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# Integrator and Differentiator

## M-HAROON 4432 Bsc-ELE(4th semester)

Contents
(A)Op-amp Integrators
(1) Ideal integrator
(a) (b) (c) (d) How capacitor charges The capacitor voltage The output voltage The rate of change of output

## (B) Op-amp Differetiator

(1) Ideal differentiator (2) Practical Differentiator

An op-amp integrator simulates mathematical integration. Ideal integrators are used to show basic principles. Practical integrators often have an additional resistor in parallel with the feedback capacitor to prevent saturation.

## The ideal Integrator

An ideal integrator is shown in figure. Notice that the feedback element is a capacitor that forms an RC circuit with the input resistor.

## How capacitor charges

Recall that the charge Q on a capacitor is proportional to the charging current (Ic) and the time (t). Q = Ic * t Also in terms of voltage the charge on a capacitor is Q = CVc From these two relationships, the capacitor voltage can be expressed as Ic * t = CVc Vc = (Ic /C) * t This expression has the form of an equation for a straight line that begins at zero with a constant slope of Ic / C . Remember from algebra that the general formula for a straight line is y = mx + b

In this case, y = Vc , m = Ic/C , x = t and b=0. Recall that the capacitor relation in a simple RC circuit is not line but it is exponential. This is because the charging current continuously decreases as the capacitor charges and cause the rate of change of the voltage to continuously decrease. The key thing about using an op-amp with an RC circuit to form an integrator is that the capacitors charging current is made constant, thus producing a straight-line (linear) voltage rather than an exponential voltage .Now let see why this is true.

In figure, the inverting input of the op-amp is at virtual ground (0v), so the voltage across Ri equals Vin. Therefore the input current is Iin= Vin/ Ri

If Vin is a constant voltage then Iin is also a constant because the inverting input is always remains at 0v,keeping a constant voltage across Ri . As the input impedance is so high so Ic = Iin

## The capacitor voltage

Since Iin is constant so, Ic is. The constant Ic charges the capacitor linearly and produces a linear voltage across C. the positive side of capacitor is held at 0v by virtual ground of the op-amp. The voltage on the negative side of the capacitor, which is the op amp output-voltage, decreases linearly from zero as the capacitor charges, as shown in figure. This voltage, Vc is called a negative ramp and is the consequence ogf a constant positive input.

## The output voltage

Vout is the same as the voltage on the negative side of the capacitor. When a constant positive input voltage in the form of a step or pulse (a pulse has constant magnitude when high) is applied, the output ramp decreases negatively until the op-amp saturates at its maximum negative level. This is indicated in figure

## Rate of change of output

The rate at which the capacitor charges, and therefore the slope of the output ramp, is set by the ratio Ic/C , as you have seen. Since Ic = Vin / Ri, the rate of change or slope of the integrators output voltage is Vout / t . Ic = Iin Iin = Vin / Ri , Ic = -CVout / t So Vin / Ri = -CVout / t Vout / t = (-1/RC) Vin dVout / dt = (-1/RC) Vin (dVout / dt)dt = (-1/RC) Vin dt

END

Thank You