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CASE MANAGEMENT CONCEPTS AND PROCESSES

REPORT OUTLINE
A.

B.

Overview of Case Management Stages of Case Management Intake Assessment -Checklists -Ecomap -Genogram -Mental Status Examination

OVERVIEW OF CASE MANAGEMENT

DEFINITION OF CASE MANAGEMENT BY NASW


Social work case management is a method of providing services whereby a professional social worker assesses the needs of the client and the clients family, when appropriate, and arranges, coordinates, monitors., evaluates, and advocates for a package of multiple services to meet the specific clients complex needs. Distinct from other forms of case management, social work case management addresses both the individual clients biopsychosocial status as well as the state of the social system in which case management operates.

CONTINUATION
Social work case management is both micro and macro in nature: intervention occurs at both the client and system levels. It requires the social worker to develop and maintain a therapeutic relationship with the client, which may include linking the client with systems that provide him or her with needed services, resources, and opportunities. Services provided under the rubric of social work case management practice may be located in a single agency or may be spread across numerous agencies or organizations.

GOALS OF CASE MANAGEMENT


The primary goal of case management is to optimize client functioning by providing quality services in the most efficient and effective manner to individuals with multiple complex needs. Like all methods of social work practice, case management rests on a foundation of professional training, values, knowledge, theory, and skills used in the service of attaining goals that are established in conjunction with the client and the clients family, when appropriate.

GOALS OF CASE MANAGEMENT


enhancing developmental, problem- solving, and coping capacities of clients creating and promoting the effective and humane operation of systems that provide resources and services to people linking people with systems that provide them with resources, services, and opportunities improving the scope and capacity of the delivery system contributing to the development and improvement of social policy.

COMPONENTS OF SW CASE MANAGEMENT


coordination and monitoring of service delivery; advocacy on behalf of the client including creating, obtaining, or brokering needed client resources; reassessment of the clients status; and termination of the case when services are no longer warranted.

Source: NASW

WHO IS THE CASE MANAGER?

The Registered Social Worker is the Case Manager that functions significant role in the case management process such as resource provider, social broker, enabler, counselor/therapist, mediator and advocate.

STAGES OF CASE MANAGEMENT

B. STAGES OF CASE MANAGEMENT


Intake Assessment Planning Implementation and Monitoring Evaluation and Termination

INTAKE
The initial contact between the client and the case manager. It is the process by which a potential client achieves the status of a client. It may come in different ways: 1. The client initiates the contact. 2. The client is referred to the worker or agency by some interested or concerned party. 3. The agency, through the social worker reaches out to the (potential) clients and offers help.

COMPONENTS OF INTAKE
Obtaining basic information about the client Case history Clarifying the presenting problem

A good intake interview should provide the client with adequate understanding of the agency and its policy and program in relation to the need or the problem, as well as the responsibilities and obligation from both the client and the worker.

ASSESSMENT
Assessment of the case is the hardest part of case management. It differs from the perceived problem of the client and it lies on the professional judgment of the social worker. Assessment should be biopsychosocial meaning all aspects should be viewed and it should be individualized. It answers the question, Given what we know about the clients problem or concern, what needs to be changed and how can it be changed?

CHARACTERISTICS OF ASSESSMENT
It is ongoing. Although it is the primary focus of the early stages, it takes place throughout the helping relationship. As new information becomes available, new understanding of the client and the situation develops, and becomes part of the ongoing assessment. It focuses on the understanding the client in the situation and in providing a base for planning and action. It is a mutual process involving both client and the worker.

CHARACTERISTICS OF ASSESSMENT
There is a movement within the assessment process. Both horizontal and vertical exploration are important. Assessment identifies needs in situations, defines problems, and explains their meanings and patterns. Assessment is individualized. No assessment is ever complete.

TOOLS FOR ASSESSMENT


Checklist Ecological Map Genogram Mental Status Examination

CHECKLIST
It is a tool which provides a set of meaningful characteristics about a clients present functioning indicators and future oriented characteristics are also included. Altogether, this tool is about the clients functioning in all aspects: physical, socioemotional, behavioral, spiritual, educational, aspirations and interests both positive and negative.

ECOLOGICAL MAP OR ECO-MAP


It is a simple paper-an-pencil simulation that has been developed as an assessment, planning and intervention tool. This tool pictures the family or individual in the life space and enables us to see the client not as an isolated entity for study but as a part of a complex ecological system. The Eco-Map focuses on the network of human relationships of an individual or family. It shows the major systems that are a part of the familys life and the nature of the family relationship with the various systems; it pictures the family and important nurturant or conflict-laden connections between the family and the world.

It demonstrates the flow of resources or the lacks and deprivations. This mapping procedures highlights the nature of the interfaces and points to conflicts to be mediated, bridges to be built and resources to be sought and mobilized.

USES OF ECO-MAP
Its primary value is in its visual impact and its ability to organize and present the concurrently not only a great deal of factual information but also the relationship between variables in a situation.

GENOGRAM

A genogram (pronounced: jen-uh-gram) is a graphic representation of a family tree that displays detailed data on relationships among individuals. It goes beyond a traditional family tree by allowing the user to analyze hereditary patterns and psychological factors that punctuate relationships. Genograms allow a therapist and his patient to quickly identify and understand various patterns in the patient's family history which may have had an influence on the patient's current state of mind. The genogram maps out relationships and traits that may otherwise be missed on a pedigree chart.

GENOGRAM
Genograms contain a wealth of information on the families represented. First, they contain basic data found in family trees such as the name, gender, date of birth, and date of death of each individual. Additional data may include education, occupation, major life events, chronic illnesses, social behaviors, nature of family relationships, emotional relationships, and social relationships. Some genograms also include information on disorders running in the family such as alcoholism, depression, diseases, alliances, and living situations. Genograms can vary significantly because there is no limitation as to what type of data can be included. A genogram can give you a more expansive view of the clients place in family history.

CONSTRUCTING GENOGRAMS

Mapping the Family Structure- Graphic representation of how difference family members are biologically and legally related to one another from one generation to the next.

Recording Family Information-Demographic, Functional and Critical Family Events. Delineating Family Relationships

MENTAL STATUS EXAMINATION (MSE)


The mental status examination (MSE) forms one component of the assessment of an individual. It augments other assessment components such as the history of the presenting problem and provides cues as to what more detailed assessment needs to take place. It is based on your observation of the client. It is the way the person acts, talks and looks while in your presence.

The mental status examination provides a way to structure data about aspects of the individuals mental functioning. It typically follows a specific form followed by all health professionals with observations recorded under headings. Some data can be obtained informally, or while obtaining other components of the persons history. However some questioning is usually needed. It may be necessary to include some technical terms when writing up the MSE but where possible verbatim accounts of the persons speech and thought content should be used.

MSE involves observation of the following: 1. General Appearance 2. Psychomotor behavior 3. Mood and Affect 4. Speech 5. Cognition 6. Thought Pattern

REFERENCES
www.socialworkers.org http://www.genopro.com/genogram/ www.testandcalc.com Training on Case Management Cum Technical Documentation Mendoza, Thelma L, (2002). Social Welfare and Social Work. Philippines: Megabook Company.

Reported by: Mary Grace Z. Blando, RSW MSSW Student