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3G/2G Selection & Reselection Handover

Zte university

Content
Overview Basic Theory Typical Flows

Overview

When making the 3G/2G selection and reselection handover, the function mainly refers to cell selection and reselection, as well as handover and reselection of CS and PS services. Among which, 3G/2G chooses the reselection handover of the CS service currently in the handover way while 3G/2G chooses reselection handover of the PS service currently in the reselection way, and will support the handover way in the future. For the video call service, the 3G to 2G handover will be made in the way in which the visible telephone returns to the voice telephone and the return process should be handled on the 3G side. Because the handover process is the same as that of the common voice call, this document doesnt describe this process.

Content
Overview Basic Theory Typical Flows

Cell Selection and Reselection

A 3G user selects the 3G network in priority and always stays in the 3G network during the 3G network initial construction period. This way could guarantee 3G registered users who directly and fast enjoy more fruitful and colorful service functions so as to avoid unnecessary handover and roaming from GSM to WCDMA. During the 3G network initial construction period, the network capability is not an issue for guiding 3G users to select the 3G network and effectively alleviating the load of 2G network. During the network mature period, the network should also guide 3G users to select 3G network in priority. When the problem of network capability is serious, the network should be extended and keep the telephone traffics balance based on services and handover of load.

Cell Selection Strategy

The modes of the PLMN selection and reselection have two types: automatic and manual. Automatic network selection is that UE should automatic select a PLMN according to the priority sequence of PLMN, while the manual network selection could show users all current usable networks and could be selected by users. The target of the PLMN selection and reselection is to select a usable PLMN. For this purpose, the UE should maintain a PLMN list, which makes sort for the PLMN according to priority and makes search in this selection process according to this priority.

the PLMN reselection needs to be run in the following two cases


Case one: The user manually requests to enable the PLMN reselection; Case two: The UE registers to the visited network (VPLMN) and periodically searches the home network (HPLMN), this period could be configured by the operators.

Method

Method one: the 3G network uses the same PLMN numbers as the 2G network; under this circumstance the network sets the 3G configuration as a prior wireless access technology, and the UE could use the WCDMA as a wireless access in priority when the UE makes the PLMN selection. Method two: 3G and 2G have the different PLMN numbers: under this circumstance the network deploys 3G as HPLMN.

Cell Reselection Strategy

The principle of the cell reselection also guarantees 3G users to be hosted in the 3G network as the network selection strategy. Make use of cell reselection to realize inter-system roaming and reselection under the idle mode, and implement the process as the follow strategies: Strategy one: The UE only makes the cell reselection from 3G to 2G when the UE leaves the 3G coverage area, and then keeps the continuity of the coverage. Strategy two: Once the UE returns to the coverage area of 3G, it makes the cell reselection from 2G to 3G.

the cell reselection threshold

Principle one: When the load of the 3G network is normal:

If the quality of the 3G network could cater for the requirements of the lowest service rate and UE can be hosted in 3G network. T2G3G > T3G2G , Makes 3G users hosted in the 2G network could easily reselect the 3G network;

Principle two: When the load of the 3G network is high:

Increase threshold from 2G to 3G, make sure the 2G network can share the load of 3G network. This process could be automatically implemented and there is reversibility according to the network load

Cell Reselection Processes


Step one: Trigger condition: Current 3G cell CPICH Ec/No< Qqualmin+Ssearch,RAT Step two: Cell filter: S criterion Step three: Cell sort: R criterion Step four: Cell selection: Treselection

2G Cell Reselection To 3G Cell

If the 3G cell reselection list contains the frequency points of UTRAN, MS could be reselected to the UTRAN when MS meets the conditions provided as follows: Condition one: Trigger condition, Qsearch_I (Idle State)/ Qsearch_C (Dedicated State) satisfies the diff-system test threshold. Condition two: The RSCP of the adjacent cell measured by MS is at least FDD_Qoffset higher than the RLA_C of all the adjacent cells and keeps at least 5 seconds (If MS reselect to GSM cell within 15 seconds, then FDD_Qoffset also needs a 5db increment. Condition three: If Ec/ No (measured by MS) FDD_Qmin, the time lasts 5 seconds; Besides, MS could not make the cell reselection of the UTRAN after it is reselected to the GSM within 5 seconds. If many UTRAN cells meet the above criterions, MS needs to select the best cell of the RSCP.

3G->2G Inter-system Handover Types


The handover between the 3G->2G systems mainly contains the follow three types: First type: handover based on quality Second type: handover based on load Third type: handover based on mobile speed of the MS Besides, there are some inter-system handovers which are based on BLER, uplink/downlink power and service types.

handover types

Blind handover: When the GSM and the UMTS exist in one coverage cell, the UE could directly make the handover process without opening the compression mode and diff-system test after the handover condition is met. Oriented-retry: When the UE launches the service in the UTRAN cell which has satisfied the threshold of load balance, the service could be set up in the GSM adjacent cell at the RAB stage. The handover of opening the compression mode: After the UE meets conditions of handover, the UE runs the compression mode and measures intersystem adjacent cells, then makes inter-system handover according to results of measurement.

CS Service 3G->2G Handover


The typical handover process includes the follow steps: Measurement control-> Measurement report-> Handover decision-> Handover implementing. When the UE stays in the edge of the 3G system and triggers the threshold of inter-system test from 3G to 2G, the 3G RNC notifies the double-mode UE and starts the diff-system test. After the UE makes measurement and satisfies the threshold, it reports the measurement event while the RNC judges if to start the inter-system handover signaling flow. The UE that is at the connection state in the 3G system can work continuously within the designated frequency in all the time period, so it is required to enable the condensation mode (as the UE has only one transceiver) for the 3G system and the dual mode in the dif-system measurement so as to keep the session during the period of dif-system measurement.

CS Service 2G->3G Handover

After the UE starts the CS services in the 2G cell, the UE should measure the 3G adjacent cells and report the 3G adjacent cell measurement periodically. When the measurement of 3G adjacent cells meets the threshold of handover (this measurement is judged by BSC), the BSC should launch the handover process. Among which the UE covered by 2G cell makes measurement for 3G adjacent cells, or could realize clock opening inter-system measurement through different configurations or opens the inter-system test after meets conditions. The GSM system doesnt use the UE event report to determine the handover.

PS Service 3G->2G Handover

The handover ways of the PS service are different according to the state before the handover of the UE. When the UE stays in the DCH state, the UTRAN launches a cell change command for handover. When the UE stays in the FACH state or the PCH state, the UE automatically launches the cell reselection. The idle UE launches the cell reselection automatically while the reselection flow should also take the process of the context interaction between the new and the old SGSN PDP as the UE with the FACH state or PCH state stays at the PMM connection state.

PS Service 2G->3G Handover

Making handover from 2G to 3G is a cell reselection self-made by the UE. The UE launches the RRC connection and registration in the 3G cell through the way of cell reselection. After the 3G cell is registered, the UE could send the direct message service request for applying for resources when the UE has requirements for signaling or data services.

CS+PS Concurrent Service 3G->2G Handover

As the GSM doesnt support that the UE uses CS and PS services at the same time for hybrid concurrent services of CS+PS, the handover of the hybrid service from 3G to 2G makes sure that the successful handover of the CS services is the main function. The PS service will be released, but keeps the PMM connection state. After the UE releases the CS service in the 2G cell, the PS services can be recovered.

Content
Overview Basic Theory Typical Flows

Typical Flows

2G->3G Cell Reselection

The UE gets the basic parameters of 3G measurement through the 2Quater system messages, After the UE gets the signal measurement of 3G adjacent cells, whether to launch the 5 seconds timer, and the signal strength of 3G cell could be observed through the GPRS RR 3G Reselection Measurements of UE code flow. The UE launches the reselection processes after it satisfies the conditions of reselection, the starting and the end of reselection all could be observed from EVENT messages of UE internal.

3G-2G Cell Reselection


The UE gets the inter-system measure parameters from the system message SIB3 The UE gets the adjacent cells selection parameters of the diff-system from the system message SIB11 The UE detects the 2G signal and makes queuing. The UE launches the reselection flow and completes the reselection after the 2G signal meets the conditions of reselection.

CS Service 3G->2G Blind Handover Process

The UE reports the 2D events in the 3G cell, which represents the quality of the 3G signal to become worse.

The RNC decision makes blind handover after the 2D event is reported; it should directly send the retry request, while it doesnt need to launch the compression mode during the blind-handover process.

CS Service 3G->2G Directed Retry

The UE launches the CS service from the 3G cell and the service cant be accessed because of reaching the conditioning threshold of the load, the RNC responds to the messages about the RAB allocation failure because of directed retry.

CS Service 3G->2G Directed Retry

Once the RNC responds to the RAB allocation failure, it sends the requests of retry and makes the handover among systems. The reason of the retry is also a directed retry.

CS Service 3G->2G Handover Based On Coverage

The UE launches the CS service and reports the 2D event in the 3G cell when the signal quality becomes worse because of coverage.

CS Service 3G->2G Handover Based On Coverage

The RNC sends the inter-system measure control to the UE, notifies the UE to make inter-system measure while the RNC issues the inter-system measure parameter 3A or 3C and the compressed mode parameters

CS Service 3G->2G Handover Based On Coverage

The RNC issues the compressed mode parameters to the NODEB.

After the UE tests the signal strength of diff-system adjacent cells satisfies the report threshold of event, the UE forward tells the test reports. This example is 3C.

CS Service 3G->2G Handover Based On Coverage

The RNC launches the retry flow and makes the inter-system handover after the UE reports the 3C.

CS Service 2G->3G Handover

The RNC receives the Relocation Request issued from CN and indicates the requests of accessible office retry. After the RNC notifies the NODEB to set up a wireless link, the RNC responds the RelocationDetect and the RelocationComplete to the CN for wireless resources successful allocation, and then the RNC indicates the retry is successful. The RNC makes interaction with the UE and allocates the new RNTI as well as the RNC transmits the UTRAN Mobility Information.

PCH State 3G->2G Handover

After the UE sets up the PS service, it stops transmitting data.

The state becomes the PCH state after the user-panel reports 4B0, and then the user-panel deletes the wireless link.

PCH State 3G->2G Handover

The UE makes handover to the 2G adjacent cells through the way of reselection under the PCH state. Because of staying under PMM connection state, the RNC could receive the request messages of the SRNC contexts and make transmission for the PDP contexts and retransmission of the PDU buffer. Eventually the RNC releases the IU interface and completes the handover.

FACH State 3G->2G Handover

The UE stops transmitting for data after the UE sets up the PS service and the user-panel reports 4B0.

The user-panel becomes FACH state after it reports 4B0, and then it deletes the wireless link.

FACH State 3G->2G Handover

The UE makes handover to 2G adjacent cells by the way of reselection under the FACH state. Because of staying under PMM connection state, the RNC could receive the request messages of the SRNC contexts and make transmission for the PDP contexts and retransmission of the PDU buffer. Eventually the RNC releases the IU interface and completes the handover.

DCH/HS State 3G->2G Handover

After the UE sets up the PS service in the 3G cell, it should report the 2D event because of the worse signal quality.

DCH/HS State 3G->2G Handover

DCH/HS State 3G->2G Handover

The RNC issues the compression mode parameters to the NODEB.

DCH/HS State 3G->2G Handover

The UE reports the test reports to RNC after the measurements of diff-system adjacent cells meet the 3C threshold.

The RNC notifies the UE to make inter-system cells modification after it receives the test report 3C, and the notification messages contain the basic parameters of the GSM cell.

DCH/HS State 3G->2G Handover

The UE begins to make interactive processes of the SRNC contexts and makes transmission for the PDP contexts and retransmission of the PDU buffer after the UE completes reselection. Eventually the UE releases the IU interface and completes the handover.

PS Service 2G->3G Handover UE Directly sends SERVICE REQUEST

The UE firstly launches the request of the RRC connection by the way of reselection from 2G to 3G because of the inter-system cell reselection.

PS Service 2G->3G Handover UE Directly sends SERVICE REQUEST

Considering about the initial direct transmission message here, the UE takes FOR=1 in Route Area Updating from the initial direct messages, this parameter describes that the UE has the requirements of signaling and data. Besides, if the value taken by the PDP CONTEXT STATUS in RAU is 0x200, then it presents the PDP is active which appears the UE is under connection state in the GSM side before the UE reselects to 3G. However, if the value is 0x00, it represents the PDP is inactive and shows the UE is under idle state in GSM side before the UE reselects to 3G.

PS Service 2G->3G Handover UE Directly sends SERVICE REQUEST

The UE immediately launches the Service Request for setting up PS service after the UE finishes RAC update. Whether the UE carries the PDP CONTEXT STATUS message also could be observed.

The PS service is set up after the CN responds Service Accept to the RNC and issues RAB allocation.

PS Service 2G->3G Handover Launch PS service via RRC connection

The UE makes handover from 2G to 3G through the way of reselection. Firstly, the UE launches the RRC connection requests for the inter-system cell reselection.

Considered about the initial direct transmission message here, the UE takes FOR=0 in Route Area Updating, this parameter describes that the UE doesnt have the requirements of signaling and data. However, the value taken by the PDP CONTEXT STATUS is 0x200, then it presents the UE has been already under PMM connection state.

PS Service 2G->3G Handover Launch PS service via RRC connection

From the above diagram, the IU resources are immediately released by the subsequent CN.

PS Service 2G->3G Handover Launch PS service via RRC connection

It is noteworthy of considering that the UE sends another direct message Services Request with the active PDP information for setting up the service after the IU is released. Because of the released IU resources, the above message is abandoned.

PS Service 2G->3G Handover Launch PS service via RRC connection

The UE launches the RRC connection request again, the reason is that the UE launches the interactive service for setting up the PS service.

After the RRC connection is set up, the UE could directly send the service request affixed with the PDP CONTEXT STATUS message, which represents the UE stays under the PMM connection state. If the UE stays in IDLE state, then the UE sets up the PS service by the PDP active request and not by sending service request directly.

CS+PS Concurrent 3G->2G Handover

The UE sets up the CS+PS concurrent service. Because the quality of the local cell becomes worse, the UE reports the 2D events, while the RNC issues the parameters of the measure control and the compression mode as well as the UE launches the measure of the diff-system.

The UE reports the 3C event when the UE finds the signal strength of the diff-system meets the measure reports thresholds in the diff-frequency testing.

CS+PS Concurrent 3G->2G Handover

When the RNC launches the processes of the CS service retry, the CS service makes handover to 2G, and then the CN issues messages about the IU release because of retry successful. The PS service is interrupted as well as kept the PMM connection state.

CS+PS Concurrent 3G->2G Handover

From the observed signaling, the UE keeps CS calling about 9 seconds in the 2G side and on-hooks the CS service, (From retry completed to SRNS context requests received: 10:29:12-10:29:21). After the CS service is on-hooked, the PS service has a demand on the recovering. The RNC receives the SRNS contexts requests as well as makes the retransmission of the PDP contexts and the data PDU, and then the PS service of the 2G side is recovered.