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MUSTARD & RAPE SEED

SYSTEMATIC POSITION
Brassica sp (2n = 16, 18, 20, 22, 36, 38 and 48) Brassicaceae or Cruciferae
The genus Brassica contains more than 3000 species of which 40 are of economic importance.

Systematic Position
Division Sub Division Class Sub Class Series Order Family Phanerogams Angiosperms Dicotylendon Plypetalae Thalamiflorae Parietales Brassicaceae

Classification
Cultivated Brassica can be broadly divided in to two distinct types viz. Vegetable type - Cabbage, Cauliflower, Turnip Oil seed type - Rape seed and mustard.
Key characters: Leaves two types: i. Stem leaf bigger, lance shaped, serrated and ii. Flower leaf small, smooth margin

Androecium Fruit

: :

Tetradynamons stamen. Siliqua

Rape seed
1. B. campestris (2n=20) - Indian Rape seed.
Self sterile in nature (Extrorse) Important oil seed crop of North India.

Three cultivated types.


B.campestris var. Brown sarson B.campestris var. Yellow sarson B.campestris var. toria

B.napus (2n=38) - European Rape seed


Self fertile (Introrse) Green fodder as well as oilseed

Mustard
1. B.nigra (2n=16) - Black mustard / Banarsi Rai
Native of Eurasia. 28 % oil Used as medicine Pungency due to the presence of glucoside sinigrin.

B.juncea (2n=36) - Indian mustard / Brown sarson


35% oil. Leaves used as herbal medicine Contains glucoside sinigrin.

B.alba (2n=24)
White mustard : Young seedling used as salad, seed 30 % oil.

U triangle
B.nigra BB n=8

B.carinata BC n = 17

B.juncea AB n = 18

B.oleracea CC n=9

B.napus AC n = 19

B.campestris AA n = 10

B.carinata - Ethiopian mustard (veg / oil seed)

Seeds
Oil content 30 45 %

Yellow seed contains more oil than brown

Properties
Inferior in quality as it contains high amount of undesirable long chain fatty acids like eicosinoic acid and erucic acid Utilisation of seed meal ltd. due to the presence of glucosinolates Protein Erucic acid Oleic acid 20 % 45 50 % 20 30 %

Effects of erucic acid


Interferes myocardial conductance Decreases survival time Increases blood cholesterol Cause nutritional disorders and toxicity in animals and birds

Utility
Seed as condiment Oil as cooking oil For industrial purpose - High Erucic acid (> 60%). Development of low erucic acid cultivars for edible purpose. Green plant as fodder Leaves of young plants used as green or leafy vegetable

Breeding methodology
Development of 00 (Low erucic acid and low glucosinolate) or 000 (Low erucic acid, low glucosinolates and yellow seeded)

Canola
Cultivars that meet specific requirements for erucic acid in the extracted seed oil (< 2% erucic acid as percentage of fatty acid)

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