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# STUDY THE METHODS OF BALANCING OF

## MULTI-CYLINDER ENGINE LIKE IN-LINE

Need of Balancing:
High speed of engines & machines
Unbalance creates Dynamic forces
Increase in Loads on bearing & stresses
Produce unpleasant even dangerous vibration.
INTRODUCTION :-
Inertia force is an imaginary force, which when acts upon a rigid
body, brings it in an equilibrium position.
Inertia force = - Accelerating force = - m.a
It is numerically equal to:
Inertia torque is an imaginary torque, which when acts upon a rigid
body, brings it in an equilibrium position.
It is numerically equal to:
1.
2.
Inertia torque = - Accelerating couple
Balancing of Reciprocating Masses
o
2
.k m =
o Let = Angular acceleration of the rigid body due to
couple.
h = Perpendicular distance between the force
and CG of the body.
m = Mass of the body.
I = Moment of inertia of the body
We know that
Force, F = Mass X Acceleration = m.a
And F.h = I .
o
Balancing of Reciprocating Masses
D- Alemberts Principle
According To Newtons Second Law of motion:
F = m. a
Where,
F = Resultant force acting on the body
M = Mass of the body and,
A = Linear acceleration of the centre of mass of body
we can write above equation:
F - m.a. = 0
- m.a be treated as a force opposite and with the same line of action as F.
The equal and opposite force m.a. is known as reversed effective force or
inertia force (F
I
),
Balancing of Reciprocating Masses
+
P
O
C

C1 M
W
R
F
P
F
N
F
P
F
N
F
Q
F
Q
F
T
F
B
M
F
B
F
P
-Piston Effort
W
R
-Weight of reciprocating parts =m
R
.g
F
Q
-Force acting along the connecting rod
F
N
=Normal reaction
F
T
=Crank Pin Effort
F
B
=Thrust on crankshaft bearing.

Balancing of Reciprocating Masses
|
.
|

\
|
+ = =
n
Cos
Cos r a a
P R
u
u e
2
.
2
|
.
|

\
|
+ = =
n
Cos
Cos r a a
P R
u
u e
2
.
2
|
.
|

\
|
+ = =
n
Cos
Cos r m a m F
R R R I
u
u e
2
. . .
2
I L P
F F F =
( Neglecting Friction )
F I L P
R F F F =
( Considering Friction )
PISTON EFFORT
Balancing of Reciprocating Masses
Balancing of Reciprocating Masses
Shaking Force and shaking couple :
An unbalanced force which is equal and opposite to the accelerating
force produced due to Reciprocating masses called as Shaking force.
And
An unbalanced couple produced due to reciprocating massed is called as
Shaking Couple.
Primary and secondary forces of reciprocating Masses
|
.
|

\
|
+ = =
n
Cos
Cos r a a
P R
u
u e
2
.
2
|
.
|

\
|
+ = =
n
Cos
Cos r m a m F
R R R I
u
u e
2
. . .
2
As the acceleration of the reciprocating parts is
S P I
F F F + =
Where Fp- Primary unbalance force & is maximum at 0
0
and 180
0,
Fs- Secondary unbalance force & is maximum at 0
0
, 90
0
,180
0
,
and 360
0
,

Balancing of Primary forces of reciprocating Masses
Active Balancing :
Centrifugal force due to Balancing mass B
b B . .
2
e =
Its Horizontal component
u e cos . .
2
b B =
u e cos . .
2
r m F
p
=
r m b B
r m b B
. .
cos . . cos . .
2 2
=
= u e u e
If Primary force is balanced
But the vertical component
u e sin . .
2
b B =
is still unbalance
u e u e sin . . sin . .
2 2
r m b B = r m b B . . =
as
Its maximum value is at angle &
r m . .
2
e
0
90
0
270
So only direction of unbalance force is change by if we
want to balance the primary force fully.
0
90
Balancing of Primary forces of reciprocating Masses
Therefore go for partial balancing of the primary force.
r m c b B
r m c b B
. . .
cos . . . cos . .
2 2
=
= u e u e
So, the unbalance force along the line of action:
u e u e
u e u e
cos . . . cos . .
cos . . cos . .
2 2
2 2
r m c r m
b B r m
=
=
1 . cos . . ) 1 (
2
Eqn r m c = u e
Balancing of Primary forces of reciprocating Masses
u e
u e
sin . .
sin . .
2
2
r cm
b B
=
=
2 . Eqn
And, the unbalance force along perpendicular to the line of action:
r m c b B . . . = As
From Equation 1 and 2 the resultant unbalance force is
| | | |
2
2
2
2
sin . . . cos . . ) 1 ( u e u e r m c r m c + =
u u e
2 2 2 2 2
sin . cos ) 1 ( . . c c r m + =
Balancing of Primary forces of reciprocating Masses
Balancing of secondary forces of reciprocating
Masses
u
u 2
r
m
m
n
r
4
n
r m F
s
u
e
2 cos
. .
2
=
( )
n
r m F
s
4
2 cos
. 2 .
2
u
e =
The algebraic sum of secondary force must be equal to zero.
The sum of the couples about any point is equal to zero.
Passive balancing:-
Firing order :- Firing order implies sequence in engine which firing
takes place in the cylinders.
Balancing of In-line two stroke and four stroke
engines
For 4 stroke :-
N
t
o
4
= Firing Intervals:
For 2 stroke :-
N
t
o
2
= Firing Intervals:
Let N is total no. of
cylinders of identical
reciprocating masses.
Determine the possible firing order for a Six- cylinder engine
1,6
3,4
2,5
0
120
4
=
=
o
t
o
N
1 2 3 4 5 6
Line of Stroke
1-2-3-6-5-4
1-2-4-6-5-3
1-5-3-6-2-4
1-5-4-6-2-3
Favorable
EXAMPLE:
Investigate the state of primary and secondary balancing of a four stroke
cycle four cylinder engine with firing order I-II-III-IV. What will be the change
in this state when the firing order is altered I-II-IV-III?
EXAMPLE:
Investigate the state of primary and secondary balancing for reciprocating
masses of a two stroke cycle six cylinder diesel engine. The firing order of a is
I-V-III-VI-II-IV.
EXAMPLE:
The firing order of a two stroke cycle six cylinder diesel engine is I-V-III-VI-
II-IV. The adjacent cylinder centerlines are 75 cm apart. Each cylinder has a
connecting rod 120 cm long and a stroke 45 cm. The mass of the
reciprocating parts in each cylinder is 200 kg. Determine the magnitude of
the primary and secondary unbalanced forces and moments when the
engine runs at a constant speed 250 rpm.