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Is leadership power? Are leaders born or made? Do all groups have leaders?

- Power with people, rather than over people

- Nurture is important than nature

- As groups increase in size and complexity, they select a leader

Do followers resist leaders? Do leaders make a difference?

- Most people prefer to be led rather than be leaderless

- Good leaders make a difference!! Romance of leadership

LEADERSHIP One of the most observed and least understood phenomena on earth.

Men tend to be more task oriented in groups Women are more relationship oriented They differ only negligibly, in their emphasis on task or relationship when they occupy positions of leadership.

Powerful ,dynamic individuals command armies, direct empires, or shape the nations. Military , political, religious, & social leaderscredited or blamed for important events. Influencing people so that they will strive willingly towards the achievement of group goals The manager does things right, the leader does the right thing.

Leader by the position achieved Leader by personality, charisma Leader by moral example Leader by power held Intellectual leader Leader because of ability to accomplish things Leadership A personal quality, it exists only with followers Leadership Exists only for the realization of common goals

Lead Influence Command Guide Inspire Build Motivate Empower Focus on people Do the right things

Set goals Persuade to work with zeal Organizes Assign roles acc to abilities Initiate action New ideas & thinking Coordination Direction & motivation Link between mgt & workers

In most cases, people will perform at about 60% of their potential with no leadership at all Thus, an additional 40% can be realized if effective leadership is available. Leadership style impacts the motivation of employees. Positive climate & increased productivity. Improves motivation & morale. Basis for cooperation. Leader should adopt a mix of consultation, cooperation, communication & motivation.

Trust A positive expectation in words, actions and decisions. Difficult to someone immediately. Provides the opportunity for disappointment or to be taken advantage of. Trust is willingness to take risks. Key dimensions: Integrity-honesty & truthfulness -the most important Competence -technical & interpersonal knowledge & skills. Consistency -reliability, predictability & good judgment . b/w words & actions; practice & preach. Loyalty -willingness to protect & save others.

4 pivotsInspiration- strongly influencing others - creating a desire to do - inviting others to join in - inventing and creating new frameworks, commitment & lead by e.g. Values- related to character, sincerity, caring, faith & belief. Valuing commitment to individuals & focus on performance. Change- need to change mindsets for organizational improvement. Mindsets block new paths. Fear of the unknown. Empowerment- everybody is knowledgeable and skilled & will make their contributions. Related to self management. The 4 pivots provide a sound framework for creating leadership. Leadership can be created while changing mindsets and developing skills.

Outstanding aspect of management which manifests ability, creativeness, initiative & inventiveness ; which gains the confidence, cooperation and willingness of the people to work together. Ability to shape the attitudes & behavior of others in formal or informal situations. Involves attempts on the part of the leader to affect the behavior of followers, to initiate change. Leadership styles do change under different circumstances.


Leaders job is to develop responsibility and initiative among his subordinates. To take decisions and exercise authority . Most of the leaders are too bossy . A group is as strong as its leader. Once the leader shows weakness, hes dead. The trouble in most organizations/ groups is that a few persons run the show/ everything. To be a leader, you must be aggressive and ambitious & tell people what they should do. Have to be sensitive to the needs of others.

Positive leaders- motivate & delegate -uses ideas , minds & energies -arouses enthusiasm & cooperation. -exercise power through the people Negative leaders -motivate through fear and insecurity. Pose very superior and are dominating. Hold threats to subordinates of the loss of their jobs, demote or reprimand them in the presence of others. They are bosses rather than leaders.

Personal leadership- through personality, personal contract-directions, supervision & motivation- very effective Impersonal- written orders, instructions, plans & policies- not much effective Functional specialized skills of the leader, expert advice. Accepted by the group and useful in problem solving. Paternalistic-through the use of affection & care for those who are to be lead.

Provides direct satisfaction to his followers. Structures the path to goal attainment Removes barriers to goal achievement Modifies employees goals for the benefit of organization Maintenance of membership-closeness to the group, frequency of reactions & acceptability to the group. Objective attainment-stable & understandable work patterns. Effective group interaction facilitation

One who can make ordinary men do extraordinary things Make common people do uncommon things Lifting of a mans sights to a higher vision Raising of a mans standard to a higher performance Building of a mans personality beyond its normal limitations To render a service To take decisions To elicit responses To achieve results To maintain integrity in the organization To resolve conflicts Communicating

Represents ideals, philosophy & problems Initiates measures to ensure the progress Administers by timely planning, forecasting, organizing, directing & coordinating Integrates the group activities, develops the team spirit and cohesiveness Satisfies the group ego- groups needs and goals & creating an atmosphere free of conflict Makes decisions with group compliance To resolve the internal differences Roles & Functions should be flexible. To adapt to situation .

All people are potential leaders & given the desire & opportunity, people can develop into effective ones. Every organization has many people in it who can exercise leadership, at least temporarily, than there are positions of leadership to be filled.

Physical & nervous energy Enthusiasm Sense of purpose and direction Technical mastery Friendliness and affection Decisiveness Integrity Intelligence Faith

Courage Will power Judgment



A great deal of physical & nervous energy, endurance & vigor of body & mind Readiness to shoulder responsibility and ability to discharge it. Unflattering friendliness & affection Tolerance & patience Sense of fair play & justice High degree of integrity Knowledge of men Decisiveness & initiative Ability to face rough weather, opposition.

Energy Emotional maturity & stability Knowledge of human relations Objectivity Empathy Personal motivation Communication skills Teaching Ability Social skill Technical competence Integrity Conceptual skill Moral courage Flexibility of mind Ability to establish proper priorities.

The choice of leaders is governed by certain forces:

1. Forces acting on the manager 2. Forces acting on the subordinates 3. Forces acting on the situation

High need for independence Assume responsibility Interest in the problem Relatively high tolerance Understands and identifies himself Knowledge and experience to deal with problem Share the decision-making process

Value system Confidence in his subordinates Leadership inclination

Feeling of security

Type of organization Qualities of leader; dynamic, imaginative, persuasive & ability to work effectively Size of a working unit Group effectiveness Nature of problem The pressure of time

Drive achievement, ambition, energy, tenacity & leadership. Leadership motivation Honesty & integrity Self confidence- emotional stability Cognitive ability Knowledge of the business Other traits- charisma, creativity, originality & flexibility.

Hinder a person from reaching leadership potential 1. Perception of being uninformed. 2. Perception of being non participants. 3. Perception of being extremely rigid. Uninformed, uninterested or rigid members would hinder groups accomplishment of goals. More informed & more motivated will be less rigid.

Compromiser style -concern to both task & people. Poor decision-maker. Missionary style -maximum concern to people & minimum concern to task. Do gooder values harmony. Autocrat style -maximum concern to task & minimum concern to people. No confidence in others ,is unpleasant & interested only in the job. Deserter style -maximum concern to task & people. uninvolved & passive.

Objective & flexible Self-awareness Capable of establishing priorities Ability to communicate Adjust style according to task Well informed on organizational policies, plans & structure Must practice introspection Empathetic to needs, desires ,abilities & knowledge of subordinates.

Increasing the clarity of issues & paths to goals Increasing the correspondence b/w objectives & personal goals. Increasing the followers effort & performance Equalizing the pressure for performance Supports the followers belonging Causes members to exert peer & social pressure to perform better.

Interpretation of events Choice of objectives & strategies Cooperation & trust Organization & coordination Allocation of resources Development of skills & confidence Sharing of new knowledge Beliefs & values Motivation of members Zeal & Confidence

Leader -motives , personality & values -confidence, optimism & behavior -integrity & ethics -influence tactics -skills & expertise Followers -needs , values & self-concept -trust in the leader -task commitment & effort -satisfaction with job & leader Situation -type & size of unit - Task structure & complexity - Leaders position & authority

High energy level & stress tolerance Self- confidence Internal locus of control Emotional stability & maturity Personal integrity Power motivation High Achievement orientation Need for affiliation Big five personality traits (extroversion, dependability, agreeableness- optimistic, adjustment-emotional stability, intellectance)

Technical skills Methods , processes & equipments actual knowledge about the organization Products & services. By education , training & Job experience Conceptual skills Good judgment ,intuition , creativity , analytical ability , logical thinking ,reasoning. Cognitive skills-ability to identify relationships & develop creative solutions. essential for effective planning ,organizing & problem solving.

Interpersonal skills Human behavior & group processes To understand feelings ,attitudes , & motives Communicate ,social insight ,charming ,tactful , persuasiveness & empathy . Listening attentive , sympathetic & nonjudgmental problem ,complaint , criticism. Concern for people. Self -monitoring learn from feedback , adjust behavior . Good leaders & effective resolution of conflicts.

Emotional intelligence - able to understand self & others feelings & integrate and manage emotions effectively. Emotional maturity , self-monitoring & self-confidence. Moods & emotions recognition. Solve complex problems & make better decisions & manage crisis- Enthusiasm .

Social intelligence ability to determine requirements for

leadership. Selecting response according to situation . Social perceptiveness to understand needs and problems. Behavioral flexibility- vary the behavior to accommodate situational


Ability to learn from mistakes. Adapt, innovate.

Task oriented behavior- organizes work activities - plans short term operations - assigns work to individuals & groups - clarifies expected results - sets specific goals & standards for task performance. - explains rules, policies & SOP - directs ,coordinates and monitors - resolves immediate problems

Provides support and encouragement. Expresses confidence in individuals & groups. Socializes with people Recognizes contributions and accomplishments. Provides coaching and mentoring. Consults with people on decisions Keeps people informed Helps resolve conflicts Recruits competent new members

Monitors the external environment Interprets the events for change Encourages people to view problems differently. Develops innovative strategies Encourages & facilitates innovation. Experiments with new approaches & possibilities. Encourages and facilitates efforts to implement change. Announces and celebrates progress

Find out the expectations Take the initiative to deal with problems Keep the boss informed about decisions Verify the accuracy of information Encourage honest feedback Support leader efforts Show appreciation and provide recognition Provide upward coaching and councelling Challenge flawed plans and proposals Resist inappropriate influence

Expressing confidence & celebrating progress Involving members in making decisions Recruiting & selecting competent team members Coaching, training & clarifying role expectations & priorities Planning & organizing team activities Facilitating team learning & building Constructive resolution of conflicts Monitoring external environment Representing & coordinating with external resources.

Maximizes productivity & satisfaction and growth & development in all situations. Leadership is a matter of how to be and not how to do it. Personal integrity is the indispensable quality of leadership with a sense of ethics that works full time. The most effective leadership exhibits a degree of versatility & flexibility that enables them to adapt their style to fit the requirements of the situation.