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Meshing Imported and Native Geometry

Lecture 7

Copyright 2006 ABAQUS, Inc.

L7.2

Overview
Introduction Dependent and Independent Part Instances Mesh Generation Techniques Enabling Various Meshing Techniques Mesh Compatibility Controlling Mesh Density and Gradation

Parametric Modeling
Assigning Element Types Checking Mesh Quality and Obtaining Mesh Statistics Workshop 8: Structured Hex Meshing: Pipe Creep Model

Workshop 9: Free and Swept Meshing: Pump Model

Introduction to ABAQUS
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L7.3

Overview
This lecture is intended to provide a brief overview of the meshing capabilities of ABAQUS/CAE. Meshing and partitioning is discussed further in the "ABAQUS/CAE: Geometry Import and Meshing" lecture notes. Specific issues relating to element selection criteria are discussed in Appendix 2 of these notes.

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Introduction

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L7.5

Introduction
What is a mesh? Approximation of the geometry of the physical part model. Discretized geometry including many geometrically simple nodes and elements. Necessary for the finite element analysis program to perform a simulation. Defined by attributes that are features of the assembly. Features defined in the Mesh module will regenerate if you modify parameters of part or assembly features.

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L7.6

Introduction

part geometry

nodes

elements

Discretized geometry
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L7.7

Introduction
General capabilities of the Mesh module Allows you to mesh an assembly using various levels of automation and controls to suit the needs of your analysis Assign mesh attributes and set mesh controls to specify: Meshing technique Element shape Element type Mesh density Generate the mesh Query and verify the mesh for:

Number of nodes and elements


Element type Element quality
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Dependent and Independent Part Instances

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L7.9

Dependent and Independent Part Instances


Concept of a part instance

A part instance is a representation of the part in the assembly


A part instance can either remain dependent on the original part or be designated independent of the original part Independent instances can be partitioned at the assembly level.

Multiple independent instances of a given part can be partitioned each according to its own requirements (mesh, loads, etc.)
Each independent part instance must be meshed separately Dependent instances cannot be partitioned at the assembly level.

All dependent instances of a given part share the same geometry as the original part.
Thus, only the original part needs to be meshed Its dependent instances will inherit its mesh

Any partitions must be made to the original part.


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L7.10

Dependent and Independent Part Instances


Misc. For either dependent or independent instances: Different attributes (loads, boundary conditions, etc.) and sets/surfaces can be created. All instances of a part must be either dependent or independent. No mixture is allowed for a given part. All orphan mesh instances must be dependent.

Introduction to ABAQUS
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L7.11

Dependent and Independent Part Instances


Part -Repair features -Shape features -Partitions Part -Repair features -Shape features -Partitions -Seeds -Mesh techniques -Element types -Virtual topology

-Virtual topology

Mesh the assembly Independent instance


-Partitions -Seeds -Mesh techniques -Element types -Virtual topology -Mesh Introduction to ABAQUS
Copyright 2006 ABAQUS, Inc.

Mesh the part

-Mesh

Dependent instance
No mesh-related features allowed

(The geometry and the mesh cannot be modified.)

L7.12

Dependent and Independent Part Instances


Choose Independent or Dependent when creating part instance

Independent not allowed if:


Part is meshed Dependent instances of part already exist

Part is an orphan mesh


Dependent not allowed if: Independent instances of part already exist

Can easily convert between dependent and independent

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L7.13

Dependent and Independent Part Instances


Displaying parts or the assembly in the Mesh module Switch via context bar or model tree. All mesh module functions can be applied to parts.
Native mesh display toggle

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Mesh Generation Techniques

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L7.15

Mesh Generation Techniques


Free meshing Free meshing uses no preestablished mesh patterns, making it impossible to predict a free mesh pattern before creating the mesh. Element shape options available for free meshing two-dimensional regions: Quadrilateral (default) Quadrilateral-dominated Triangular Can be applied to any planar or curved surface. Allows some triangular elements for transition. Can be applied to any planar or curved surface.

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L7.16

Mesh Generation Techniques

quad mesh

quad-dominated mesh
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triangular mesh

L7.17

Mesh Generation Techniques


Element shape option available for free meshing three-dimensional regions.

Tetrahedralany geometry can be meshed with tetrahedral elements unless the mesh seeds are too coarse.

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L7.18

Mesh Generation Techniques


Swept meshing A mesh is created on one side of the region, known as the source side. The nodes of that mesh are copied, one element layer at a time, along the connecting sides of the region until the final side, known as the target side, is reached. The source and target sides are automatically located by ABAQUS.

source side

target side

nodes copied from the source side to each element layer and to the target side

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L7.19

Mesh Generation Techniques


Two-dimensional swept meshes All-quad meshing of swept regions Planar or curved surfaces Quad-dominated meshing of degenerate revolved regions (Degenerate regions include the axis of revolution)

Swept mesh

Degenerate revolved mesh

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L7.20

Mesh Generation Techniques


Swept meshing (contd) Swept solid regions can be filled with: Hex meshes Hex-dominated meshes Wedge meshes General sweep paths allowed
Extruded mesh
sweep path: straight line

sweep path: arc

Generalized sweep path through the thickness

Generalized sweep path follows the draft angle

Revolved mesh

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L7.21

Mesh Generation Techniques


Requirements for sweep meshable regions Topological
The source side may contain multiple faces
Source Side

Target face and each connecting side must have only one face. Geometric

Connecting side Target Side

Adjacent faces will be combined to form the source side only if the edge dihedral angles are not too far from 180

Not sweep meshable


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Sweep meshable

L7.22

Mesh Generation Techniques


Structured meshing The structured meshing technique generates meshes using simple predefined mesh topologies. ABAQUS transforms the mesh of a regularly shaped region, such as a square or a cube, onto the geometry of the region you want to mesh. Structured meshing generally gives the most control over the mesh.
Three-dimensional structured meshable regions

structured tri meshes

Simple mesh topology


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L7.23

Mesh Generation Techniques


Mapped meshing Special case of structured meshing 4-sided surface regions Allows for improved mesh quality Can be used with Swept hex/hex-dominated mesh using advancing front algorithm Free quad/quad-dominated mesh using advancing front algorithm Free tetrahedral or triangular mesh

Mapped meshing applied indirectly by meshing a region and allowing ABAQUS/CAE to apply mapped meshing where appropriate

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L7.24

Mesh Generation Techniques


Mapped mesh example

Free tet mesh


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Fill 4-sided patches with mapped tri meshes

L7.25

Mesh Generation Techniques


Virtual topology In some cases part instances in the assembly contain small details such as faces and edges. Virtual topology allows you to ignore unimportant details.

Detailed model Bad elements due to tiny faces and edges

Virtual model Unimportant details abstracted away


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L7.26

Mesh Generation Techniques


Part instances that contain virtual topology can be meshed when using one of the following mesh techniques Free meshing Triangular and tetrahedral elements Quadrilateral or quadrilateral-dominated elements using the advancing front algorithm Swept meshing Hex or wedge elements Mapped meshing Quadrilateral, triangular, or hex elements

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L7.27

Mesh Generation Techniques


Example: virtual topology + swept meshing

Detailed bracket

Virtual model (sweep meshable)

Adding partition and hole to virtual model

All-hex mesh

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Enabling Various Meshing Techniques

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L7.29

Enabling Various Meshing Techniques


Which regions are meshable? ABAQUS/CAE automatically determines meshability for each region based on its geometry and mesh controls. Regions are color coded to indicate their currently assigned meshing technique:
free-meshing technique swept-meshing technique cannot be meshed using current mesh technique

structured-meshing technique

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L7.30

Enabling Various Meshing Techniques


Changing the element shape from Hex to Tet changes the technique from unmeshable to meshable.

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L7.31

Enabling Various Meshing Techniques


Partitioning to make regions meshable Most three-dimensional part instances require partitioning to permit hexahedral meshing. Complex geometries often can be partitioned into simpler, meshable regions. Partitioning can be used to: Change and simplify the topology so that the regions can be meshed using primarily hexahedral elements with the structured or swept meshing techniques.

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L7.32

Enabling Various Meshing Techniques


Partitioning to mesh a piston, wrist pin, and connecting rod assembly with hex elements.

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Mesh Compatibility

Copyright 2006 ABAQUS, Inc.

L7.34

Mesh Compatibility
Different regions of the same part instance can be meshed using different elements types, such as tetrahedra and hexahedra. Tie constraints are created automatically to connect the regions.
tie constraints inserted automatically at partition

Allows hexahedra to be used adjacent to contact surfaces or in high gradient regions where accuracy is essential, with tetrahedra in other regions.
When a region is meshed, an existing mesh on an adjacent region is unaffected.
Introduction to ABAQUS
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L7.35

Mesh Compatibility
Currently it is not possible to obtain meshes automatically that are compatible between part instances.

tied surfaces

If mesh compatibility is required between two or more bodies, first try to create a single part that contains all the bodies.
Multiple part instances can be merged into a single part instance in the Assembly module. Different material regions can be separated using partitions. If the two objects must be modeled as separate parts, consider using tie constraints to glue two regions together. Alternatively, merge instance meshes into a conforming orphan mesh.
Introduction to ABAQUS
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Using tie constraints to glue the cylinder to the block: exploded view of assembly (top) and mesh

L7.36

Mesh Compatibility
Merging instance meshes into a conforming orphan mesh Mesh topology and node positions must conform. Single step creates orphan mesh part and replaces instances Works with any combination of dependent/independent/native/orphan instances

Introduction to ABAQUS
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L7.37

Mesh Compatibility
Example Approach 1: Tie constraints (labor intensive in this case) Approach 2: Merge meshes (relatively easy)

Side 3 Side 4

Side 1

Side 2

A part partitioned into 112 meshable cells

Part mesh

A 1010 pattern of dependent part instances

Introduction to ABAQUS
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Controlling Mesh Density and Gradation

Copyright 2006 ABAQUS, Inc.

L7.39

Controlling Mesh Density and Gradation


Mesh seeds Mesh seeds are markers that you define along the edges of a region to specify the desired, or target, mesh density.

Introduction to ABAQUS
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L7.40

Controlling Mesh Density and Gradation


Triangular and tetrahedral meshes and quadrilateral meshes using the advancing front algorithm match the seeds exactly. For hexahedral or quadrilateral meshes (using the medial-axis algorithm) ABAQUS often must change the element distribution to permit successful meshing. You can prevent such adjustments by constraining the seeds along an edge.

Introduction to ABAQUS
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L7.41

Controlling Mesh Density and Gradation


You can set a typical global element length for part instances. ABAQUS/CAE automatically creates mesh seeds along all relevant edges based on the typical element length.

New edges created by partitioning automatically inherit the global mesh seeds.
You can override the global mesh seeds with local mesh seeds along selected edges. Edge mesh seeds can be uniform or biased. Edge mesh seeds propagate automatically from the selected edge to the matching edges for swept meshable regions.

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L7.42

Controlling Mesh Density and Gradation


Global seeds (black) and local seeds (magenta)
local seeds automatically propagate to matching edges on swept regions new partition edges inherit global seeds

biased local seeds

Introduction to ABAQUS
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L7.43

Controlling Mesh Density and Gradation


Partitioning into different mesh regions Partitioning creates additional edges, which allows more control over local mesh density. Each mesh region can have different mesh controls.
Partitioning and local mesh seeding allows you to refine the mesh in the area of a stress concentration.

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Parametric Modeling

Copyright 2006 ABAQUS, Inc.

L7.45

Parametric Modeling
A useful feature of the Mesh module is the ability to regenerate partitions and mesh attributessuch as element-type assignments, seeds, and mesh controlsafter a part has been modified. You must always recreate the mesh itself after modifying a model.

For example, the model shown at right has been partitioned into 4 regions and then seeded to specify an approximate element size of 3.

Introduction to ABAQUS
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L7.46

Parametric Modeling
You can return to the Part module and modify the hole so that it is somewhat larger. When you return to the Mesh module, the partitions and the seeds are regenerated, as shown at right. In addition, settings in the Mesh Controls and Element Type dialog boxes (such as element shape, element type, and meshing technique) are also regenerated. (You can display these two dialog boxes by selecting MeshControls and Mesh Element Type from the main menu bar.) If you modify the part drastically (e.g., if you delete features instead of modifying the hole in the figure at right), the seeds and partitions may fail to regenerate. In these cases you must create new seeds and partitions after re-entering the Mesh module.

Introduction to ABAQUS
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Assigning Element Types

Copyright 2006 ABAQUS, Inc.

L7.48

Assigning Element Types


The available element types depend on the geometry of your model. You can assign the element type either before or after you create the mesh. Different element types can be assigned to different regions of your model. Items such as loads and boundary conditions depend on the underlying geometry, not the mesh, so performing parametric studies on mesh density or element types is very easy.

element name and brief description


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Checking Mesh Quality and Obtaining Mesh Statistics

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L7.50

Checking Mesh Quality and Obtaining Mesh Statistics


Mesh statistics ABAQUS/CAE can generate plots that highlight elements whose aspect ratios, maximum and minimum angles, and shape factors exceed specified limits. The following information is displayed in the message area: Total number of elements Number of distorted elements Average distortion Worst distortion
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L7.51

Checking Mesh Quality and Obtaining Mesh Statistics


Other mesh statistics Mesh statistics also: Help you check whether the mesh has been generated as you intended. Provide information about part instance names, number of elements of each shape, and number of nodes. Provide information about the element types and mesh techniques assigned to a region.

Introduction to ABAQUS
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L7.52

Checking Mesh Quality and Obtaining Mesh Statistics


Mesh analysis checks Elements that will produce errors or warning in the analysis can be highlighted. In most cases it will be obvious from the element shape why the input file processor issued an error or a warning. If necessary, you can submit a datacheck analysis from the Job module and review the messages that ABAQUS writes to the data file.
Current limitation: Analysis checks are not currently supported for structural and gasket elements.

Introduction to ABAQUS
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Workshop 8: Structured Hex Meshing: Pipe Creep Model

Copyright 2006 ABAQUS, Inc.

L7.54

Workshop 8: Structured Hex Meshing: Pipe Creep Model


Workshop tasks: 1. Create face and cell partitions. 2. Assign global seeds. 3. Assign element type. 4. Generate a structured hex mesh.

Introduction to ABAQUS
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Workshop 9: Free and Swept Meshing: Pump Model

Copyright 2006 ABAQUS, Inc.

L7.56

Workshop 9: Free and Swept Meshing: Pump Model


Workshop tasks 1. Change the element type of the pump housing elements from C3D4 to C3D10M. 2. Assign global and edge seeds to the gasket, cover, and bolts. 3. Mesh the gasket and bolts with hex elements using the swept mesh technique. 4. Mesh the cover with tet elements using the free mesh technique.

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