Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 22


Stress continues from womb to tomb Eustress (good stress) Distress (bad stress) Neither anxiety nor tension Extreme level of tensionBurnout Affects personal life Affects social life Affects professional life

Extra-organizational stressors: Social change Technological change Family relocation Economic and financial conditions Race and class Residential and community conditions Getting older Loss of spouse

Organizational stressors: Administrative policies and strategies: Down sizing Competitive pressures Merit pay plans Work shifts Bureaucratic rules Advanced technology

Organizational processes: Tight controls Only down-ward communication Little performance feed back Centralized decision making No participation in decision making Punitive appraisal system

Organizational structure and design: Centralization and formalization Line staff conflicts Specialisation Role ambiguity and conflict No opportunity for promotion Restrictive and untrusting culture

Working conditions: Crowded work area Noise, heat, cold Polluted air Strong odor Unsafe and dangerous conditions Poor lighting Physical and mental strain Toxic chemicals and radiation

Group stressors: Lack of group cohesiveness Lack of social support Intra-individual conflicts Interpersonal conflicts Inter group conflicts

Individual stressors: Role conflict and ambiguity No personal control Learned helplessness Staff efficacy Psychological hardiness

Effects of stress: Mild stress Constant mild stress Occasional heavy stress Stressful situation Physical problems: Heart diseases Hyper BP Ulcers

Arthritis Asthma Muscle tightens Breathing problems Digestive disorders Drying up of mouth Dilation of pupil Limbs shake Immune system becomes weak

Fits Psycho-somatic disorders Psychological problems: Anger Anxiety Depression Nervousness Irritability Tension

Boredom Sabotage Interpersonal aggression Hostility Complaints Poor job performance Lowered self-esteem Resentment of supervision Inability to concentrate

Inability to decide Job dissatisfaction Very moody Behavioural problems: Over eating Under eating Sleeplessness Excessive smoking Drug abuse

Absenteeism Turnover Tardiness Fight or flight confusion Angry Aggressiveness Stress to supervisors Stress by supervisors Stress to co-workers

Stress by co-workers Try to do two or more things at a time Always remain under time pressure Working or reading while eating Talking too fast Not able to sit quietly at one place Losing of sense of humour Reacting nervously or irritably

Accident prone Over active Too lazy Memory weakens Physical symptoms of stress: Biting nails Clenching fists Clenching Jaw Finger tapping on the table or chair

Grinding teeth while sleeping Hunching shoulders Wrinkles on the fore head Frequent sighing or yawning Tapping the feet on the floor Shaking while sitting on the chair Shallow breathing Tightness of muscles Loss of appetite

Stress management: Individual coping strategies: Exercise Relaxation Massage Behavioural self control Cognitive therapy (self-talk) Chemotherapy (using drugs) Net working (forming friendship)

Auto suggestion Time management Assertiveness training Super human syndrome Music therapy Yoga Meditation Food (sathvik food less salt) Social support

Organizational coping strategies: Create a supportive organizational climate Enrich the design of tasks to reduce conflict Clarify organizational roles Plan career paths Develop career paths Provide counselling

Can you see the movement?