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INDEX

Motivation Street Hawkers Scope of Survey Features of Business Questionnaire Statistics for Different Types of Hawkers Regression Analysis & its Use Comparisons of Revenue, Expenditure & Profit Acknowledgements Bibliography

Just as Haldirams, Gianis, Bittoo Tikkiwala started as vendors and now they are BIG BRANDS today, we were just inquisitive to know if one of the vendors from our own streets would actually make it to the Guinness Book of World Records!!!

The popular GIANI DI HATTI,a rabri falooda shop in old Delhis Fatehpuri area. Opened in 1950 by a refugee from Layallpur(Pakistan),Giani Gurcharan Singh.The establishment has opened about 20 outlets in NCR in past one year.The joint which was popular for its falooda, shakes and moong dal halwa, are now of to 38 flavours of ice-creams.fruit-shakes, etc. GIANIS ICE-CREAMS HAS ITS NAME IN LIMCA BOOK OF WORLD RECORDS FOR MAKING VEGETARIAN ICE-CREAM

It was started by Sati ram Yadav,a teacher from Lucknow,who peddled his stuff from a rehri in the early 1990s at Pitampura(Delhi).Its now known as BTW and specializes in tikkis,bhala papri,gole gappe,etc. BTW IS NOW GIVEN A INTERNATIONAL STANDARD

In 1937, Ganga Bishen Agarwal, ( known as Haldiram), opened a small sweet shop in Bikaner, a small district in Rajasthan.Bhujia sev, a salty snack prepared by Ganga Bishen, were very popular in Bikaner. Haldiram's transition from a one-counter sweet shop in Bikaner in the early 1937s to a full-fledged Indian snack foods company today loathes the concepts of marketing and branding and it was the first to brand its namkeens and sweets in the country.. WITH AN ESTIMATED TURNOVER OF RS 400 CRORES AND A SELF-PROCLAIMED BRAND VALUATION OF RS 1500 CRORES

We define Street HAWKERS as those who prepare food on the streets that is ready-to-eat, or is prepared at home and consumed on the streets without further preparation. It is largely recognized that Street Hawking play an important socio economic role in terms of employment potential, special income, and in serving the food at prices affordable to all. It is also dubbed as the very essence of North Campus.

The survey is based on information collected from the Hawkers in the North Campus, majority of them from Patel Chest, Maurice Nagar and in the vicinity of the metro station. In order to carry out a realistic survey we went to each hawker and asked them the questions that follow in the questionnaire. We had to take them into confidence in order to get the true information as they were reluctant to give us the correct figures.

The survey includes those Hawkers who sell only one item i.e. all units are homogeneous.

We have taken into account only those hawkers which are immobile i.e. do not shift from their positions under any changes in circumstances. Also these hawkers have been observed to have a stable business over a period of time i.e. no hawker that has recently made it to the campus has been included in the survey.

FEATURES OF BUSINESS

Type Of Product

Sales

Hours of Hawking

Mobility

Age of Business

Type of product: This is a categorical variable with 5 categories, which capture the types of products sold. Different types of products are associated with different cash flow requirements and different practices of suppliers, including their sales. The categories of Hawkers surveyed are as follows :BHELPURI MOMOS

BANTAWALA

MAGGI

CHOLE KULCHE

Sales:
It is a continuous variable.

Higher the value of sales, the higher the amount of liquidity that a hawker needs to maintain his inventory of goods. This variable is estimated using a regression of
weekly sales on the age of business hours spent hawking type of product

The predicted value of sales is then used in the regressions.

Hours hawking: This is a continuous variable measuring no. of hours spent in hawking per day it is expected to influence the amount of weekly sales positively.

Mobility: It is a dummy variable Has a value of one for those hawkers who never changed their location ever A near permanent location of operation is a signal of survival It helps in building social networks and reputations in the market

Is an important creditworthiness.

indicator

of

Age of business: The number of years in the hawking business

Important variable creditworthiness.

in

showing

Incumbency may help in accumulating reputation and collaterizable assets.

Total no. of units sold per day

Selling price per unit

Years of stable business

Questionnaire

Cost price per unit

Age of hawker

Cost of security of the stall

Tools of Estimation

Sales per month = sales per day *25 {taking into account the holidays and Sundays} Revenue per month = sales per month *selling price per unit

Expenditure per month = sales per month*cost price per unit

Miscellaneous expenses {different for various hawkers

Profit = Revenue per month Expenditure per month

Place

No. of units sold per day

Selling Price per unit

Cost Price per unit

Age of Hawker s

Years of Stable Busines s


2

Cost of Securit y

Chattra Marg

100

20

11

37

850

50 (summer)

Maurice Nagar

75

25

15

33

17

1800

50 (summer)

BHELPURI
Place No. of units sold per day 275 Selling Price per unit 20 Cost Price per unit 12 Age of Years of Cost of hawker Stable Security Business 48 25 1800

Patel Chest

Hindu College

125

20

12

35

12

800

MOMOS
Place No. of units sold per day
200

Selling Price per unit

Cost Price per unit

Age of Hawker

Years of Stable Business

Cost of Security

Kamla Nagar

25(veg) 35(nveg)

16(veg) 24(nveg)

18

2000

150 (summer)
Patel Chest 100 100 (summer) 25,35 16(veg) 24(nvg) 22 8 months 750

Place

No. of . units sold per day

Selling price per unit 10

Cost price per unit 6

Age of Years of Cost of hawker stable security business 17 2.5 500

144 Kamla Nagar 50(winter)

Arts 72 Facult 23(winter) y Chattra Banta-60 Marg Juice-40 Banta-14 Juice-10

10

47

35

500

Banta-10 Banta-6 Juice-10 Juice-7.5

45

27

0 (exception)

Place

No. of Selling Cost Age of Years of Cost of units price per price per hawker stable security sold per unit unit business day Maurice 200 10 5 28 8 1000 nagar School of 125 10 5 40 18 1500 Open learning Metro 120 10 5 50 20 1200 station

Average Revenue of Hawkers Average Expenditure of Hawkers Average Profit of Hawkers

PROFIT vis--vis REVENUE & COST


120000 100000 80000 60000 40000 20000 0

MOMOS REVENUE EXPENDITURE PROFIT 104687.5 70437.5 34250

BANTA 17208.33 10804.167 6320.833

MAGGI 48437.5 23356.25 14925

BHELPURI 100000 61300 38700

CHOLE KULCHE 37083.33 19775 17308.33

What is Regression Analysis ?


It is a mathematical measure of the average relationship between two or more variables in terms of the original units of the data.

It consists of choosing and fitting an appropriate model usually with a view to estimating the mean predicted response (i.e. the mean value of the response variable) or even the individual predicted response for specified values of the explanatory variable.

Why do we use Regression Model?

investigate a collection of relevant factors for their ability to predict hawkers income.

To obtain a parsimonious set of variables that efficiently predicts the response variable of interest. to investigate a collection of factors for their potential association with the outcome of interest

STATISTICS - the HAWKERS WAY

After fitting the regression model, we get: The co-efficient of regression .i.e. R=.977,0<R<1,there is a regression between dependent & independent variables. The co-efficient of determination i.e. R2 =92.7% which tells that 92.7% of the total variability of the responses is explained by the model.

ANOVA .i.e. analysis of variance consists of separating the total variability in a set of experimental results into components associated with the different sources of that variability. These components are then compared and this enable us to test the null hypothesis H0 against alternate hypothesis HA .at 5% level of significance. H0 : There is no significant regression between the dependent and independent variables. H1 :There no significant regression between the dependent and independent variables.

P-value=0% This show there is significant regression between the dependent and the independent variables.

The above graph shows that, the deviation of the estimated values from the observed values around the fitted line are almost near the fitted line.

HENCE GIVEN MODEL IS SUITABLE.

From the above graph we can conclude that,

if you start your hawking business with Bhelpuri then one will have highest profit , &
Bantawala is the least profit earner.

Hours Spend on Roads/Month VS Profit/Month


60000 50000
Profit per Month

40000 30000 20000 10000 0 0 50 100 150 Hours Spend on Road/Month 200 250

Number of hours spend on the road hawking doesnt effect the profit much after certain no. of hours already spend on the road, on the other hand profit depends more on the type of item sold

Definition : The process of obtaining a dependent value in a given data set making use of independent data set . Interpolating polynomial for PROFIT

=0.00126453*(-34.998+x)(-27.0755+x)(-7.8975+x)(2.74811+x)(448.006-41.9775x+x^2)(229.929-29.6379x+x^2)(0.49171.2236x+x^2) * where x denotes number of years


* We have obtained the above formula using Mathematika-6.0 .

Final Inference
1.As we started the presentation with the concept of BTW & GIANIS becoming Big Brands, after carrying out this survey and using STATISTICS and MATHEMATICS we feel that 9 yrs down the line when you come back to this campus you may find Patel Chest Bhelpuri wala having a full fledged air conditioned shop with his already owned I-10 standing outside it. (we made use of Mathematica 6.0 to interpolate and get the figure 8.43)

2.We fitted the following regression Model using SPSS16 considering PROFIT as dependent variable & REVENUE, COST i.e expenditure, NO. of YEARS of stable business and NO. of HOURS spend on the road as independent variables. The regression model fitted is as follows:PROFIT=3196.09+0.263*REVENUE+0.112*COST+ 21.518*YEARS-49.773*HOURS.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Vote of thanks to Rajkumari Maam, Mahesh Sir, Anuradha Maam, Ankur Sangwaan, Lohit Gupta . Our Regards to all the Hawkers who became such an extensive part of the survey and made the event a success.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Access To Credit by Hawkers : Theory & Evidence from India. Presented in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements of the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the Graduate School of the Ohio State University, 2005 Mukta Joshi . Entrepreneurs of streets : an analytical work on the street food vendors of Dhaka City, February 2009, Ahemadabad Tandem Muzaffar .

ADITI BHARDWAJ TULIKA KAEIN RAMJAS COLLEGE