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Fire Hazards & its Control

GC Kundu Chief Manager(Fire & Safety)

Haldia Refinery

FIRE
THE GREATEST BENEFACTOR TO HUMAN CIVILISATION BUT ALSO THE CRUELEST DEVASTATOR OF HUMAN LIFE, PROPERTY AND ENVIRONMENT

THE SUCCESS TO ELIMINATE / REDUCE FIRE LOSS DEPENDS ON PROPER KNOWLEDGE OF RISK AND

ENFORCEMENT OF SOUND FIRE SAFETY


PROGRAMME

FIRE SCIENCE
IT CAN BE DEFINED AS THE KNOWLEDGE OF

FACTS LEADING TO PREVENTION OF FIRE AND


ITS CONTROL

FIRE PREVENTION FIRE PROTECTION FIRE FIGHTING

LIFE SAFETY PROPERTY PROTECTION

SECURITY
LIMITED DOWNTIME

IGNITION CONTROL

FUEL CONTROL

OCCUPANT PROTECTION

DETECTION AND SUPRESSION ACTIVITIES

PLANNING AND TRAINING OPERATIONS

CONTROL various IGNITION SOURCES

1. CONTROL QUANTITY OF FUEL

1. PROVIDE RELIABLE EVACUATION TO SECURE AREA 2. PROVIDE FEATURES FOR DEFEND IN PLACES OCCUPANCY

1. PROVIDE EARLY WARNING DETECTION 2. PROVIDE RELIABLE ALARM SYSTEM

1. PROVIDE STAFF EDUCATION & TRAINING

2. CONTROL TYPES OF FUEL

2. PLAN EMERGENCY PROCEDURE

3. CONTROL FUEL ARRANGEMENT

3. PROVIDE RELIABLE SUPRESSION SYSTEM

Latest advancements in Fire Safety approach


Focus on Passive Fire Protection Efficient Active Fire Protection Environment Friendly Extinguishants User Friendly Fire Fighting Equipments Advanced Smoke Management Techniques Early warning and Detection Devices

FIRE RISK MANAGEMENT PHILISOPHY


ANY INSTALLATION WHICH STORES AND HANDLES LARGE QUANTITY OF FLAMMABLE MATERIALS POSE THREAT TO THE SURROUNDING IN ADDITION TO ITS OWN SAFETY. IT THEREFORE, NECESSITATES THE INTRODUCTION OF INBUILT FIRE PREVENTION & FIRE PROTECTION FACILITIES.

IT IS IMPRACTICAL AND PROHIBITIVELY COSTLY TO DESIGN FIRE PROTECTION FACILITIES TO CONTROL ALL CATASTROPHIC FIRES. USUAL REQUIREMENT OF A GOOD SYSTEM IS TO PREVENT EMERGENCIES FROM DEVELOPING INTO MAJOR THREAT TO THE INSTALLATIONS AND SURROUNDINGS.

CLASSIFICATION OF PETROLEUM PRODUCTS


CLASS A : LIQUID WHICH HAVE FLASH POINT BELOW 23OC.

CLASS B :

LIQUIDS WHICH HAVE FLASH POINT OF 23OC AND ABOVE BUT BELOW 65OC

CLASS C:

LIQUID WHICH HAVE FLASH POINT OF 65OC AND ABOVE BUT BELOW 93OC.

EXCLUDED PETROLEUM : LIQUID WHICH HAVE FLASH POINT OF 93OC AND ABOVE.

LPG DO NOT FALL UNDER THIS CLASSIFICATION BUT FORM SEPARATE CATEGORY.

FLASH POINT

DEFINITIONS

THE FLASH POINT OF A LIQUID IS THE LOWEST TEMPERATURE AT WHICH

SUFFICIENT VAPOUR GIVEN OFF TO FLASH ON THE APPLICATION OF FLAME IN


THE PRESENCE OF AIR.

AUTO IGNITION THE LOWEST TEMPERATURE TO WHICH A SOLID ,LIQUID OR GAS REQUIRES TO BE RAISED TO CAUSE SELF-SUSTAINED COMBUSTION WITHOUT INITIATION BY A SPARK OR FLAME.

EXPLOSIVE LIMITS EXPLOSIVE LIMITS ARE THOSE CONCENTRATIONS OF A VAPOR OR GAS IN AIR

BELOW OR ABOVE WHICH PROPAGATION OF A FLAME DOES NOT OCCUR ON


CONTACT WITH A SOURCE OF IGNITION.

THE LOWER EXPLOSIVE LIMIT IS THE MINIMUM CONCENTRATION BELOW WHICH


THE VAPOR AIR MIXTURE IS TOO LEAN TO BURN OR EXPLODE. THE UPPER EXPLOSIVE LIMIT IS THE MAXIMUM CONCENTRATION ABOVE WHICH THE VAPOR AIR MIXTURE IS TOO RICH TO BURN OR EXPLODE.

AUTO IGNITION, FLASH POINT AND EXPLOSIVE LIMITS OF SOME


S. NO. 1 MATERIAL OF THE PETROLEUM PRODUCTS AUTO IGNITION FLASH POINT EXPOSING RANGE VOLUME % OC TEMPERATURE IN AIR LOWER LIMIT UPPER oC LIMIT DEPENDS UPON THE NATURE OF CRUDE 585 538 514 466 430 563 536 288 245 254.4 254 19 DEPENDS UPON THE NATURE OF CRUDE GAS GAS GAS GAS GAS -11 4.5 -18 -7 38 35 4.1 5.0 3.0 2.4 1.5 1.3 1.2 1.1 1.4 0.7 0.7 74.0 15.0 12.5 9.5 9.0 7.1 7.2 5.9 7.6 5 5

CRUDE OIL

2. 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

HYDROGEN METHANE ETHANE PROPANE BUTANE BENZENE TOLUENE NAPHTHA GASOLINE ATF SKO

AUTO IGNITION, FLASH POINT AND EXPLOSIVE LIMITS OF SOME OF THE PETROLEUM PRODUCTS
S. NO. MATERIAL AUTO IGNITION TEMPERATUR E 256 316 262-407 485 FLASH POINT OC EXPOSING RANGE VOLUME % IN AIR LOWER LIMIT UPPER LIMIT 0.7 5 -

13 14 15 16 17 18 19

HSD LDO LSHS HSHS FO BITUMEN RAW COKE

32 66 66-166 65.6-148.9 205 315.6

20
21 22 23

PHENOL EXTRACT
SLACK WAX MINERAL TURPENTINE OIL LPG

715
245 253.3 405-450

80
198.9 32.2 GAS

1.8

9.6

FIRE
FIRE IS A RAPID, SELF-SUSTAINED OXIDATION PROCESS ACCOMPANIED BY THE

RELEASE OF ENERGY IN THE FORM OF HEAT AND LIGHT OF VARYING INTENSITY.

FIRE RESULTS FROM THE COMBINATION OF FUEL, HEAT AND OXYGEN. WHEN A SUBSTANCE IS HEATED TO A CERTAIN TEMPERATURE CALLED THE IGNITION TEMPERATURE THE MATERIAL WILL IGNITE AND CONTINUE TO BURN AS LONG AS THERE IS FUEL, THE PROPER TEMPERATURE AND A SUPPLY OF OXYGEN (AIR).

FIRE TRIANGLE

OXYGEN

HEAT

FUEL

METHODS OF EXTINGUISHMENTS OF FIRE


1. STARVATION 2. SMOTHERING 3. COOLING STARVATION : : : ELIMINATION OF FUEL : LIMITING OF OXYGEN LIMITING TEMPERATURE

STARVATION IS ACCOMPLISHED BY REMOVING COMBUSTIBLES IT IS ALSO ACHIEVED BY SUBDIVIDING

FROM THE NEIGHBOURHOOD OF THE FIRE OR BY REMOVING FIRE FORM THE MASS OF COMBUSTIBLE MATERIALS. BURNING MATERIALS TO SMALL ISOLATED POCKETS OF FIRE. SMOTHERING : SMOTHERING IS ACCOMPLISHED BY ELIMINATING OR DILUTING THE AVAILABLE OXYGEN WITH INERT GAS OR COVERING THE FUEL SURFACE BY

A SMOTHERING AGENT LIKE FOAM.


COOLING : IF THE RATE AT WHICH HEAT IS GENERATED BY COMBUSTION IS LESS THAN THE RATE AT WHICH IT IS GETTING DISSIPATED THEN THE COMBUSTION

CANNOT PERSIST. APPLICATION OF WATER JET OR SPRAY TO A FIRE RESULTS IN


ITS EXTINGUISHMENTS BY THIS FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLE.

INDIAN STANDARDS IS:2190 CLASSIFIES THE FIRE IN FOUR CATEGORIES ACCORDING TO THE TYPE OF MATERIAL BURNING. CLASS A ; FIRES INVOLVING ORDINARY COMBUSTIBLE MATERIAL LIKE WOOD, PAPER, TEXTILES ETC. WHERE THE COOLING EFFECT OF WATER IS ESSENTIAL FOR EXTINGUISHMENTS OF FIRE. EXTINGUISHING MEDIA-WATER CLASS B : FIRES IN FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS LIKE OILS, SOLVENTS, PETROLEUM PRODUCTS, PAINTS ETC. WHERE A BLANKETING EFFECT IS ESSENTIAL TO EXTINGUISH THE FIRE. EXTINGUISHING MEDIA-FOAM, CARBON DIOXIDE, DRY CHEMICAL POWDER. CLASS C: FIRES INVOLVING GASES OR LIQUEFIED GASES IN THE FORM OF A LIQUID SPILLAGE, OR A LIQUID OR GAS LEAK. HERE IT IS NECESSARY TO DILUTE THE BURNING GAS AT A VERY FAST RATE WITH AN INERT GAS OR POWDER. EXTINGUISHING MEDIA - CARBON DIOXIDE, DRY CHEMICAL POWDER. THE BEST WAY TO EXTINGUISH SUCH FIRES IS BY STOPPING THE FLOW OF FUEL GAS TO FIRE. CONTAINER IS KEPT COOL WITH WATER SPRAY.

CLASSIFICATION OF FIRE

CLASSIFICATION OF FIRE
CLASS D : FIRES INVOLVING METALS LIKE MAGNESIUM, ALUMINUM, ZINC, POTASSIUM ETC. WHERE THE BURNING METAL IS REACTIVE TO WATER AND

WHICH REQUIRE SPECIAL EXTINGUISHING MEDIA.


EXTINGUISHING MEDIA- SPECIAL DRY POWDER. ELECTRICAL FIRE : ELECTRICAL FIRES ARE NOT TREATED AS A CLASS OF THEIR

OWN, SINCE ANY FIRE INVOLVING, OR STARTED BY, ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT


MUST, IN FACT, FALL INTO ONE OF THE OTHER CATEGORIES. THE NORMAL PROCEDURE FOR DEALING WITH AN ELECTRICAL FIRE IS TO CUT

OFF ELECTRICITY AND USE AN EXTINGUISHING MEDIA APPROPRIATE TO WHAT IS


BURNING.

FLAMING AND/ OR SURFACE (GLOW)

UNINHIBITED CHAIN REACTION


R A D I A T I V E F E E D B A C K

CONTINUOUS REIGNITION
DIFFUSION

VAPOUR
PYROLY TIC DISTILL ATION VAPORI SATION

R A D I A T I V E F E E D B A C K

INTERFACE SOLID LIQUID GAS


ON INPUT ENERGY REQUIRED

SOLID
AND/OR

OXYGEN

SOURCE OF IGNITION
INITIAL RELEASE OF ENERGY TO TRIGGER COMBUSTION (FIRE). IT IS NECESSARY TO UNDERSTAND THE SOURCES OF IGNITION AND TO ELIMINATE THEM TO PREVENT FIRES/EXPLOSIONS IN OUR REFINERY.
SOURCES OF IGNITION ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT EXAMPLE SPARKS FROM MOTORS, SWITCHES, LAMPS, HOT ELEMENTS AND ELECTRICAL DEFECTS HOT BEARINGS, MISALLIGNED OR BROKEN M/C PARTS, CHOCKING, JAMMING OF MATERIAL, POOR ADJUSTMENT CUTTING AND WELDING TORCHES GAS & OIL BURNERS PREVENTIVE MEASURES 1. 2. USE OF APPROVED EQUIPMENT FOLLOW NATION ELECTRICAL CODES PROPER MAINT.

3.

FRICTION

PREVENTIVE MAINT. AND PROPER LUBRICATION

OPEN FLAMES

STRICT COMPLIANCE OF PRECAUTIONS STIPULATED IN THE FIRE PERMIT FOR HOT JOBS.

SOURCE OF IGNITION
SOURCES OF IGNITION EXAMPLE PREVENTIVE MEASURES

SMOKING AS IGNITION

SMOKING BOOTHS IN AREA WHERE COMBUSTIBLE ARE USED

1.
2.

SMOKING ONLY IN AREAS PERMITTED. USE OF PRESCRIBED RECEPTACLES FOR CIGARETTE BUTTS
KEEP PYROPHORIC IRON WET ARE THE TIME WHEN IT IS TAKEN OUT.

SPONTANEOUS IGNITION

PYROPHORIC IRON, HOT OIL LEAKAGE

1.

HOT SURFACES

CONTACT OF COMBUSTIBLE MATERIAL WITHOUT SURFACES, HEATED LINES


POL TRUCKS / DG SET

1.

PROVIDE PROPER INSULATION AND AIR CIRCULATION.

SPARK FROM ENGHINE EXHAUST

1.

SPARK ARRESTOR ON EXHAUST

SOURCE OF IGNITION

SOURCES OF IGNITION

EXAMPLE

PREVENTIVE MEASURES 1. 2. 3. PROPER EARTHING OF EQUIPMENT. DO NOT RESORT TO SPLASH LOADING LOADING VELOCITY SHOULD BE CONTROLLED PROPER LIGHTING ARRESTOR AND EARTH CONTINUITY.

STATIC ELECTRICITY DURING SPLASH LOADING AND LOADING AT HIGH VELOCITIES

LIGHTENING

THUNDERSTORM CLOUD BURST

1.

DETECTING & FIGHTING FIRE


DETECTION WARNING ESCAPE

IMMEDIATE ATTACK

FIRE
FIRE BRIGADE

Latest Trends in First Aid Fire Extinguishers

MAJOR REFINERY POTENTIAL HAZARDS

FIRE HAZARD EXPLOSION HAZARD ELECTRICAL HAZARD TOXIC GAS RELEASE HAZARD HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL HAZARD OIL SPILLAGE RADIATION HAZARD FALL FROM HEIGHT

Types of Emergencies in Refinery

Pump Fires Flange Fires Equipment / piping insulation Fire Ducts and cable Fires Storage tank Fires Pool Fire Jet Fire BLEVE UVCE Toxic Gas Release Oil spillage Flood

Fire Control

Compartmentation
Fire compartments are generally included in building design to limit fire and smoke spread .

Fire Resisting Floor

Smoke Fire Resistance Door Fire Resistance Wall

Fire Contained Within Compartment Cell

Compartmentation
Compartment walls and floors are constructed to separate areas in a building with different uses, and to reduce the maximum likely size of fire. This places a limit on the Quantity of materials which can be consumed by a Fire.

Factors Affecting Compartmentation:

Occupancy Load Building type or purpose Fire load Height Active Fire Systems
Exit from each Compartment to Stair case, lifts or Escape Route must have equivalent level of fire resistance.

Structural Fire Protection


Key Objectives are:
Controlling Spread of Fire through Compartmentation. Preventing Structural Collapse for a period of time for Escape , Active Fire systems detection and activation or External help such as Fire Brigade to arrive Maintain the Integrity and Insulation of Structural Components to prevent Heat and smoke from Reaching Occupants. Prevent Disproportionate Damage to Property.

Fire Detection Systems

29

With the introduction of the micro-chip, address technology took a giant step.
1980s Circuit Technology 1990s Micro-Processor Technology

Typical Addressable Detection Loop

ISOLATOR

PS2/CMX

ISOLATOR SPRINKLER FLOW INPUTS DOOR CONTROLS

Elements of Fires

Every fire gives different elements to be sensed SMOKE Dark or light ? HEAT Fixed or ROR ? LIGHT UV IR ? GAS CO CO Every technology has its disadvantages
32

Components
A true multi criteria detector that can smell, feel, and see its environment with intelligence using 4 sensing technologies -CO sensor -Photo sensor -Thermal sensor -IR light sensor -Time & logic functions

33

What is Aspirating Smoke Detection?

A system which draws air from an area, via a pipe network, to a central detector which monitors for small amounts of smoke

Sampling pipe

VESDA
LaserPLUS

88

34

FIRE PROTECTION

OBJECTIVE : TO CONTAIN THE SPREAD OF FIRE

TYPES: ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

FIRE PROTECTION
FOLLOWING FIRE PROTECTION FACILITIES SHALL BE PROVIDED DEPENDING ON THE NATURE OF THE INSTALLATION AND RISK INVOLVED: FIRE WATER SYSTEM FOAM SYSTEM CLEAN AGENT SYSTEM CO2 SYSTEM DCP EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM DETECTION AND ALARM SYSTEM COMMUNICATION SYSTEM

PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM


DYKE WALLS
SAFETY VALVES ON EQUIPMENT WATER SEAL IN SEPARATORS

RUPTURE DISC IN PROCESS PIPING


FIRE PROOFING OF STRUCTURES FIRE RETADANTS PAINTS ON CABLES FIRE BARRIERS POSITIVE PRESSURIZATION FLARING / VENTING

FIRE FIGHTING
OBJECTIVE : TO EXTINGUISH THE FIRE WITH MINIMUM LOSS IT IS THE LAST LINE OF THE DEFENSE. IT COMES INTO FORCE WHEN THERE IS ACTUAL FIRE. MAIN PURPOSE IS TO EXTINGUISH THE FIRE WITH SUITABLE EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS WITH AN AIM TO REDUCE DAMAGE DUE TO FIRE PORTABLE FIRE FIGHTING EQUIPMENT MOBILE FIRE FIGHTING EQUIPMENT FIXED FIRE FIGHTING SYSTEM

FIRE FIGHTING
S. NO.
1 A)

TYPE OF FIRE RISK


CLASS A LIGHT HAZARD CLASS A ORDINARY HAZARD

EXAMPLE OF OCCUPANCIES
OFFICES (OTHER THEN RECORD ROOM) SCHOOL CLUBS, ETC. ORDINARY RECORD ROOM TAILORING SHOP. BOOK BINDER ETC.

SCALE OF EQUIPMENT
FOR EVERY 600 M2 FLOOR AREA 1 NO. 9L WATER TYPE, MAX. DISTANCE 25 M FOR EVERY 600 M2 FLOOR AREA 2 NOS. 9L WATER TYPE MAX. DISTANCE 15 M

B)

C)

CLASS A EXTRA HAZARD

LARGE TIMBER YARDS DO + SOME EXTRA SAW MILLS HOUSE OF PROVISION AS PER LOCAL COMBUSTIBLE MATERIALS AUTHORITY.
IMPORTANT OFFICE RECORDS, LIBRARIES DATA PROCESSING WORKSHOP. GARAGE ETC. FOR EVERY 100 M2 1 NO. 4.5 KG CO2. MAX. DISTANCE -10 M 2 NOS. FOAM / DCP PER 50 M2 AREA. MAX. DISTANCE 10 M

D)

CLASS A SPECIAL HAZARD CLASS B SMALL QUANTITY HANDLED

2 A)

FIRE FIGHTING
S. NO. B) TYPE OF FIRE RISK CLASS B BULK STORAGE OTHER THEN TANK FARMS EXAMPLE OF OCCUPANCIES FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS IN CAN, DRUMS ETC. SCALE OF EQUIPMENT 3 NOS. FOAM /DCP PER 100 M2 AREA. MAX. DISTANCE 10 M

3.

CLASS C

HANDLING /STORAGE OF GAS CYLINDERS, GAS PLANT ETC.


REACTIVE METAL STORAGE W/SHOP, X-MERS MOTORS, TEL, EXCH., ETC.

2 NOS. DCP/CO2 (6.8 kg) PER 200 M2 AREA. MAX. DISTANCE 10 M.


2 NOS. DCP PER 50 M2 AREA. MAX. DISTANCE 10 M. 1 NO. DCP/CO2 PER 100M2 AREA.

4..

CLASS D

5.

MIXED OCCUPANCY (ELEC. RISK)

SOME DOS & DONTS IN EMERGENCY SITUATIONS


(GENERAL GUIDELINES DOS: KEEP COOL, DONT BE PANIC. IF ANY GAS LEAKAGE IS REPORTED ,MOVE ACROSS THE WIND TO A SAFE PLACE KEEP WET CLOTH ON THE NOSE AND BREATH NORMALLY IMMEDIATELY EXTINGUISH THE FIRE IN SIGRI, CHULLAH OR BHATTI WITH WATER IN & AROUND THE HOUSE.
Haldia Refinery

Igniting Minds... Energizing Lives

SOME DOS & DONTS IN EMERGENCY SITUATIONS


(GENERAL GUIDELINES DOS: IMMEDIATELY PUT OFF ANY OPEN FLAME LIKE CANDLE, LANTERN, HEATER ETC. IF EVACUATION IS CALLED FOR, LOCK THE HOUSE AND BE READY FREE DOMESTIC ANIMALS. HELP FIRE FIGHTING TEAM AND EMERGENCY STAFF TO KEEP THE SITUATION UNDER CONTROL. LISTEN CAREFULLY THE ANNUOUNCEMENT IN YOUR AREA AND FOLLOW THE INSTRUCTIONS.
Haldia Refinery

Igniting Minds... Energizing Lives

SOME DOS & DONTS IN EMERGENCY SITUATIONS


(GENERAL GUIDELINES DONTS: DONOT PUT ON OR OFF ANY ELECTRIC SWITCH. IF ANY ELECTRIC SWITCH IS ON KEEP ITON POSITION ONLY. DONOT SMOKE AND DO NOT ALLOW ANYBODY TO SMOKE. DONOT PAY ATTENTION TOWARDS RUMORS AND DO NOT SPREAD ANY RUMOR ALSO. DONOT BLOCK ANY PUBLIC AREA DONOT USE ANY PERSONAL VEHICLE DURING ANY EMERGENCY SITUATION DONOT UNNECESSARILY TALK ON PHONE.
Haldia Refinery

Igniting Minds... Energizing Lives

Fire Safety Checklist


Know your fire safety rules by heart, More importantly, practice them: 1. Have a written down Fire Prevention Plan for your Company, and ensure that it is sincerely implemented. 2. Identify and eliminate fire risks or reduce them to the maximum extent possible. Train and retrain your employees in fire prevention and fire fighting. Install suitable fire protection equipment and make sure that your employees know how to use it in case of fire. Regularly inspect your fire safety equipment so that it does not fail in an emergency. Have adequate water supply. Establish an Emergency Plan in close coordination with the public fire department.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

Take the utmost care while handling flammable materials. Provide special protection for major fire risks. Follow good housekeeping practices, because a clean house is a safe house. Protect the workplace hazards within and outside by having suitable construction.

8.

9.

10. Never violate fire safety laws they are meant for your protection.

Thank you for your attention. Any Questions ??