Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 13

3.

2 Movement of Substances across the Plasma Membrane in Every day life

(I)
(II)

(III)

Explain what HYPOTONIC, HYPERTONIC and ISOTONIC solutions are Explain the EFFECTS of hypotonic, hypertonic and isotonic solutions on plant and animal cells Explain PLASMOLYSIS, DEPLASMOLYSIS, HAEMOLYSIS and CRENATION

Hypotonic Hypertonic Isotonic Plasmolysis Deplasmolysis Haemolysis Crenation

WHAT IS OSMOSIS? -> a passive process similar to diffusion, but involves only water molecules. (proses pengangkutan pasif yang serupa dengan resapan tetapi hanya melibatkan molekul air)

OSMOSIS is defined as -> The net movement of freely moving water molecules from a region of low solute concentration to a region of high solute concentration through a semi-permeable membrane. (Osmosis didefinisikan sebagai) -> Proses pergerakan molekul air dari larutan berkepekatan zat terlarut rendah (kepekatan molekul air tinggi) ke larutan berkepekatan zat terlarut tinggi (kepekatan molekul air rendah)

Definition: -> The concentration of solute outside a cell is lower than the concentration of solute inside the cell. (Kepekatan zat terlarut di luar sel adalah lebih rendah daripada kepekatan zat terlarut dalam sel)

(i)Unlike animal cell, plant cell do not burst because of their rigid cell wall. (Berbeza daripada sel haiwan, sel tumbuhan tidak pecah kerana dinding selnya tegar) (ii) When plant immersed in a hypotonic solution, water diffuse into large central vacuole by osmosis. This causes the large central vacuole to expand and swell up. (Apabila sel tumbuhan dimasukkan ke dalam larutan hipotonic, air meresap ke dalam sel secara osmosis dan memenuhi vakuol). Vakuol sel mengembang. Cecair dalam vakuol akan menekan sitoplasma dan menolak membran plasma ke dinding sel.

When a cell is placed in a hypotonic solution, there is a net movement of water from outside into the cell. Water enters the cell causing it to swell. (Apabila sel berada dalam larutan hipotonik, terdapat pergerakan bersih air dari luar ke dalam sel. Air masuk ke dalam sel secara osmosis, menyebabkan sel bertambah dan mengembang)

DEFINITION -> A solution in which the concentration solutes in the solution is higher than the concentration of solutes within the cell. (Larutan yang mempunyai kepekatan zat terlarut yang lebih tinggi daripada kepekatan zat terlarut dalam sel)

When a cell is placed in a hypertonic solution, there is a net movement of water from the inside to outside of the cell. (Apabila sel diletakkan di dalam larutan hipotonik, berlaku pergerakan bersih air dari dalam sel ke luar sel)

The red blood cells have undergone crenation (Sel darah merah dikatakan mengalami krenasi.

When plant cells are imersed