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IMATH 105 College Algebra with Applications

BK Sia sbkns2009@gmail.com

Topic 1
Algebra and Equations

L1

Review of Basic Concepts

L1.1 Sets

L1.2 Real Numbers and Their Properties


L1.3 Polynomials L1.4 Factoring Polynomials L1.5 Rational Expressions L1.6 Rational Exponents
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L1.1 Sets
Basic Definitions Operations on Sets

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Basic Definitions
Set as a collection of objects. The objects that belongs to set are called elements or members of the set. In algebra, the elements of a set are usually numbers. Sets are commonly written using set braces, { }. For example, set containing the elements 1,2,3,4 is written, {1,2,3,4}.
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L1.1

Example 1 Listing the Elements of a Set


Write the elements belonging to:
(a) {x|x is a natural number between 8 and 12} {9, 10, 11}

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L1.1

Example 2 Finding the Complement of a Set


Let U = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9}, A= {2, 4, 6, 8}, B = {3, 6, 9}
Find A, B, U, A contains the elements of U that are not in A: {1, 3, 5, 7, 9} B contains the elements of U that are not in B: {1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 8} U = = U
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L1.1

Example 3 Finding the Intersection of Two Sets


Find (a) {15, 20, 25, 30} {12, 18, 24, 30}
{15, 20, 25, 30} {12, 18, 24, 30} = {30} The element 30 is the only one belonging to both sets.

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L1.1

Example 3 Finding the Intersection of Two Sets (cont.)


Find
(b) {3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18} {6, 12, 18, 24} {3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18} {6, 12, 18, 24} = {6, 12, 18} The elements 6, 12, and 18 belong to both sets.

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L1.1

Example 4 Finding the Union of Two Sets


Find (a) {1, 3, 5, 7, 9} U {3, 6, 9, 12} List the elements of the first set, then include the elements from the second set that are not already listed.
{1, 3, 5, 7, 9} U {3, 6, 9, 12} = {1, 3, 5, 6, 7, 9, 12}

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L1.1

Example 4 Finding the Union of Two Sets


Find (b) {9, 10, 11, 12} U {10, 12, 14, 16}
{9, 10, 11, 12} U {10, 12, 14, 16} = {9, 10, 11, 12, 14, 16}

(cont.)

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L1.2 Real Numbers and Their Properties


Sets of Numbers and the Number Line Exponents Order of Operations Properties of Real Numbers Order on the Number Line Absolute Value

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Basic Arithmetic
Real Numbers In algebra, we work with the set of real numbers, which we can model using a number line.

Real numbers describe real-world quantities such as amounts, distances, age, temperature, and so on. A real number can be an integer, a fraction, or a decimal. They can also be either rational or irrational.
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L1.2 Basic Terms


Natural number (1, 2 ..)

Whole Number (0,1, 2 ..)


Integer (..-2, -1, 0, 1, 2 ..) Rational Number (A number that can be expressed as the ratio of two integers, p/q, where p and q are integers and q 0). Rational number, when written in decimal form, is either a terminating decimal, such as 0.5 or 0.128 or in which some block of digits eventually repeats forever, such as, 1.3333 or 4.7234234.
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L1.2 Basic Terms


Irrational Numbers (A number that cannot be expressed as the ratio of two integers). Irrational number cannot be expressed as a quotient of integers. Irrational number are decimals that neither terminate nor repeat.

Real Number (Rational + Irrational Numbers).

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L1.2 Basic Terms (Cont)


Rational Numbers
A number that can be expressed as the ratio of two integers. Examples of rational numbers:

The fraction is the ratio of 1 to 2. Since three can be expressed as three over one, or the ratio of 3 to one, it is also a rational number. The number "0.57" is also a rational number, as it can be written as a fraction.
Irrational Numbers
A number that cannot be expressed as the ratio of two integers. Example:
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This diagram shows that every real number Irrational or irrational.


Real

Numbers Rational numbers


Integers numbers Whole numbers Natural numbers

Irrational numbers

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L1.2 Example 1

Identifying Elements of Subsets of the Real Numbers

List the elements of S that belong to each set.

(a) natural numbers

(b) whole numbers

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L1.2 Example 1

Identifying Elements of Subsets of the Real Numbers (cont.)

List the elements of S that belong to each set. (c) integers

(d) rational numbers All elements of S except

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L1.2 Example 1

Identifying Elements of Subsets of the Real Numbers (cont.)

List the elements of S that belong to each set. (e) irrational numbers

(f) real numbers

All elements of S are real numbers.

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L1.2 Example 2

Evaluating Exponential Expressions

Evaluate each expression and identify the base and the exponent. (a) Base: 10 Exponent: 3

(b) Base: 3 Exponent: 4

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L1.2 Example 2

Evaluating Exponential Expressions (cont.)

Evaluate each expression and identify the base and the exponent. (c) Base: 3 (d) Base: 5 (e) Base: 10 Exponent: 2
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Exponent: 4 Exponent: 2

Basic Arithmetic (Cont)


The most common forms of number manipulation are 4 basic arithmetic operations of: Additional, Subtraction, Multiplication, Division, + x Example: 2 + 2 = 4 22=0 2x2=4 22=1

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Basic Arithmetic (Cont)


When different operations occur in the same mathematical expression: Multiply and divide before addition and subtracting. Use brackets to change the order: The operation inside the brackets should be performed before those outside. ( ) x +L1-24

L1.2 Example 3(a) Using Order

of Operations

Evaluate

Evaluate the exponential Divide Multiply Add

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L1.2 Example 3(b) Using

Order of Operations (cont.)

Evaluate

Work within the parenthesis Multiply Divide Add

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L1.2 Example 3(c) Using Order

of Operations (cont.)

Evaluate

Evaluate the exponential


Multiply

Subtract Add

Simplify

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L1.2 Example 3(d) Using

Order of Operations (cont.)

Evaluate

Evaluate the exponential

Multiply

Add
Add

Simplify
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L1.2 Example 4(a) Using Order

of Operations (page 11)

Evaluate c = 6.

using a = 4, b = 3, and

Substitute Evaluate the exponential Multiply Add

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L1.2 Example 4(b) Using

Order of Operations (cont.)


using a = 4, b = 3, and

Evaluate c = 6.

Substitute

Subtract Evaluate the exponential Multiply, subtract, and simplify


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L1.2 Example 5(a)

Using the Commutative and Associative Properties to Simplify Expressions

Simplify (12 + 2x) + 18

(12 + 2x) + 18 = (2x + 12) + 18


= 2x + (12 + 18) = 2x + 30

Commutative property
Associative property

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L1.2 Example 5(b)

Using the Commutative and Associative Properties to Simplify Expressions (cont.)

Simplify

Associative property

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L1.2 Example 5(c)

Using the Commutative and Associative Properties to Simplify Expressions (cont.)

Simplify

Commutative property

Associative property
Commutative property

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L1.2 Example 6 Using

the Distributive Property

Rewrite using the distributive property and simplify.

(a)

(b)

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L1.2 Example 6 Using

the Distributive Property (cont.)

Rewrite using the distributive property and simplify.

(c)

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L1.2 Example 6 Using

the Distributive Property (cont.)

Rewrite using the distributive property and simplify.

(d)

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L1.2 Example 7 Evaluating Absolute Values (page 15) Evaluate each expression:

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

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L1.2 Example 8 Measuring Blood Pressure Difference


Find Pd for a patient with a systolic pressure, P, of 146.

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L1.2 Example 9 Evaluating Absolute Value

Expressions

Let m = 13 and n = 9. Evaluate each expression.

(a)

(b)
-

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Exercise
1.

2 10 6 (20) 6 7 2 2

2.

2 (10 6) 2(4) 4 2 2
6 9 4 3 15 7 8

3.

4.

6 [9 (4 3)] 6 (9 1) 6 8 14
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L1.3 Polynomials
Rules for Exponents Polynomials Addition and Subtraction Multiplication Division

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Polynomials
A polynomial is a mathematical expression involving a sum of powers in one or more variables multiplied by coefficients. A polynomial in one variable (i.e., a univariate polynomial) with constant coefficients is given by

a n x ... a 2 x a1 x a 0
n 2

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Polynomials (Cont)
Sum of two polynomials: adding together the coefficients
sharing the same powers of variables:

(a2 x 2 a1 x a0 ) (b1 x b0 ) a2 x 2 (a1 b1 ) x (a0 b0 )


Product of two polynomials: multiplying term by term and
combining the results:

(a 2 x 2 a1 x a0 )(b1 x b0 ) a 2 x 2 (b1 x b0 ) a1 x(b1 x b0 ) a0 (b1 x b0 ) a 2 b1 x 3 (a 2 b0 a1b1 ) x 2 (a1b0 a0 b1 ) x a0 b0

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Polynomials (Cont)
The special names given to polynomials of low orders

Polynomial order 2 3 4

Polynomial name
Quadratic Cubic Quartic

Example
2x2 + 3x + 7 3x3 + 4x2 + 5x + 7 3x4 + 4x3 + 5x2 + 6x + 7

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Factoring Polynomials
Common Factors take out a common factor

ab ac a(b c)
4 x 5 12 x 4 8 x 3 4 x 3 ( x 2 3x 2)

a = common factor 4x3 = common factor

Grouping split the polynomial in two pieces and take out common factors in each of them 5 x 3 10 x 2 3 x 6

5 x 2 ( x 2) 3( x 2) (5 x 2 3)( x 2)
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Factoring Polynomials (Cont)


General Quadratics

Difference of Squares
( A B)( A B) A2 B 2

( x 5)( x 5) x 2 25

Perfect Squares ( A B) 2 A2 2 AB B 2
( A B) 2 A2 2 AB B 2
( x 5) 2 x 2 10 x 25

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Indices (Power and Root)

M a
Notation:

Definition: if n is any integer, then the n th root of a is defined as

1 n
1 n

a n a
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Indices (Power and Root) (cont)


Rule applying to powers:

a a a
m n

m n

a a a
m n
m

mn

Law 1
Law 3

Law 2
m m

(a ) a
m n

mn

(ab) a b
1 a m a
m

Law 4

a 1
0
n

Law 5

a a
m

m n

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Indices (Power and Root) (cont)


Properties of nth roots
n n

ab a b
n n
n

a b

a b

a mn a
n

a a if n is odd
n

a a if n is even
n
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L1.3 Example 1

Using the Product Rule

Find each product. (a) (b)


Commutative and associative properties Product rule

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L1.3 Example 2

Using the Power Rules

Simplify. Assume all variables represent nonzero real numbers.

(a)
(b)

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L1.3 Example 2

Using the Power Rules (cont.)

Simplify. Assume all variables represent nonzero real numbers.

(c)

(d)

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L1.3 Example 3

Using the Definition of a0 (page 24)

Evaluate each power.

(a) 80
(d) ( 8)0

(b) 80
(e) (3b8)0

(c) (8)0

(a) 80 = 1 (d) (8)0= 1

(b) 80 = 1

(c) (8)0 = 1

(e) (3b8)0 = 1, b 0

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L1.3 Example 4

Adding and Subtracting Polynomials

Add or subtract.

(a)

(b)

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L1.3 Example 4

Adding and Subtracting Polynomials


(cont.)

Add or subtract.

(c)

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L1.3 Example 4

Adding and Subtracting Polynomials


(cont.)

Add or subtract.

(d)

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L1.3 Example 5

Multiplying Polynomials (page 26)

Multiply

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L1.3 Example 6(a)

Using FOIL to Multiply Two Binomials


(page 27)

Find the product.

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L1.3 Example 6(b)

Using FOIL to Multiply Two Binomials


(cont.)

Find the product.

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L1.3 Example 6(c)

Using FOIL to Multiply Two Binomials


(cont.)

Find the product.

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L1.3 Example 7

Using the Special Products (page 27)

Find each product. (a) (b) (c)

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L1.3 Example 7

Using the Special Products (cont.)

Find each product. (d)

(e)

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L1.3 Example 8(a)

Multiplying More Complicated Binomials

Find the product:

Product of the sum and difference of two terms

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L1.3 Example 8(c)

Multiplying More Complicated Binomials


(cont.)

Find the product:

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L1.3 Example 9

Dividing Polynomials

Divide

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L1.3 Example 9

Dividing Polynomials (cont.)

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L1.3 Example 10

Dividing Polynomials with Missing Terms

Divide
Insert placeholders for missing terms

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L1.4 Factoring Polynomials


Factoring Out the Greatest Common Factor Factoring by Grouping Factoring Trinomials Factoring Binomials Factoring by Substitution

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L1.4 Example 1

Factoring Out the Greatest Common Factor

Factor out the greatest common factor from each polynomial. (a) (b)

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L1.4 Example 1

Factoring Out the Greatest Common Factor (cont.)

Factor out the greatest common factor from the polynomial. (c)

GCF = 2(x 2)

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L1.4 Example 2(a)

Factoring By Grouping

Factor by grouping.

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L1.4 Example 2(b)

Factoring By Grouping

Factor by grouping.

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L1.4 Example 2(c)

Factoring By Grouping

Factor by grouping.

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L1.4 Example 3(a)

Factoring Trinomials
, if possible.

Factor

The positive factors of 5 are 5 and 1. The factors of 12 are 12 and 1, 12 and 1, 6 and 2, 6 and 2, 4 and 3, or 4 and 3.

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L1.4 Example 3(a) Factoring Trinomials (cont.) Factor .

Try different combinations:

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L1.4 Example 3(b)

Factoring Trinomials
, if possible.

Factor

The positive factors of 12 are 12 and 1, 6 and 2, or 4 and 3.

The factors of 3 are 3 and 1 or 3 and 1.

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L1.4 Example 3(b)

Factoring Trinomials
.

Factor

Try different combinations:

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L1.4 Example 3(c)

Factoring Trinomials
, if possible.

(page 36)

Factor

The positive factors of 3 are 3 and 1.

The negative factors of 16 are 16 and 1, 8 and 2, or 4 and 4.

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L1.4 Example 3(c)

Factoring Trinomials
.

(page 36)

Factor

Try different combinations:

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L1.4 Example 3(d)

Factoring Trinomials

(page 36)

Factor

, if possible.

Factor out the GCF, 3, first:

The positive factors of 8 are 8 and 1 or 4 and 2. The positive factors of 5 are 5 and 1.

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L1.4 Example 3(d)

Factoring Trinomials
.

(page 36)

Factor

Try different combinations:

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L1.4 Example

4 Factoring Perfect Square Trinomials (page 37)

Factor each trinomial: (a) (b)

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L1.4 Example 5

Factoring Differences of Squares (page 38)

Factor each trinomial: (a) (b) (c)

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L1.4 Example 5

Factoring Differences of Squares (cont.)

Factor the trinomial: (d)

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L1.4 Example 5

Factoring Differences of Squares (cont.)

Factor the trinomial: (e)

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L1.5 Rational Expressions


Rational Expressions Lowest Terms of a Rational Expression Multiplication and Division Addition and Subtraction Complex Fractions

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L1.5

Example 1(a) Writing Rational Expressions in Lowest Terms


Write the rational expression in lowest terms. (a)
Factor.

Divide out the common factor.

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L1.5

Example 1(b) Writing Rational Expressions in Lowest Terms


Write the rational expression in lowest terms. (b)
Factor. Multiply numerator and denominator by 1. Divide out the common factor.

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R.5

Example 2(a) Multiplying or Dividing Rational Expressions


Multiply.
Multiply.

Factor.

Divide out common factors, then simplify.

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R.5

Example 2(b) Multiplying or Dividing Rational Expressions


Multiply.

Factor.

Multiply.

Divide out common factors, then simplify.


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R.5

Example 2(c) Multiplying or Dividing Rational Expressions


Divide.

Multiply by the reciprocal of the divisor. Factor.

Multiply, then divide out common factors.


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R.5

Example 2(d) Multiplying or Dividing Rational Expressions


Multiply.

Factor.

Multiply, then divide out common factors.


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R.5

Example 3(a) Adding or Subtracting Rational Expressions


Add Find the LCD:

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R.5

Example 3(b) Adding or Subtracting Rational Expressions


Add Find the LCD:

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R.5

Example 3(c) Adding or Subtracting Rational Expressions


Subtract Find the LCD:

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R.5

Example 4(a) Simplifying Complex Fractions


Simplify Multiply the numerator and denominator by the LCD of all the fractions, x2.

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R.5

Example 4(b) Simplifying Complex Fractions


Simplify
Multiply the numerator and denominator by the LCD of all the fractions, z(z + 1)(z 1).

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L1.6 Rational Exponents


Negative Exponents and the Quotient Rule Rational Exponents Complex Fractions Revisited

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L1.6

Example 1 Using the Definition of a Negative Exponent

Evaluate each expression.

(a)
(a)

(b)

(c)
(b)

(c)

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L1.6

Example 1 Using the Definition of a Negative Exponent (cont.)

Write the expression without negative exponents.

(d)

(e)

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L1.6

Example 2 Using the Quotient Rule

Simplify each expression. (a) (b)

(c)

(d)

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L1.6

Example 3(a) Using Rules for Exponents

Simplify.

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L1.6

Example 3(b) Using Rules for Exponents

Simplify.

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L1.6

Example 3(c) Using Rules for Exponents

Simplify.

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L1.6

Example 4 Using the Definition of a1/n

Evaluate each expression.

(a)
(c)

(b)
(d)

(e)
not a real number

(f)

(g)

(h)
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L1.6

Example 5 Using the Definition of am/n

Evaluate each expression. (a)

(b)

(c)

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L1.6

Example 5 Using the Definition of am/n

(cont.)

Evaluate each expression. (d)

(e)

(f)

is not a real number because is not a real number.


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L1.6

Example 6 Combining the Definitions and Rules for Exponents

Simplify each expression. (a) (b)

(c)

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L1.6

Example 6 Combining the Definitions and Rules for Exponents (cont.)

Simplify each expression. (d)

(e)

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L1.6

Example 7 Factoring Expressions with Negative or Rational Exponents

Factor out the least power of the variable or variable expression. (a) (b) (c)

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L1.6

Example 8 Simplifying a Fraction with Negative Exponents

Simplify. Write the result with only positive exponents.


Add fractions Definition of negative exponent

Multiply numerator and denominator by the LCD of the fractions. Divide out the Factor common factor
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Are you paying too much for a large pizza?


Pizza is one of the most popular foods available today, and the take-out pizza has become a staple in todays hurried world. But are you paying too much for that large pizza you ordered? Pizza sizes are typically designated by their diameters. A pizza of diameter d inches had area (d/2)2. Lets assume that the cost of a pizza is determined by its area. Suppose a pizza parlor (shop) charges $4.00 for a 10-inch pizza and $9.25 for 15-inch pizza. Evaluate the area of each pizza to show the owner that he is overcharging you by $0.25 for the large pizza.
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References
Lial, Margaret L., Hornbsy, John, Schneider, David I., Deniels, Callie J, 2009. College Algebra, 10th Edition, Pearson Education Inc.

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