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Faculty of Engineering & Information Technology

University of Technology, Sydney


School of Civil & Environmental Engineering

Student : Victor Yeung


Project No : S08 – 097
Student No: 10240810
Bachelor of Engineering ( Civil )
Supervisor: Dr. Behzad
Fatahi
Outline of Presentation
Hong Kong , 1995
- What is slope failure ?
- Type of landslide
- Factors causing landslide
- Slope stabilisation methods
- What is Soil Nail ?
- Construction procedure
- Quality control of Soil nailing
- SLOPE/W slope analysis software
- Case Study ( Hong Kong )
- Conclusion
What is slope failure ?
- The slope can not support itself
- Gravitational and seepage forces cause disturbing force
- Soil friction provide resisting force
- If disturbing moment > resisting moment
Slope will failure ( Landslide )

China
Type of landslide
Fall type landslide
Usually occurring in rock slopes, rock displacement and rock fall
with a very fast movement.

Newcastle , Australia
Type of landslide
Slide type landslide
Slides are usually caused by mass movements that present a well-
defined failure wedge and surface

Hong Kong , 1995


Type of landslide
Flow type landslide
Flow landslide is a continuous viscous slide involving soil or
rock. If material is clay or fine soil material, this flow is called
mud flow

Hong Kong , 2008


Hong Kong , 1990
Major landslide in past history
(Hong Kong & Australia)
Hong Kong

18 June 1972

Mid-level Kotewall Road. Two


high-rise residential buildings
collapsed due to large landslide
and killed 67 people

Hong Kong , 1972


Major landslide in past history
(Hong Kong & Australia)
Australia

30 July 1997

A large section of steep


mountainside below
the Alpine Way road
collapsed in Thredbo ,
NSW. 18 people died
in this disaster. Australia , 1997
Factors causing landslide
- Geometrical changes

- Surcharge

- Shocks and vibrations ( Earth quake, blasting)

- Change in water regime (Rainfall ,pipe leakage )

- Removal of vegetation ( Reduce tree root suction)

- Weathering ( Reduction of cohesion, desiccation )


Slope stabilisation methods
Surface protection

Shotcrete - Concrete sprayed on the slope surface

Masonry - Use stone pitching as a rigid surface cover


to prevent erosion and surface runoff.

Chunam - Cement sand mix material for surface


protection
Slope stabilisation
methods
Landslide prevention

Soil nail
Slope reinforced by the inserting
steel reinforcing bars
Hong Kong
Soil re-compaction
Excavate loose soil and backfill
re-compaction

Soil replacement
Use other material replacing loose
soil (No-fine concrete replacement)
Hong Kong
Slope stabilisation
methods
Landslide prevention

Bio- Engineering
Use tree root or plant root to
prevent shallow slope failure Hong Kong

Sub-surface Drainage
Reduction of pore water pressure of slope

Stone Columns
Increase average shear resistance of soil along potential slip
surface by using compacted stone
Soil Nail
What is SOIL NAIL ? Steel bar

Centraliser

Soil nail head Grout column


Function of Soil Nail
Provide a resisting force against slope failure
Differences of Soil nail & Soil Anchor

Soil nail
- Non-prestressed
- Faster construction time
- Maintenance on soil nail is not necessary

Soil Anchor
- Prestressed tendon
- Longer construction time
-Maintenance is necessary
(Avoid loss of prestress in tendons)
Advantages of Soil nail
- Economy

- Fast construction
Hong Kong
- Light construction equipment

- Adaptability to different soil types

- Flexibility

- Reinforcement Redundancy Hong Kong


Construction procedure of Soil nail

1. Drilling

2. Steel bar installation

3. Grouting

4. Soil nail head construction


Quality control of Soil nail

1. Soil nail Steel bar testing

Bleeding Test

1. Bleeding test & Flow Cone test


(for Liquid grout )

1. Compressive strength test


(for harden grout) Flow cone test

4. Pull out & proofing Tests


Soil nail Design

Slope Failure analysis


- Limit equilibrium design approach
- Factor of Safety ( FOS ) calculation

Method of analysis
- Ordinary / Swedish Method
- Bishop Method
- Janbu’s Method
- Morgenstern-price’s Method
- Other methods
SLOPE/W slope analysis software
- Developed by GEO-SLOPE International Ltd.
- Assessing the realistic FOS
Soil nail design procedure

1. Use SLOPE/W to analysis slope stability

2. Insert soil nails in the SLOPE/W model

3. Use trial and error method to determine the potential


failure resisting force of soil nails

4. Use soil nail capacity calculation to determine bond


length , bar size, spacing and inclination angle

5. Re- analysis the slope model use final design


parameter
Design Criteria

1. Slope critical section FOS > Design requirement

2. Soil nail capacity checking must be satisfy the


design requirement
Case Study ( Hong Kong )

Background
• Next to the sport centre , high risk (Consequence-to-life)

• According to bore hole log record, cohesion=5kPa , Friction


angle = 38o

• Critical section – Height =12m , slope angle approximate= 60o

Location:
Hong Kong
( Shek Kip Mei Sport Centre )
Case Study ( Hong Kong )
Use bore hole log records to estimate the soil layering
Silty Sand
Silty Sand

Bedrock
Case Study ( Hong Kong )

Use Morgenstern-Price’s
Method

Minimum FOS = 0.986

FOS (0.986) < 1.4 (HK


requirement)
Case Study ( Hong Kong )

Estimate potential slip surface

Slip No FOS

1 1.112
0.986
2
(minimum)
3 1.157

4 1.367

5 1.572
Case Study ( Hong Kong )

After soil nail installed

minimum FOS = 1.52

FOS (1.52) >1.4 (require)


Case Study ( Hong Kong )
Case Study ( Hong Kong )

Use Trial and error method to determine the preliminary soil nail parameter

Inclination Design
Nail Length Bond Nail
Row Angle resisting
(m) Length (m) Spacing (m)
(degree) force KN
A 12 3.3 15 2 55
B 12 3.8 15 2 50
C 8 4.3 15 2 20
D 8 4.2 15 2 15
E 8 5.7 15 2 8
Case Study ( Hong Kong )

Maximum allowable tensile force of steel bar ( Final Checking )

Horizont Force Max.


Bar Bar Size Force
Level al per m Required Allowabl Ta > Tr
Length (d)
Row No. Spacing Width F =F x S e Tensile
(m) (mm) Force
(mPD) (m) (kN)
L D
S F Tr (kN) Ta (kN) Check

Row E 58.80 8.0 25 2.0 8.00 16.00 79.66 O.K.

Row D 56.80 8.0 25 2.0 15.00 30.00 79.66 O.K.

Row C 54.80 8.0 25 2.0 20.00 40.00 79.66 O.K.

Row B 52.80 12.0 32 2.0 50.00 100.00 141.62 O.K.

Row A 50.80 12.0 32 2.0 55.00 110.00 141.62 O.K.


Case Study ( Hong Kong )
Maximum allowable force between steel & grout ( Final Checking )

Force Max.
Bar Horizo Free Bond Force Require Allowable Tmax > Tr
Bar d Force
Row Level Size (d) ntal length length per m
Length
No. (mPD) Spacing La Le Width
(m)
(mm) (m) (m) (m) F (kN) Tr (kN) Tmax (kN)  

Row E 58.8 8.0 25 2.0 4.70 3.30 8.00 16.00 205.26 O.K.

Row D 56.8 8.0 25 2.0 4.20 3.80 15.00 30.00 236.36 O.K.

Row C 54.8 8.0 25 2.0 3.70 4.30 20.00 40.00 267.46 O.K.

Row B 52.8 12.0 32 2.0 3.80 8.20 50.00 100.00 680.06 O.K.

Row A 50.8 12.0 32 2.0 2.30 9.70 55.00 110.00 804.46 O.K.
Case Study ( Hong Kong )
Maximum allowable force between soil & grout ( Final Checking )

Effective Force
Vertical Stress Mobilised
Force
Tf (kN)= Total Force F.O.S.
Require F.O.S.
Row No. Mobilised >2
sv (kPa) ( 1.571 + d
0.140 s’v ) x
Le
CDG CDG Tf (kN) Tr (kN) Tf / Tr

Row E 68.00 36.65 36.65 16.00 2.29 O.K.

Row D 106.00 62.45 62.45 30.00 2.08 O.K.

Row C 144.00 93.58 93.58 40.00 2.34 O.K.

Row B 180.27 220.16 220.16 100.00 2.20 O.K.

Row A 158.57 230.92 230.92 110.00 2.10 O.K.


Case Study ( Hong Kong )
Final Soil nail design summary

Horizont Force
Free Bond Force
Level Bar Bar Size al
length length per m Require
Row No. Length (d) Spacing d
La Le Width F
(mPD) (m) (mm)
(m) (m) (kN) Tr (kN)
(m)
Row E 58.80 8.0 25 2 4.70 3.30 8.00 16.00
Row D 56.80 8.0 25 2 4.20 3.80 15.00 30.00
Row C 54.80 8.0 25 2 3.70 4.30 20.00 40.00
Row B 52.80 12.0 32 2 3.80 8.20 50.00 100.00
Row A 50.80 12.0 32 2 2.30 9.70 55.00 110.00
Case Study ( Hong Kong )

After soil nail installed , the slope stability FOS value has been increased

Slip No FOS

1 -

2 1.534

1.529
3
(Minimum)

4 1.671

5 1.835
Conclusion
- From the Case Study , the slope stability has been
significantly improved by Soil nailing

- Limit equilibrium method using Slope/W is an accurate


approach to design soil nail walls in practice

- Soil nailing method has a simple design method and


easy construction method

- Soil nail is the most cost-efficient solution for slope


stabilisation
Thank you
Any Questions ?

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