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I hear, and I forget; I see, and I remember; I do, and I understand.

- Confucious
May 22-23, 2006

Active Learning: Motivating Students to Learn


Dr. Theresa R. Moore
May 22-23, 2006

Outline of Plenary
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Review goals of Title 3; Course design; What is active learning & why do it? Learning theorists & learning styles; Active learning and technology (Isaac).

May 22-23, 2006

Outcomes of the workshop


Faculty will Know basic concepts related to a cognitive approach to learning styles; Understand basic premises of active learning; Engage in active learning with their peers; Work individually and with their programs on purposeful alignment of outcomes, assessment methods, and instructional activities; Have a toolkit of active learning approaches to apply to courses.

May 22-23, 2006

Section I: Goals of the Title III Project


Goal 1: increase the use of outcomes based assessment in courses and programs to measure and improve student learning; Goal 2: increase the use of active learning strategies and technologies to effect learner-centered instruction.
May 22-23, 2006

Section II: Course design

2. Learning

goals

Active Learning

4. Teaching & Learning Activities

3. Feedback & Assessment

May 22-23, 2006

1. Situational factors

Student learning outcome: Students will critically analyze the current educational policies in the United States. Primary instructional method: lecture Assessment method: exams with critical thinking items embedded
Learning Outcome(s)

Teaching & Learning Activities

Feedback & Assessment

May 22-23, 2006

Section III: What is active learning & why do it?


Strategies that increase student engagement with material and are aligned with student learning outcomes Theory that derives from two basic assumptions: (1) that learning is by nature an active endeavor and (2) that different people learn in different ways
(Meyers and Jones, 1993).

May 22-23, 2006

What is active learning?

[it is] when students are engaged in more activities than just listening. They are involved in dialog, debate, writing, and problem solving, as well as higher-order thinking.
(Bonwell, C., and Eison, J., 1991)

May 22-23, 2006

Types of activities

May 22-23, 2006

Small group work Presentations and debates Journaling Role playing Learning Games Field Experiences Case Studies Class Discussions Simulations.more!
(Mc Keachie, 1994 and Silberman, 1996)

Active learning types


complex tasks
simple tasks
ad hoc exercises; little or no advanced planning; e.g. think-pair-share minute paper concept mapping

longer duration, carefully planned and structured

Collaborative learning
carefully structured, group formation and student roles important

Cooperative learning
a form of collaborative learning that has 5 specific criteria to maximize learning

May 22-23, 2006

Cooperative learning: 5 key components


1. Positive interdependence (each individual depends on and is accountable to the others); Individual accountability (each person in the group learns the material); Promotive interaction (group members help one another, share information, clarify); Social skills (emphasis on interpersonal skills); Group processing (assessing how effectively they are working with one another).

2.
3.

4. 5.

May 22-23, 2006

Why do active learning?

May 22-23, 2006

Sousa, D.A. (2000)

Why do Active Learning?


www.foundationcoalition.org

May 22-23, 2006

Research summary
Longitudinal studies show that cohorts of students instructed using active learning techniques outperformed a comparison group on multiple measures: retention, graduation and pursuit of graduate study
(Felder, R., Felder, G, and Dietz, E, 1998)

May 22-23, 2006

Research summary
Scientists and engineers work mostly in groups and less often as isolated investigators. Similarly, students should gain experience sharing responsibility for learning with each other.

Meta-analysis of research studies: greater academic achievement, more favorable attitudes toward learning and, increased persistence in SMET courses and programs.
www.wcer.wisc.edu/nise/cl1/CL/resource/R2.htm

May 22-23, 2006

Why do active learning?


Retention levels are enhanced when active learning methods are used
(McKeachie, 1999; Silberman, 1996)

Active learning produces:


higher achievement, more positive relationships among students, healthier psychological adjustment.
(Johnson, D. W., R. T. Johnson, and K. Smith , 1991)

May 22-23, 2006

Section IV: Learning theorists & learning styles


Behaviorism (B.F. Skinner) learning built on conditioning Constructivism (J. Dewey, J. Piaget, L. Vygotsky, others) learning built on prior knowledge

May 22-23, 2006

John Dewey (1916): 1) individual experience & 2) collaboration w/others are important for learning

School is primarily a social institution. Education is a social process.therefore [it] is a process of living, not preparation for living.
May 22-23, 2006

Active learning from the Constructivist School


Jean Piaget: we come to know the world by building new experiences on old experiences

Lev Vygotsky: students learn better by engaging with more capable others

May 22-23, 2006

Constructivist principles
Knowledge is constructed from experience; Learning results from personal interpretation of knowledge; Learning is an active process; Learning is a collaborative process.

May 22-23, 2006

Benjamin Bloom
Viewed education as goal attainment, not competition; Acknowledged individual differences and environment as crucial; Studied high achieving adults - found they excelled because of MENTORSHIP.

May 22-23, 2006

Three Domains of Learning (Bloom,1956)


Cognitive: mental skills Affective: growth regarding feelings, emotions Psychomotor: manual, physicality, environment

May 22-23, 2006

Blooms Taxonomy of Learning Higher Order Thinking Skills


Synthesis Comprehension Application Analysis Knowledge Evaluation Alone or with a neighbor: 1) define each skill & 2) align in a hierarchy.

May 22-23, 2006

Blooms Taxonomy of Learning


Evaluation: compare and discriminate between ideas. Question
Cues: assess, decide, grade, test, measure, recommend, convince, select, judge

Synthesis: use old ideas to create new ones. Question


Cues: combine, integrate, modify, substitute, plan, create, design, invent

Analysis: identification of components.


Question Cues: analyze, separate, order, explain, connect, classify, arrange, divide, compare, select

Application: use of
concepts/methods in new situations. Question cues: apply, demonstrate, illustrate, examine, solve

Comprehension:
understanding of meaning. Question cues: summarize, describe, interpret, predict
May 22-23, 2006

Knowledge: recall

of information. Question cues: define, identify, list, match

Learning styles
Visual, Auditory, Kinesthetic (VAK) Kolbs learning style inventory (LSI) Meyers Briggs (MBTI)

May 22-23, 2006

VAK learning styles


Visual learners have two subchannels
visual-linguistic visual-spatial

Auditory learners Kinesthetic learners have two subchannels


kinesthetic (movement) tactile (touch)

May 22-23, 2006

Section V: Active Learning & Technology

May 22-23, 2006

Bibliography
Bloom, B.S. (Ed.) (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives: The classification of educational goals: Handbook I, cognitive domain. New York ; Toronto: Longmans, Green.

Bonwell, C. and Eison, J. (1991). Active learning: Creating excitement in the classroom.ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report No. 1.
Bonwell C. and Sutherland, T. (eds.). (1996). Using Active Learning in College Classes: A Range of Options for Faculty. Jossey-Bass Publishers. Dewey, J. (1938). Experience and Education. New York: Collier Books. Felder, R.M., Felder, G.N., Dietz, E.J. (1998). A Longitudinal Study of Engineering Student Performance and Retention V. Comparisons with Traditionally Taught Students. Engineering Education, 98(4), 469-480. Fink, L. D. (2003). Creating significant learning experiences: An integrated approach to designing college courses. Jossey-Bass: San Francisco. Huba, M. E. and Freed, J. E. (2000). Learner-centered assessment on college campuses: Shifting the focus from teaching to learning. Allyn and Bacon. Johnson, D.W., Johnson, R.T., and Smith, K. (1991). Active learning: Cooperation in the college classroom, Edina, MN: Interaction Book Company. Kolb, D. A. (1984). Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development. Prentice Hall.
May 22-23, 2006

Bibliography
Mc Keachie, W. J. (1994). Teaching Tips: Strategies, research, and theory for College Teachers. 9th edition. Lexington, Maryland: D.C. Heath. Meyers, C. and Jones, T.B. (1993). Promoting active learning: Strategies for the college classroom. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1993. Paiget, J. (1970). The Science of Education and the Psychology of the Child. NY: Grossman. Silberman, M. (1996). Active learning: 101 Strategies to teach any subject. Allyn & Bacon. Sousa, D. A. (2000). How the brain learns: A classroom teacher's guide. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

Stice, J. E. (1987). Using Kolbs Learning Cycle to Improve Student Learning. Engineering Education, 77(5), 291-296.
Vygotsky, L.S. (1971). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes.. (M. Cole, V. John-Steiner, S. Scribner, & E. Souberman, Eds. & Trans.). Cambridge: MA: Harvard University Press.

May 22-23, 2006