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THEORY OF ARCHITECTURE IN HISTORY

Arch. Ma. Theresa M. Austria PRC 10440

Architectural theory

What is architectural Theory?

Architectural theory

is the act of thinking, discussing, or most importantly writing about architecture Architectural theory is taught in most architecture schools and is practiced by the world's leading architects architecture theory takes are the lecture or dialogue, the treatise or book, and the paper project or competition entry Architectural theory is often didactic As a result, styles and movements formed and dissolved much more quickly than the relatively enduring modes in earlier history. It is to be expected that the use of the internet will further the discourse on architecture in the twenty first century

Architectural theory

RESEARCH OF ARCHITECTURE
Research

contributes to Design Theory

NATURE OF DESIGN THEORY


Design Theory states facts -- Design Theory aids design

SCOPE OF ARCHITECTURE THEORY

-- Includes all that is presented in the handbooks of architects -- Includes legislation, norms and standards, rules and methods -- Includes miscellaneous and unscientific elements

Architectural theory

WHY DESIGN THEORY? To aid the work of the architect and improve its product Proven theory helps designers do work better and more efficiently Skill without knowledge is nothing (architect Jean Mignot, 1400 AD)

UNDERSTANDING DESIGN THEORY Theory does NOT necessarily PRECEDE design PARADIGM = every new or established theory applied = STYLE

Architectural theory
PHASES OF ARCHITECTURAL THEORY IN HISTORY

ANTIQUITY MIDDLE AGES RENAISSANCE NINETEENTH CENTURY TWENTIETH CENTURY CONTEMPORARY

Antiquity

the first century BCE, works of Vitruvius was the first evidence of theory in architecture. De Architecture or Ten Books of Architecture dedicated to the emperor Augustus covers almost every aspect of Roman architecture, from town planning, materials, decorations, temples, water supplies famous orders of architecture gathers three fundamental laws that Architecture must obey, in order to be so considered: firmitas, utilitas, venustas: influence on architects of the Renaissance period, rise of the Renaissance style

Antiquity
Classic Orders Tuscan Doric Ionic Corinthian Composite

Antiquity
Renaissance Style
Influenced as Niccoli, Brunelleschi and Leon Battista Alberti
TEMPIETTO DI SAN PIETRO IN MONTORIO, ROME, 1502, BY BRAMANTE.

Sant'Agostino, Rome, Giacomo di Pietrasanta, 1483

RAPHAEL'S UNUSED PLAN FOR ST. PETER'S BASILICA

Faade of Santa Maria Novella, 145670

Middle Ages

architectural knowledge was passed by transcription, word of mouth and technically in master builders' lodges works that from this period were theological, and were transcriptions of the bible The Abbot Suger's Liber de rebus in administratione sua gestis emerged with gothic architecture. Villard de Honnecourt's portfolio of drawings from about the 1230s. In Song Dynasty China, Li Jie published the Yingzao Fashi in 1103, which was an architectural treatise that

Middle Ages

THE PORTFOLIO OF VILLARD DE HONNECOURT (ABOUT 1230)

PERPETUUM MOBILE OF VILLARD DE HONNECOURT (ABOUT 1230).

PARTS OF THE GOTHIC CATHEDRAL (NOTRE-DAME DE CHARTRES)

SUGER OF SAINT-DENIS ON A MEDIEVAL WINDOW

Middle Ages
REVOLVING-BUDDHIST SUTRA CASE, YINGZAO FASHI (1103) TIMBER FRAME PAIFANG IN YINGZAO FASHI

DIAGRAM OF CORBEL WOOD BRACKET SUPPORTS ("DOUGONG") HOLDING UP A MULTI-INCLINED ROOF, FROM THE ARCHITECTURAL TREATISE YINGZAO FASHI(1103 AD)

YINGZAO FASHI - 'TREATISE ON ARCHITECTURAL METHODS' OR 'STATE BUILDING STANDARDS') IS A TECHNICAL TREATISE ON ARCHITECTURE AND CRAFTSMANSHIP WRITTEN BY THE CHINESE AUTHOR LI JIE

Renaissance

first great work of architectural theory of this period belongs to Leon Battista Alberti, De Re Aedificatoria. Alberti includes a wide variety of literary sources, including Plato and Aristotle, presenting concise version of sociology of architecture. De re aedificatoria is subdivided into ten books Vitruvius, the core of the most profound theoretical tradition Alberti, good architecture is validated through the Vitruvian triad, which defines its purpose.

Renaissance

HUMANIST ORIGINS OF CREATIVE ARCHITECTURE - Prof. Giuliana Limiti Universita di Roma III, Italy http://www.generativedesign.com/asialink/de2 2.htm

Nineteenth century

Marc-Antoine Laugier's seminal Essai, provided the foundation for two generations of international activity around the core themes of CLASSICISM, PRIMITIVISM AND A "RETURN TO NATURE. Reaction against the dominance of neo-classical architecture came to the fore in the 1820s with Augustus Pugin providing a moral and theoretical basis for GOTHIC REVIVAL ARCHITECTURE, and in the 1840s John Ruskin developed this ethos.

Nineteenth century
Neo Classicism, Gothic Revial

ESSAI SUR L'ARCHITECTURE, FRONTISPIECE.


THE SCHERMERHORN SYMPHONY CENTER IN NASHVILLE, TENNESSEE WAS BUILT IN 2006.

NOTABLE NEO-GOTHIC EDIFICES: TOP: PALACE OF WESTMINSTER, LONDON; LEFT: CATHEDRAL OF LEARNING, PITTSBURGH; RIGHT: SINT-PETRUS-EN-PAULUSKERK, OSTEND.

Nineteenth century

Horatio Greenough published the essay American Architecture in August 1843 in which he rejected the imitation of old styles of buildings and outlined the functional relationship between architecture and decoration. Theory that anticipated FUNCTIONALISM in modern architecture. FUNCTIONALISM - in building can be traced back to the Vitruvian triad. Functionalism is the principle that architects should design a building based on the purpose of that building.

Twentieth Century
Functionalism Architecture

AUDITORIUM, AARHUS UNIVERSITY.

THE TOWER OF THE HELSINKI OLYMPIC STADIUM (Y. LINDEGREN & T. JNTTI, BUILT IN 1934-38)

THE BAILEY HOUSE, CASE STUDY HOUSE #21

THE SEAGRAM BUILDING, NEW YORK CITY, 1958. REGARDED AS ONE OF THE FINEST EXAMPLES OF THE FUNCTIONALIST AESTHETIC AND A MASTERPIECE OF CORPORATE MODERNISM.

Nineteenth century

the end of the century blossoming of theoretical activity ART NOUVEAU - is characterized by organic, especially floral and other plant-inspired motifs, as well as highly stylized, flowing curvilinear forms. is an approach to design according to which artists should work on everything from architecture to furniture, making art part of everyday life. VIENNA SECESSION. - focused on bringing purer geometric forms into the designs of their

Nineteenth century
Art Nouveau & Viena Secession

SZEGED, HUNGARY REK PALACE THE CASA BATLL, ALREADY BUILT IN 1877, WAS REMODELLED IN THE BARCELONA MANIFESTATION OF ART NOUVEAU, MODERNISM E, BY ANTONI GAUD AND JOSEP MARIA JUJOL IN 19041906 ART NOUVEAU IS RARELY SO FULLY IN CONTROL OF ARCHITECTURE: DOORWAY AT PLACE ETIENNE PERNET, 24 (PARIS 15E), 1905 ALFRED WAGON, ARCHITECT

THE SECESSION BUILDING AT VIENNA, BUILT IN 1897 BY JOSEPH MARIA OLBRICH FOR EXHIBITIONS OF THE SECESSION GROUP

Nineteenth century

On the Continent - theories of Viollet-le-Duc and Gottfried Semper provided the springboard for enormous vitality of thought dedicated to architectural innovation and the renovation of the notion of style REALISM IN ARCHITECTURE

THE THOMASKIRCHE IN LEIPZIG BY CONSTANTIN LIPSIUS

FEDERAL PALACE OF SWITZERLAND BY HANS AUER

Twentieth century

Camillo Sitte published the City Planning According to Artistic Principles which was not exactly a criticism of architectural form, but more precisely an aesthetic criticism of the nineteenth century's urbanism.

For Sitte, the most important is not the architectural shape or form of each building, but the inherent creative quality of urban space, the whole as

Camillo Sittes sketche on his theories in city plannning.

Twentieth century

MODERNIST MOVEMENTS rejected Sittes theory and members of this movements are Le Corbusier and Louis Sullivan who penned his famous adage "form forever follows function these criticsm eventually resulted in the International Style Movement. The typical INTERNATIONAL STYLE high-rise usually consists of the following: Square or rectangular footprint Simple cubic "extruded rectangle" form Windows running in broken horizontal rows forming a grid All facade angles are 90 degrees.

Twentieth century
Modern architecture is usually characterized by:
an adoption of the principle that the materials and functional requirements determine the result an adoption of the machine aesthetic an emphasis of horizontal and vertical lines a creation of ornament using the structure and theme of the building, or a rejection of ornamentation. a simplification of form and elimination of "unnecessary detail" an adoption of expressed structure
famous chair designed by Marcel Breuer

The 'Glass Palace' (1935) in the Netherlands - functional and open

Form follows function

Twentieth century

Another influential planning theorist of the modernist was Ebenezer Howard, who founded the GARDEN CITY MOVEMENT. This movement formed communities with architecture in the Arts and Crafts style at Letchworth and Welwyn Garden City and popularised the style as domestic architecture.

Twentieth century

Ebenezer Howard's 3 magnets diagram which addressed the question 'where will the people go?', The choices being 'town', 'country' or 'town-country'

Twentieth century

Frank Lloyd Wright contradicts the tenets of International style, an industrialized architecture to reshape society, Wright promoted organic architecture, was a leader of the PRAIRIE SCHOOL MOVEMENT of architecture

Twentieth century

Towards the end of the century POSTMODERN ARCHITECTURE reacted against the austerity of High Modern (International Style) principles, viewed as narrowly normative and doctrinaire. Postmodern architecture has also been described as "neo-eclectic", where reference and ornament have returned to the facade, replacing the aggressively unornamented modern styles. This eclecticism is often combined with the use of non-orthogonal angles and

Twentieth Century

BANK OF AMERICA CENTER IN HOUSTON BY JOHN BURGEE AND PHILIP JOHNSON. IT COMBINES ARCHITECTURE ELEMENTS OF PREWWII SKYSCRAPERSWITH ELEMENTS OF MODERN AESTHETICS.

METROPOLITAN THEATER MANILA DESIGNED BY JUAN ARELLANO

Contemporary theories

notion of AVANT-GARDISM rapid rise of urbanism and globalization employing high technology tied into the general concerns such as ecology, mass media, and economism. resurgence of the old "organic design" theories, but in a much more scientific setting. BIOMIMICRY which is the explicit copying of forms and structures found in biological organisms for buildings. Architects design organic-looking buildings in the belief that by copying nature

Contemporary theories
Organic Architecture & Biomimicry

Contemporary theories

COMPUTATIONAL CREATIVITY in architecture Genetic algorithms developed in computer science are applied to evolve designs on a computer, and some of these are proposed and built as actual structures. There exists, however, a controversy as to whether all such evolved designs through Design computing are truly appropriate for buildings, or are merely attractive forms that may be too complex for

http://architecturalforms.com/Scripting_Presentation/ History.html

Contemporary theories
Computational Creativity

Contemporary theories

BIOPHILIA developed by E. O. Wilson suggests the advantages of forms inspired by biological structures, but in a more profound way than simple mimicry. Wilson's original idea is extended by Stephen R. Kellert in the Biophilia hypothesis, and applied to architectural design in the book "Biophilic Design". Mathematical features of biological forms such as fractals, Scale-invariance witnessing a growth of new ideas that are generating an entirely new type of architectural theory. It bears little resemblance to the dominant school of architectural theory based on linguistic analysis,

Contemporary theories

Architectural theories
Sub classification of Architecture:
Religious

architecture Domestic architecture Modern architecture Responsive architecture Sustainable architecture

Architectural theories
Regional Architecture Australian architectural styles Canadian architecture Georgian architecture Iranian architecture Islamic architecture New York City architecture Portuguese architecture Spanish architecture United States architecture

Architectural theories
History and Style
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. Architectural mythology 18. Newari architecture Neolithic architecture 19. Buddhist architecture Ancient Egyptian architecture 20. Medieval architecture Pyramids 21. Iranian architecture Armenian architecture 22. Romanesque architecture Coptic architecture 23. Gothic architecture Dravidian architecture 24 Hoysala architecture Maya architecture 25. Vijayanagara Architecture Sumerian architecture 26. Renaissance architecture Classical architecture 27. Ottoman architecture Mesoamerican architecture 28. Baroque architecture Architecture of ancient Greece 29. Neoclassical architecture Roman architecture 30. Victorian architecture Incan architecture 31. Neo-Renaissance Sassanid architecture 32. Gothic Revival architecture Byzantine architecture 33. Modern architecture Islamic architecture 34. Postmodern architecture

Architectural theories
By Building Types
Amphitheatre Apartment building Aquarium Bank Bar Pub Basilica Casino Castle Church Concert hall Conservatory Courthouse Fire station Fortification Forum Gas station Green building Hotel House Library Market Mosque Motel Museum Observatory Office building Opera house Palace Railway station Restaurant Shopping mall Skyscraper Stock exchange Supermarket Temple Terminal station Warehouse

Architectural theories
Structural Elements

Arch Atrium Beam Buttress Cantilever Column Dome Facade

Pier (architecture) Post and lintel Span Truss Vault Wall

THEORY OF ARCHITECTURE IN HISTORY

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