B) 2 A2 2 AB B 2
( A B) 2 A2 2 AB B 2
( x 5) 2 x 2 10 x 25

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M a
Notation:

1 n
1 n

a n a
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## Indices (Power and Root) (cont)

Rule applying to powers:

a a a
m n

m n

a a a
m n
m

mn

Law 1
Law 3

Law 2
m m

(a ) a
m n

mn

(ab) a b
1 a m a
m

Law 4

a 1
0
n

Law 5

a a
m

m n

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## Indices (Power and Root) (cont)

Properties of nth roots
n n

ab a b
n n
n

a b

a b

a mn a
n

a a if n is odd
n

a a if n is even
n
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L1.3 Example 1

## Find each product. (a) (b)

Commutative and associative properties Product rule

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L1.3 Example 2

(a)
(b)

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L1.3 Example 2

(c)

(d)

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L1.3 Example 3

(a) 80
(d) ( 8)0

(b) 80
(e) (3b8)0

(c) (8)0

## (a) 80 = 1 (d) (8)0= 1

(b) 80 = 1

(c) (8)0 = 1

(e) (3b8)0 = 1, b 0

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L1.3 Example 4

(a)

(b)

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L1.3 Example 4

(cont.)

(c)

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L1.3 Example 4

(cont.)

(d)

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L1.3 Example 5

Multiply

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(page 27)

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(cont.)

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(cont.)

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L1.3 Example 7

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L1.3 Example 7

(e)

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(cont.)

## Find the product:

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L1.3 Example 9

Dividing Polynomials

Divide

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L1.3 Example 9

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L1.3 Example 10

## Dividing Polynomials with Missing Terms

Divide
Insert placeholders for missing terms

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## L1.4 Factoring Polynomials

Factoring Out the Greatest Common Factor Factoring by Grouping Factoring Trinomials Factoring Binomials Factoring by Substitution

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L1.4 Example 1

## Factoring Out the Greatest Common Factor

Factor out the greatest common factor from each polynomial. (a) (b)

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L1.4 Example 1

## Factoring Out the Greatest Common Factor (cont.)

Factor out the greatest common factor from the polynomial. (c)

GCF = 2(x 2)

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## L1.4 Example 2(a)

Factoring By Grouping

Factor by grouping.

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## L1.4 Example 2(b)

Factoring By Grouping

Factor by grouping.

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## L1.4 Example 2(c)

Factoring By Grouping

Factor by grouping.

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## L1.4 Example 3(a)

Factoring Trinomials
, if possible.

Factor

The positive factors of 5 are 5 and 1. The factors of 12 are 12 and 1, 12 and 1, 6 and 2, 6 and 2, 4 and 3, or 4 and 3.

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## L1.4 Example 3(b)

Factoring Trinomials
, if possible.

Factor

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## L1.4 Example 3(b)

Factoring Trinomials
.

Factor

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## L1.4 Example 3(c)

Factoring Trinomials
, if possible.

(page 36)

Factor

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## L1.4 Example 3(c)

Factoring Trinomials
.

(page 36)

Factor

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## L1.4 Example 3(d)

Factoring Trinomials

(page 36)

Factor

, if possible.

## Factor out the GCF, 3, first:

The positive factors of 8 are 8 and 1 or 4 and 2. The positive factors of 5 are 5 and 1.

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## L1.4 Example 3(d)

Factoring Trinomials
.

(page 36)

Factor

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L1.4 Example

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L1.4 Example 5

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L1.4 Example 5

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L1.4 Example 5

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## L1.5 Rational Expressions

Rational Expressions Lowest Terms of a Rational Expression Multiplication and Division Addition and Subtraction Complex Fractions

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L1.5

## Example 1(a) Writing Rational Expressions in Lowest Terms

Write the rational expression in lowest terms. (a)
Factor.

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L1.5

## Example 1(b) Writing Rational Expressions in Lowest Terms

Write the rational expression in lowest terms. (b)
Factor. Multiply numerator and denominator by 1. Divide out the common factor.

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R.5

Multiply.
Multiply.

Factor.

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R.5

Multiply.

Factor.

Multiply.

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R.5

Divide.

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R.5

Multiply.

Factor.

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R.5

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R.5

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R.5

## Example 3(c) Adding or Subtracting Rational Expressions

Subtract Find the LCD:

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R.5

## Example 4(a) Simplifying Complex Fractions

Simplify Multiply the numerator and denominator by the LCD of all the fractions, x2.

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R.5

## Example 4(b) Simplifying Complex Fractions

Simplify
Multiply the numerator and denominator by the LCD of all the fractions, z(z + 1)(z 1).

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## L1.6 Rational Exponents

Negative Exponents and the Quotient Rule Rational Exponents Complex Fractions Revisited

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(a)
(a)

(b)

(c)
(b)

(c)

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L1.6

(d)

(e)

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(c)

(d)

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Simplify.

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Simplify.

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L1.6

Simplify.

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L1.6

## Evaluate each expression.

(a)
(c)

(b)
(d)

(e)
not a real number

(f)

(g)

(h)
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L1.6

(b)

(c)

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L1.6

(cont.)

(e)

(f)

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L1.6

(c)

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L1.6

(e)

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L1.6

## Example 7 Factoring Expressions with Negative or Rational Exponents

Factor out the least power of the variable or variable expression. (a) (b) (c)

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L1.6

## Simplify. Write the result with only positive exponents.

Add fractions Definition of negative exponent

Multiply numerator and denominator by the LCD of the fractions. Divide out the Factor common factor
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## Are you paying too much for a large pizza?

Pizza is one of the most popular foods available today, and the take-out pizza has become a staple in todays hurried world. But are you paying too much for that large pizza you ordered? Pizza sizes are typically designated by their diameters. A pizza of diameter d inches had area (d/2)2. Lets assume that the cost of a pizza is determined by its area. Suppose a pizza parlor (shop) charges \$4.00 for a 10-inch pizza and \$9.25 for 15-inch pizza. Evaluate the area of each pizza to show the owner that he is overcharging you by \$0.25 for the large pizza.
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References
Lial, Margaret L., Hornbsy, John, Schneider, David I., Deniels, Callie J, 2009. College Algebra, 10th Edition, Pearson Education Inc.

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